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HANDBOOK 

OF 
ADULT EDUCATION 

in the United States 
'934 

COMPILED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION 




AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION 

SIXTY EAST FORTY-SECOND STREET, NEW YORK CITY 



EDITOR. DOROTHY ROWDEN 

Assistant Editor of Publications 
American Association for Adult Education 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION 



OFFICERS 



DOROTHY CANFIELD FISHER 

President 
JAMES E RUSSELL 

Chairman 
CHARLES A. BEARD 

Vice-President 
W. W. BISHOP 

Vice-President 
HARVEY N. DAVIS 
Vice-President 
JOHN HOPE 
V Ice-President 



JAMES A. MOYER 

Vice-President 
WILLIAM A. NEILSON 

Vice-President 
GEORGE E. VINCENT 

Vice-President 
JENNIE M. FLEXNER 

Secretary 
CHAUNCEY J HAMLIN 

Treasurer 

MORSE A. CARTWRIGHT 
Director 



EXECUTIVE BOARD 



ARTHUR E BESTOR 
President, Chautauqua Institution 

LYMAN BRYSON 
Forum Leader, Des Mpines Adult 

Education Project 

HARRY W. CHASE 

Chancellor, New York University 

LINDA A. EASTMAN 
Librarian, Cleveland Public Library 

A. CASWELL ELLIS 
Director, Cleveland College^ of Western 

Reserve University 

FRANKLIN F. HOPPER 

Chief of Circulation, New "York Public 

Library 

WILLIAM J. HUTCHINS 
President f B ere a College 

HENRY W. KENT 
Secretary, Metropolitan Museum of Art 

C. S. MARSH 
Dean of Evening Session, University of 

Buffalo 

EVERETT DEAN MARTIN 
Director, People's Institute of New York 



SPENCER MILLER, JR. 

Secretary, Workers Education Bureau of 

America 

ELIZABETH C MORRISS 

Director of Adult Elementary Education, 

Buncombe County, North Carolina 

WILLIAM A. NEILSON 
President, Smith College 

HARRY A. OVERSTREET 

Professor of Philosophy, The College of 

the City of New York 

JOHN H. PUELICHER 

Chairman, Public Education Commission, 

American Bankers Association 

ROBERT I. REES 

Assistant Vice-President, American Tele- 
phone and Telegraph Company 

ELMER SCOTT 

Executive Secretary, Cimc Federation of 
Dallas 

ROBERT E. SIMON 
Vice-President, United Parents' Associa- 
tion of New York 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

AGRICULTURE EXTENSION, Benson Y. Landis I 

ALUMNI EDUCATION 1 6 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION, Ralph A. Beals 2-9 

THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION, Erwin 0. Christensen 33 

COMMUNITY AND STATE ORGANIZATIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION 

AGENCIES 44 

PRIVATE CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS, J. S. Nofsinger $1 

COURSES IN ADULT EDUCATION 54 

ADULT EDUCATION AND THE FOREIGN BORN, Read Lewis 58 

OPEN FORUMS 63 

LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION, Cwl H. Milam JO 

LYCEUMS AND CHAUTAUQUAS 98 

MEN'S AND WOMEN'S CLUBS 101 

MUSEUMS AND ADULT EDUCATION, Lourence Vail Coleman 105 

MUSIC IN ADULT EDUCATION, Augustus D. Zanzig 115 

ADULT EDUCATION FOR NEGROES 124 

PARENT EDUCATION, Ralfh P. Bridgman 131 

POLITICAL EDUCATION, Charles Ascher 146 

THE EDUCATION OF ADULT PRISONERS, Austin H. MacCormick 152 
ADULT EDUCATION UNDER PUBLIC SCHOOL AUSPICES, L. R. A Iderman 158 

PUPPETS IN ADULT EDUCATION, Catherine F. Reighard 175 

THE RADIO IN ADULT EDUCATION, Levering Tyson 178 
THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT EDUCATION, Weaver Pangborn 185 

PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL EDUCATION CONDUCTED BY RELIGIOUS GROUPS 195 

ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS, Lillie M. Peck 2O3 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS 

SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND INSTITUTES FOR ADULTS 2l6 

THE LITTLE THEATER 225 

TRAINING BY CORPORATIONS 23 I 

TRAINING LEADERS FOR ADULT GROUPS 233 
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE UNEMPLOYED, Mary Frank 238 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, W. S. Bittner 254 

VISUAL EDUCATION 273 

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS, Franklin /. Keller 280 

VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF ADULTS, Robert Hoffock 288 
VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION OF PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED ADULTS, 

Edgar B. Porter 294 

WORKERS' EDUCATION, Sfencer Miller, Jr. 299 

SCHOOLS FOR WOMEN WORKERS IN INDUSTRY, Hilda W. Smith 306 

* * * 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS WITH ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS 



PREFACE 

Since the completion of the first studies of adult education in the 
United States initiated by the Carnegie Corporation in 1924, the need 
for a carefully prepared and adequate handbook of adult education 
has become increasingly apparent. Such a handbook, it was felt, should 
include both a directory of national organizations engaged in adult 
education and a listing of local adult education efforts of national 
importance. This book is an attempt to meet that need. It represents 
the first attempt in the United States to correlate in convenient refer- 
ence form data relating to the many activities that have come to term 
themselves adult education enterprises during the last decade. 

The formation of the American Association for Adult Education 
in 1926 and the announcement of the chief function of the Association 
as a clearing house for information about adult education only served to 
emphasize the need for the publication of a handbook. During the first 
two years of the existence of the Association contacts were made with 
more than four hundred organizations of national scope or national im- 
portance which were then dealing with the instructional and recreational 
problems of adults. In the six years that have followed, the list has 
grown in length. In fact, the activities of the Association have been 
directed to a qualitative appraisal of programs labeled adult educational 
rather than to the lesser, initial task of identifying certain organizational 
activities as adult education. The unprecedented growth of the use of 
the term adult education has quite relieved the Association from the 
burden of propagandizing for the idea. In these years the difficult task 
has been to single out those enterprises free from the element of profit, 
of propaganda, or of other ulterior motive. The necessity of making such 
distinctions has become even more important during the last several 
years when, as was inevitably to be expected, charlatanism and profit- 
seeking have led traders in the market place to the belief that high 
financial returns could be realized from an unsuspecting adult public just 
becoming conscious of its educational opportunities as adults. 

It is perhaps impossible to explain logically the basis upon which 
the Association has made its decisions as to inclusion or exclusion from 
these pages of enterprises flying the banner of adult education. The 



PREFACE 

initial decision to exclude the profit-seekers was influenced by that pro- 
vision in the constitution of the American Association which withholds 
from membership those organizations "whose educational work is 
conducted for profit." On the surface, this distinction seems easy of 
application 5 in actual practice, however, the compilers of this volume 
have been faced with many border-line cases. As the following pages 
will show, the disposition has been to exclude those organizations of 
which the ultimate, even if undisclosed, objective was suspected to be 
financial gain. But even here, the compilers have not been entirely logi- 
cal, for inclusion has been made of certain extension programs conducted 
for the purpose of making a profit for the parent institutions. Justifica- 
tion for this action lies in the fact that the profits derived, in every case 
included, have reverted to educational, as distinguished from com- 
mercial, uses. 

It should be stated that mere inclusion or listing in this handbook 
carries with it no implication of blanket approval either of the adminis- 
trative or of the academic policies followed by the sponsor of the pro- 
gram. This book is intended for the use of those who desire an acquaint- 
ance with the main facts relating to adult education in the United 
States of America and who will appreciate the compilation of those facts 
in convenient reference form. It is quite evident to the compilers that 
there may have been errors committed both in the inclusion and in the 
exclusion of material that has been brought to their notice or which 
they have been successful in securing from many sources. 

The publishers of the handbook have been the recipients of most 
valuable and most generously donated services and advice from some 
forty persons and organizations. Without their help the issuance of this 
book would have been impossible. To them the editor and her associates 
express most sincere appreciation and thanks. Especially does this sense 
of obligation extend to the contributors of articles on various subsections 
of the adult education field. These articles have been supplied without 
fee and without even the promise of recognition for the considerable 
labor and sometimes arduous study involved. 

Upon the reception which this book receives will depend the future 
policy of the Association with reference to successive editions. It is 
hoped that interest aroused will justify the commencement of a revision 
immediately and the adoption of a policy of reissuance biennially. 

The book is being placed on the market at prices designed to cover 
only the production cost of publication and of distribution. It would 
have been quite impossible to attempt this work without the subvention 
provided by the Carnegie Corporation of New York. In 1932 a grant 



PREFACE 

of $4,000 was made to cover the cost of the preparation of this manu- 
script. All of this sum has been expended for the purpose indicated 
and none of it has been charged against possible future receipts from 
the sale of the volume. The American Association for Adult Education, 
its friends, and the users of this handbook owe a debt of gratitude to 
the Carnegie Corporation for its generous assistance. 

Friendly critics of the Association and of the handbook will no doubt 
be puzzled by the admixture of so-called "cultural" adult education and 
of adult vocational education as represented in the handbook. In the 
past, there have been at times differences of opinion in the councils of 
the Association with regard to emphasis upon the vocational and the 
cultural content of adult education. Arguments have ensued from which 
the extremists of both points of view have emerged not unscathed. To 
these friendly critics of both persuasions the justification offered for any 
possible confusion of interpretation in this matter is the belief expressed 
both in annual reports and in the Journal of the Association that the 
middle ground is the only wise position for the Association. In American 
life it seems wholly impossible to separate vocational motives from those 
termed cultural or avocational. In the well-rounded and properly 
adjusted individual these two motives or interests are indissolubly 
mixed. A precisely similar argument should be presented to those who 
would divorce education and recreation. 

The perfect adult education program (which so far has not 
appeared) would present to the individual a nicely balanced offering 
of personal adjustment (including both educational and vocational 
guidance), of vocational training, and of cultural or avocational activity, 
including as large an element of so-called recreation as the individual 
might require. All of the elements mentioned are included in this 
handbook of adult education. It remains for the far-sighted adult 
educator to offer each one in its proper proportion to the individuals 
that come under his leadership and instructional care. But no formula 
applicable to Americans en masse can possibly be valid. Each program 
must be made out with the most careful reference to the attitudes and 
interests of the individuals concerned. These attitudes and interests 
more often than not are obscure and undisclosed, difficult of discovery, 
and seldom are revealed to the educator without sympathetic individual 
conference. To those adult educators willing to undertake this important 
task of personal counseling, this handbook should be of value. To their 
use it is dedicated. 

No preface to the first edition of this handbook would be complete 
without a tribute to the devotion and care that have gone into these 



PREFACE 

compilations on the part of the editor, Miss Dorothy Rowden. Almost 
a year and a half of painstaking effort is represented in these pages a 
bit of educational pioneering worthy of admiration and respect. 

MORSE A. CARTWRIGHT, Director, 
American Association for Adult Education. 
New York, N. Y. 
December 7, 1933 



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 

The national agricultural extension system, the largest single adult 
education organization in the United States, was established in 1914 by 
the Smith-Lever Law for the purpose of enlarging and coordinating 
numerous programs of extension work already begun by the agricultural 
colleges, county governments, and the United States Department of 
Agriculture. The Federal agricultural extension plan calls for instruc- 
tion of adults not in schools, in "subjects relating to agriculture and 
home economics." 

The work is administered by the various states through extension 
departments of the agricultural colleges or the agricultural departments 
of state universities. Each state program must be approved by the 
extension service of the Department of Agriculture. Financial support 
is given by the Department of Agriculture to the states for the most 
part on a "matching" basis. The states in turn make appropriations to 
county governments that are willing to employ extension agents to 
carry on programs. For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, something 
over $25,000,000 was expended for agricultural extension work 
throughout the nation. Of this amount almost $10,000,000 came from 
Federal sources, and over $15,000,000 from state and county sources. 
Every state carries on work in agricultural extension, and almost three- 
fourths of the counties have been employing one or more agents. 

The total number of professional workers in July, 1932, was 5,929. 
Of these about 1,150 were specialists on the state staffs and the re- 
mainder were county workers. There are three main types of county 
workers: those teaching adult farmers in agriculture 3 those teaching 
adult women in home economics $ and those leading boys' and girls' 
clubs. By far the most widespread work is that among adults. 

In 1931, adults on farms conducted over 1,190,000 local demon- 
strations for the purpose of improving practices in agriculture and home 
economics. There is considerable diversity in these local projects. Some 
are in child care and training, in home health and sanitation, in cloth- 
ing, in foods and nutrition, as well as in the technical aspects of agricul- 
ture. Vocational efficiency is the basis of the program at all times, how- 
ever. Many lay persons participate in the process. Farmers and their 



2 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

wives become teachers or at least assistant teachers, cooperating with the 
county extension agents. The county agents are not specialists but draw 
upon the specialists of the state staffs. The work must be distinctly 
understood as informal teaching and must be distinguished from 
research and experimentation. At present twelve important methods of 
extension teaching are used, only one of these being the demonstration 
of methods found good through experience, research, or experimen- 
tation. 

Thorough studies have been made of the results of extension teach- 
ing in terms of changed practices. In seven typical counties in four 
states, it was discovered that on three farms out of four important 
changes in practices had been made as a result of extension work. 

Great variety in state extension programs is evident. This is the 
result of wise national administration, as well as of differences in types 
of farming, climate, and philosophies of education among state adminis- 
trators. In the North and West, close but informal relations are main- 
tained with county farm bureaus which grew up around the county 
agents. In twelve states active parent education programs have been 
developed. Wide use is made of the radio as a teaching device. Some 
states have encouraged separate organizations for women, while many 
have not. In a minority of the states ventures have been made in music 
and amateur dramatics. 

Agricultural extension workers have made plans for the formation 
of the National Cooperative Extension Workers 3 Association. Its pur- 
poses will be the improvement of professional training and standards and 
the discussion of educational problems and policies. The annual reports 
of the Extension Service of the United States Department of Agriculture 
contain a variety of data in regard to the development of agricultural 
extension. The services of the state agricultural extension agencies are 
described below. 

In addition to work being conducted under the Federal, state, and 
county agricultural extension systems, many other adult education 
activities are being carried on in rural areas. Chief among these is the 
county library described on p. 75. 

In two states particularly, California and Delaware, the public 
schools are organized to reach farm residents in a systematic fashion. 
In a number of small cities in California, adult education departments 
of high schools also meet the needs of the farm population in the sur- 
rounding territory. The State Department of Education assists adult 
education in high schools in the same way it does the conventional work 
in secondary education. In Delaware about 5,000 adults a year are 



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 3 

attending numerous small classes organized by the State Department 
of Education in cooperation with local school authorities and with the 
parent-teacher associations. For further details about state programs in 
adult education, see p. 161. 

Many of the services of university extension departments are 
peculiarly needed by or adapted to the small rural community. An 
example is the package library, perhaps much more needed in small 
places that do not have libraries than in cities. The same may be said 
of such services as providing speakers for lectures, offering correspond- 
ence instruction, sending out news letters, and giving assistance to little 
theater groups. A list of university extension activities appears on p. 254. 

The farm organizations are active in promoting informal educational 
work. For example, each local grange has a "worthy lecturer," who con- 
ducts an educational hour at every meeting. The lecture hour, placed 
in the ritual by the founders of the grange, is the "educational depart- 
ment" of the grange, and its long history and stability is said by 
numerous officials to be due mainly to the fact that a variety of educa- 
tional programs has been maintained. 

Some local rural churches are attempting systematic programs, rang- 
ing from the conventional religious instruction in church schools, to 
forums, study groups, and lectures on such topics as international rela- 
tions, race relations, and economics. In the arts there are many local 
developments which have been largely initiated by the agricultural 
colleges and the state universities. 

There are a small number of folk schools in rural areas, some of 
them newly organized on an experimental basis, some established by 
Danish immigrant farmers as early as 1874. 

Many community organizations are carrying on informal adult 
education activities, although they are not so kbeled. The small and 
comparatively isolated community seems to be acquiring a special 
interest in the radio, and to be establishing important educational con- 
tacts through it. Ordinarily the rural community is interested in the same 
type of program as the city, but it also seems to want to a small extent 
special programs designed to meet its own peculiar interests in agricul- 
ture and local government. 

In general, it may be said that the facts and philosophies under- 
lying the adult education movement have already been demonstrated 
as significant for the village and farm communities of the United 
States. 

BENSON Y. LANDIS, Executive Secretary, 
American Country Life Association. 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Following are outlines of agricultural extension and rural adult educa- 
tion programs conducted under the auspices of the various states. With the 
exception of the number of local leaders, where the figures given are for 
1931, all statistics are for the year 1932. Figures given were supplied by the 
United States Department of Agriculture. The list is arranged alphabetically 
by state. 



ALABAMA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, 
Agricultural Extension Service, 
Auburn, Ala., L. N. Duncan, Mr. 

Program of teaching adult farmers 
not in schools in subjects relating to 
agriculture and home economics, sup- 
plementing and working through agents 
employed by various counties; on state 
staff are specialists m many subjects, in- 
cluding marketing, clothing, handicraft, 
agronomy; 

Extension workers include: 69 white, 
22 Negro county agricultural agents; 46 
white, 15 Negro home demonstration 
agents; 2 white and I Negro state club 
agents; 4,952 men, 4 S 4I9 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with adults ; 
17,243 men and 34,165 women mem- 
bers of local lay groups reached through 
adult result demonstrations; I 9 I75 adult 
leader training meetings held, 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Tucson, 
Ariz., P. H. Ross, Mr. 

Extension teaching in agriculture and 
home economics; state service employs 
specialists who supplement work of 
county agents working in cooperation 
with, numerous lay leaders; specialists 
in economics, agronomy, clothing, hor- 
ticulture; 

Extension workers include: 18 county 
agricultural agents, 7 home demonstra- 
tion agents; I state club agent; 218 
men, 136 women voluntary local leaders 
working with adults; 1,218 men, 2>i62 
women members of local lay groups 
reached through adult result demonstra- 
tions; 8 adult leader training meetings 
held. 



UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS, Agricultural 
Extension Service, Federal Bank and 
Trust Bldg., Little Rock, Ark., Dan 
T. Gray, Mr. 

Assists county farm and home exten- 
sion agents in administering extension 
program among informal groups of men 
and women, particularly through varie- 
ties of demonstrations, state staff in- 
cludes specialists in nutrition, home 
management, household arts, marketing, 
economics, etc.; 

Extension workers include: 65 white, 
22 Negro county agricultural agents; 54 
white, 8 Negro home demonstration 
agents; 2 white state club agents; 2,933 
men, 3,416 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 4,257 agri- 
cultural and 30,754 home demonstra- 
tion members of local lay groups reached 
through adult result demonstrations; 
526 leader training meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Berkeley, 
Calif., B. H. Crocheron, Mr. 

Varied program of extension teaching 
through state specialists and county 
agents, working with lay leaders; spe- 
cialists in economics, marketing, farm 
and home management, child develop- 
ment and parent education, and other 
subjects employed; 

Extension workers include: 93 county 
agricultural agents; 33 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 3 state dub agents; 4,657 
raen, 3,435 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 35,311 
men, 13,919 women members of local 
lay groups reached through adult result 



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 



demonstrations; 533 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Fort Collins, 
Colo., F. A. Anderson, Mr. 

State-wide program of farm and 
home extension teaching; employs nu- 
merous specialists, including those in 
farm and home management, agronomy, 
nutrition, etc.; numerous counties of 
state employ farm and home demonstra- 
tion agents; 

Extension workers include: 35 county 
agricultural agents , 1 1 home demonstra- 
tion agents; I state club agent; 1,380 
men and 1,067 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 645 men, 
5,772 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 237 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL COL- 
LEGE, Agricultural Extension Service, 
Storrs, Conn., Benjamin W. Ellis, Mr. 

State administers teaching in agricul- 
ture and home economics; specialists on 
state staff include those in economics, 
engineering, farm and home manage- 
ment, clothing, rural health, etc.; coun- 
ties of state employ extension agents for 
organizing educational projects among 
men and women; 

Extension workers include: 12 county 
agricultural agents; 9 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 2 state, 13 county club 
agents; 826 men, 452 women volun- 
tary local leaders working with adults; 
2,887 men, 5,293 women members of 
local lay groups reached through adult 
result demonstrations, 48 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Newark, 
Del., C. A. McCue, Mr. 

State activities in extension teaching 
of agriculture and home economics ad- 



ministered in cooperation with coun- 
ties; each county employs agents for 
work in agriculture, home making, and 
club work; state employs specialists in 
nutrition, entomology, economics, etc.; 
Extension workers include: 5 county 
agricultural agents; 4 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 3 county clut agents; 29 
men, 177 women voluntary local leaders 
working with adults; 29 men, 1,104 
women members of local lay groups 
reached through adult result demonstra- 
tions; 7 adult leader training meetings 
held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Gainesville, 
Fla., Wilmon Newell, Mr. 

Extension teaching in agriculture and 
home economics in cooperation with 
numerous counties of state; counties em- 
ploy both men and women as farm or 
home demonstration agents; state has 
specialists in economics, home manage- 
ment, farm management, and technical 
subjects; 

Extension workers include: 39 white, 
8 Negro county agricultural agents; 31 
white, 9 Negro home demonstration 
agents; I white state club agent; 446 
men, 824 women voluntary local leaders 
working with adults; 1,363 men, 8,012 
women members of local lay groups 
reached through adult result demonstra- 
tions; 232 adult leader training meet- 
ings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Athens, Ga., 
J. Phil Campbell, Mr. 

Extension teaching in agriculture and 
home economics maintained in coopera- 
tion with numerous counties of state; 
many counties employ farm or home 
demonstration agents who organize edu- 
cational projects with cooperation of 
volunteers; state staff makes available 
variety of specialists, including those in 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



farm and home management, engineer- 
ing, landscaping, clothing, nutrition; 

Extension workers include: 133 white, 
17 Negro county agricultural agents; 
84 white, 20 Negro home demonstration 
agents; 2 white state club agents; 8,700 
men, 3,981 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 17,019 
men, 26,013 women members of local 
lay groups reached through adult re- 
sult demonstrations; 1,710 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Moscow, 
Idaho, E. J. Iddings, dir. 

Numerous counties of state cooperate 
in administering state's program of ex- 
tension teaching in agriculture and home 
economics; state employs directors and 
specialists, including those in agronomy, 
farm management, clothing, and seed 
analysis; counties interested employ 
farm and home agents; 

Extension workers include. 30 county 
agricultural agents; 7 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 2 county club agents; 785 
men, 461 women voluntary local leaders 
working with adults; 801 men and 
6,6 10 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 62 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Urbana, 111., 
Herbert W. Mumford, dir. 

College administers state's program of 
extension teaching in agriculture and 
home economics; numerous counties co- 
operate by making appropriations for 
employment of men and women as ex- 
tension agents; college maintains large 
staff of specialists who supplement work 
of county agents and help them train 
volunteer leaders; 

Extension workers include: 113 
county agricultural agents; 36 home 



demonstration agents; 5 state and 4 
county club agents, 7,969 men, 5,411 
women voluntary local leaders working 
with adults, 53,431 men, 16,653 
women members of local lay groups 
reached through adult result demonstra- 
tions, 2,167 ac *ult leader training meet- 
ings held. 

PURDUE UNIVERSITY, Agricultural Ex- 
tension Service, Lafayette, Ind., John 
H. Skinner, Mr. 

State extension service directs exten- 
sion program in home economics and 
agriculture, m cooperation with various 
counties of state which employ full-time 
agents; state employs large number of 
specialists who assist county agents and 
lay leaders; 

Extension workers include* 88 county 
agricultural agents; 12 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 7 state, 5 county club 
agents; 4,460 men, 3,669 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with adults; 
27,417 men, 29,302 women members 
of local lay groups reached through 
adult result demonstrations; 702 adult 
leader training meetings held. 

IOWA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 
AND MECHANIC ARTS, Agricultural 
Extension Service, Ames, Iowa, R. K. 
Bliss, dir. 

Staff of directors and specialists carries 
on state program of instruction in agri- 
culture and home economics, working 
through numerous county agents and lay 
leaders cooperating with them ; 

Extension workers include: in 
county agricultural agents; 23 home 
demonstration agents; 6 state and 4 
county club agents; 8,656 men, 9,632 
voluntary local leaders working with 
adults; 34,150 men and 66,206 women 
members of local lay groups reached 
through adult result demonstrations; 
7,603 adult leader training meetings 
held. 



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 



STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, Agri- 
cultural Extension Service, Manhat- 
tan, Kan., H. J. C. Umberger, Mr. 

State works through numerous em- 
ployed county agents and lay leaders co- 
operating with them, and carries on 
varied program of instruction in agricul- 
ture and home economics; 

Extension workers include: 84 county 
agricultural agents; 31 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 4 state and 2 county club 
agents; 3,435 men, 4,671 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with adults ; 
21,084 men, 10,274 women members 
of local lay groups reached through 
adult result demonstrations; 2,230 adult 
leader training meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Lexington, 
Ky., Thomas P. Cooper, dir. 

State staff of directors and specialists, 
working through numerous employed 
county agents and lay leaders cooperat- 
ing with them, carries on varied pro- 
gram of instruction in agriculture and 
home economics, 

Extension workers include: 95 white, 
4 Negro county agricultural agents; 32 
white home demonstration agents; 7 
white state club agents; 5,224 men, 
3,322 women voluntary local leaders 
working with adults, 6,932 men, 9,176 
women members of local lay groups 
reached through adult result demonstra- 
tions; 961 adult leader training meet- 
ings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Baton Rouge, 
La., J. W. Bateman, dir. 

Director and specialists administer 
adult education in subjects relating to 
agriculture and home economics, work- 
ing in cooperation with numerous county 
agents and lay leaders; specialists in 
rural organization and economics and in 
various branches of agriculture; 



Extension workers include: 70 white, 
II Negro county agricultural agents, 46 
white, 6 Negro home demonstration 
'agents; 2 white state club agents; 4,050 
men, 3,074 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 1,767 men, 
15,097 women members of local lay 
groups reached through demonstrations; 
550 adult leader training meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Orono, Me., 
Arthur L. Deering, dir. 

State administers, in cooperation with 
numerous counties which employ county 
extension agents, adult education pro- 
gram in agriculture and home making; 
also makes available service of specialists 
in engineering, crops, marketing, cloth- 
ing, foods, home management, etc.; 

Extension workers include: 17 county 
agricultural agents; 15 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 2 state and 7 county club 
agents; 1,415 men, 2,180 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with adults; 
13,987 men, 7,385 women members of 
local lay groups reached through adult 
result demonstrations; 69 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, Agricultural 
Extension Service, College Park, Md., 
Thomas B. Symons, dir. 

Adult education program among farm 
men and women not in schools in agri- 
culture and home making, in coopera- 
tion with various counties which employ 
extension agents; lay leaders cooperate 
in educational projects; specialists in 
many subjects are on state staffs, in- 
cluding farm management, landscape 
gardening, clothing, and nutrition; 

Extension workers include: 31 white, 
2 Negro county agricultural agents; 25 
white, 2 Negro home demonstration 
agents; 2 white state club agents; 779 
men, 1,238 women voluntary local 



8 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



leaders working with adults; 9,256 men, 
8,637 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 389 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

MASSACHUSETTS STATE COLLEGE, Agri- 
cultural Extension Service, Amherst, 
Mass., William A. Munson, dtr. 

Courses in agriculture and home eco- 
nomics, in cooperation with various 
counties; counties employ extension 
agents, who cooperate with many lay 
leaders of educational projects, state 
employs directors and specialists in eco- 
nomics, farm management, child devel- 
opment, nutrition, and clothing; 

Extension workers include. 22 county 
agricultural agents; 17 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 5 state and 26 county club 
agents; 673 men, 2,640 women volun- 
tary local leaders working with adults; 
36 men, 25,414 women members of 
local lay groups reached through adult 
result demonstrations; 379 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

MICHIGAN STATE COLLEGE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, East Lansing, 
Mich., Robert J. Baldwin, dir. 

Agricultural and home economics pro- 
grams of adult education, in cooperation 
with numerous counties which employ 
extension agents; many lay leaders assist 
in educational projects, state specialists 
in economics, engineering, farm crops, 
home economics, child care, landscaping, 
and many other subjects; 

Extension workers include: 71 county 
agricultural agents; 8 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 9 state and n county club 
agents; 2,263 meil 5 2 ?57 J women volun- 
tary local leaders working with adults, 
2,630 men, 13,652 women members of 
local lay groups reached through adult 
result demonstrations; 1,096 adult leader 
training meetings held. 



UNIVERSITY FARM, Agricultural Exten- 
sion Service, St. Paul, Minn., F. W. 
Peck, dir. 

Extensive program in agriculture and 
home economics, in cooperation with 
numerous counties of state; counties 
employ agents who are assisted by many 
lay leaders in educational projects; state 
employs staff of specialists, including 
those in agronomy, exhibits, farm man- 
agement, soils, child development, home 
management, and organization; 

Extension woikers include: 64 county 
agricultural agents, 17 home demonstra- 
tion agents, 7 state and 6 county club 
agents; 9,488 men, 4,059 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with 
adults; 17,614 men, 22,312 women 
members of local lay groups reached 
through adult result demonstiations; 
1,131 adult leader training meetings 
held. 

MISSISSIPPI STATE COLLEGE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Starkville, 
Miss , L. A. Olson, dir. 

In cooperation with various counties 
which employ agents, has program in 
agriculture and home economics; lay 
leaders assist in educational projects; 
employs specialists in engineering, farm 
management, forestry, and horticulture, 

Extension workers include: 74 white, 
22 Negro county agricultural agents; 53 
white, 23 Negro home demonstra- 
tion agents; 5 white, i Negro state club 
agents; 2,862 men, 3,075 women volun- 
tary local leaders working with adults; 
16,397 men, 21,478 women members 
of local lay groups reached through 
adult result demonstrations; 820 adult 
leader training meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Columbia, 
Mo., R. R. Thomasson, asst. dir. 

Extension work in agriculture and 
home economics, in cooperation with 



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 



counties of state which, employ exten- 
sion agents; employs specialists on state 
staff in economics, engineering, home 
management, health; 

Extension workers include: 71 county 
agricultural agents; 16 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 4 state club agents; 9,723 
men, 5,059 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 10,948 
men, 19,113 women members of local 
lay groups reached through adult re- 
sult demonstrations; 710 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND 
MECHANIC ARTS, Agricultural Exten- 
sion Service, Bozeman, Mont., J. C. 
Taylor, Mr. 

State administers program in agricul- 
ture and home economics, in coopera- 
tion with various counties of state which 
employ extension agents; lay leaders 
assist in local educational projects; em- 
ploys specialists on state staff in farm 
economics, farm management, home 
management, clothing, and nutrition; 

Extension workers include: 32 county 
agricultural agents; 10 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 2 state club agents; 1,358 
men, 1,150 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 2,180 men, 
5,166 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 176 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Lincoln, 
Nebr., W. H. Brokaw, Mr. 

Promotes and administers extension 
teaching in agriculture and home eco- 
nomics, working through agents em- 
ployed by counties; specialists on state 
staff include those in community organ- 
ization, farm management, home beauti- 
fication, and home management; 

Extension workers include: 52 county 



agricultural agents; 16 home demon- 
stration agents; 4 state, i county club 
agents; 3,327 men, 4,716 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with 
adults, 41,820 men, 30,273 women 
members of local lay groups reached 
through -adult result demonstrations; 
1,1 1 o adult leader training meetings 
held. 



UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA, Agricultural 
Extension Service, Reno, Nev., Cecil 
W. Creel, Mr. 

Demonstration and other methods of 
teaching agriculture and home eco- 
nomics; various counties of state employ 
men and women as agents; state employs 
specialists in farm and home economics; 

Extension workers include: 14 county 
agricultural agents; 6 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 343 men, 462 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with 
adults; 829 men, 1,8 1 2 women mem- 
bers of local lay groups reached through 
adult result demonstrations; 99 adult 
leader training meetings held. 



COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND ME- 
CHANIC ARTS, Agricultural Extension 
Service, Durham, N. H., J. C. Ken- 
dall, Mr. 

Makes available specialists in eco- 
nomics, farm and home management, 
and other subjects, through county ex- 
tension agents; state administers pro- 
gram of extension in agriculture and 
home economics; 

Extension workers include: 13 county 
agricultural agents; n home demon- 
stration agents; 2 state and 13 county 
club agents; 633 men, 1,097 women 
voluntary local leaders working with 
adults; 5,897 men, 6,013 women mem- 
bers of local lay groups reached through 
adult result demonstrations; 174 adult 
leader training meetings held. 



10 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 
COLLEGE, Agricultural Extension 
Service, New Brunswick, N. J., H. J. 
Baker, dir. 

Varied program of extension activities 
in agriculture and home making; coun- 
ties employ numerous agents who co- 
operate with state directors and special- 
ists in such subjects as child training 
and parent education; 

Extension workers include: 25 county 
agricultural agents, 20 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 9 county club agents; 
I, in men, 1,336 women voluntary 
local leaders working with adults; 
7,564 men, 69,699 women members of 
local lay groups reached through adult 
result demonstrations; 217 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND 
MECHANIC ARTS, Agricultural Exten- 
sion Service, State College, N. M., 
W. L. Elser, r. 

Extension teaching in rural areas in 
agriculture and home economics, in co- 
operation with various county farm and 
home agents; state staff has specialists in 
home economics and various branches of 
agriculture; 

Extension workers include: 22 county 
agricultural agents; n home demon- 
stration agents, 495 men, 358 women 
voluntary local leaders working with 
adults; 913 men, 3,652 women mem- 
bers of local lay groups reached through 
adult result demonstrations, 96 adult 
leader training meetings held. 



economics, engineering, floriculture, 
home economics, and rural social organ- 
ization; 

Extension workers include: 83 county 
agricultural agents; 52 home demonstra- 
tion agents, 3 state, 42 county club 
agents; 7,188 men, 10,202 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with adults; 
36,089 men, 26,684 women members 
of local lay groups reached through 
adult result demonstrations; 2,748 adult 
leader training meetings held 

STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND 
ENGINEERING, Agricultural Exten- 
sion Service, Raleigh, N. C,, I. O. 
Schaub, dir. 

Through cooperating counties which 
employ agents, program of extension 
projects in agriculture and home eco- 
nomics carried on; makes specialists 
available for services through county 
agents in farm management, home eco- 
nomics, organization, and credit prob- 
lems; 

Extension workers include: 94 white, 
21 Negro county agricultural agents; 
59 white, 8 Negro home demonstration 
agents; i white state club agent, 2,665 
men, 3,244 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 5,898 men, 
27*879 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 1,035 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

NORTH DAKOTA AGRICULTURAL COL- 
LEGE, Agricultural Extension Service, 
Fargo, N. D., C. F. Monroe, dir. 



NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE OF AGRI- 
CULTURE, Agricultural Extension Ser- 
vice, Ithaca, N. Y., L. R. Simons, dir. 

Agriculture and home economics pro- 
gram administered in cooperation with 
numerous counties which employ exten- 
sion agents; county agents make special- 
ists available for local services in farm 



^ Rural extension work in cooperation 
with various counties employing agents 
who direct local projects in agriculture 
and home economics; specialists in vari- 
ous branches of agriculture and home 
making assist in carrying out local pro- 
grams; r 

Extension workers include: 34 county 
agricultural agents; 6 home demonstra- 



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 



II 



tion agents; 2 state club agents; 1,480 
men, 2,854 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 1,228 men, 
6,824 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 390 adult leader tram- 
ing meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Columbus, 
Ohio, H. C. Ramsower, dtr. 

Diversified program of adult educa- 
tion in agriculture and home economics 
through cooperating counties which em- 
ploy extension agents; state staff makes 
specialists available for local services 
through county agents in agricultural 
education, engineering, farm, manage- 
ment, gardening, home furnishings, 
nutrition, home management, 

Extension workers include: 79 county 
agricultural agents; 27 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 5 state, n county club 
agents; 12,445 men > 7?8i7 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with adults ; 
26,269 men, 11,480 women members 
of local lay groups reached through 
adult result demonstrations; 970 adult 
leader training meetings held. 

AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COL- 
LEGE, Agricultural Extension Service, 
Stillwater, Okla., D. P. Trent, Mr. 

Home economics and agricultural ex- 
tension through cooperating county gov- 
ernments which employ extension 
agents; specialists in economics, farm 
and home management, child develop- 
ment and parent education, and cloth- 
ing; 

Extension workers include: 76 white, 
10 Negro county agricultural agents; 62 
white, 6 Negro home demonstration 
agents; 4 state white club agents; 4,571 
men, 3,122 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 4,146 men, 
22,137 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 



demonstrations; 950 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, Agri- 
cultural Extension Service, Corvallis, 
Ore., Paul V. Maris, jfa. 

Program in home economics and agri- 
culture; various counties employ exten- 
sion agents who carry on local programs; 
state staff has specialists in such subjects 
as economics, marketing, home manage- 
ment, and nutrition; 

Extension workers include: 38 county 
agricultural agents; 8 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 3 state and 8 county club 
agents; 628 men, 607 women volun- 
tary local leaders working with adults, 
1,096 men, 2,938 women members of 
local lay groups reached through adult 
result demonstrations; 241 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE, Agri- 
cultural Extension Service, State Col- 
lege, Pa., M. P. McDowell, Mr. 

Extension teaching in various sub- 
jects relating to agriculture and home 
economics; various counties employ men 
and women agents who promote pro- 
grams in local communities; specialists 
in different fields of farm and home 
management, landscape gardening, rural 
organization, nutrition, clothing; 

Extension workers include: 76 county 
agricultural agents; 49 home demon- 
stration agents; 6 state club agents; 
4,115 men, 1,148 women voluntary 
local leaders working with adults; 
10,383 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 97 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

RHODE ISLAND STATE COLLEGE, Agri- 
cultural Extension Service, Kingston, 
R. I., George E. Adams, dir. 

State-wide program of adult educa- 
tion in agriculture and home economics, 



12 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



through district agents carrying on local 
programs and specialists in various 
branches of agriculture and home mak- 
ing; 

Extension workers include. 4 county 
agricultural, 4 home demonstration, I 
state and 3 county club agents; 399 
men, 207 women voluntary local leaders 
working with adults; 867 men, 2,222 
women members of local lay groups 
reached through adult result demon- 
strations; 48 adult leader training meet- 
ings held. 

CLEMSON AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 
Agricultural Extension Service, Clem- 
son College, S. C., W. W. Long, fa. 

State organization directs and coordi- 
nates adult education in agriculture and 
home economics, through county gov- 
ernment employing extension agents, 
and through specialists in various sub- 
jects relating to farm business and farm 
home; 

Extension workers include: 55 white, 
14 Negro county agricultural agents; 51 
white, 12 Negro home demonstration 
agents; 3 white state club agents; 695 
men, 833 women voluntary local leaders 
working with adults, 1,660 men, 27,692 
women members of local lay groups 
reached through adult result demonstra- 
tions; 253 adult leader training meet- 
ings held. 

STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND 
MECHANIC ARTS, Agricultural Exten- 
sion Service, Brookings, S. D., C. 
Larsen, dir. 

Rural extension work at agricultural 
college through specialists in subjects re- 
lating to agriculture and home eco- 
nomics and through extension agents 
employed by cooperating county gov- 
ernments; 

Extension workers include: 27 Bounty 
agricultural agents; 16 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 2 state and 4 county club 



agents; 1,132 men, 4,371 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with adults; 
2,477 men ? 9? 2 3 2 women members of 
local lay groups reached through adult 
result demonstrations; 915 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Knoxville, 
Tenn., Charles A. Keffer, dir. 

Extension program in agriculture 
and home economics, carried on in co- 
operation with various counties that 
employ extension agents; specialists on 
state staff include those in community 
service, farm management, health, sani- 
tation and home management; 

Extension workers include: 86 white, 
4 Negro county agricultural agents; 44 
white, 4 Negro home demonstration 
agents; 2 white state club agents; 2,897 
men, 1,604 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 6,586 men, 
21,012 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 486 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COL- 
LEGE OF TEXAS, Agricultural Exten- 
sion Service, College Station, Tex., 
O. B. Martin, dir. 

State agricultural college is adminis- 
trative unit for extension program in 
agriculture and home economics; work 
done largely through cooperation of 
various counties which employ extension 
agents; specialists in agricultural engi- 
neering, landscape gardening, home im- 
provement, and rural women's organ- 
izations ; 

Extension workers include: 182 white, 
29 Negro county agricultural agents; 
129 white, 22 Negro home demonstra- 
tion agents; I state club agent; 5,385 
men, 2,561 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 9,593 
men, 45,813 women members of local 



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 



lay groups reached through adult re- 
2 suit demonstrations; 1,739 adult leader 

training meetings held. 

> 

UTAH STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, 
k Agricultural Extension Service, Logan, 
. Utah, William Peterson, Mr. 

. Extension teaching in agriculture and 
* home economics, with cooperation of 
/employed county agents and various spe- 
cialists including those in home reading, 
home and farm management, and tech- 
nical aspects of agriculture ; 

Extension workers include: 24 county 
agricultural agents; 8 home demonstra- 
. tion agents; 2 state club agents; 1,928 
Jmen, 903 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 5,928 men, 
^5,615 women members of local lay 
* groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 319 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

-STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, Agri- 
cultural Extension Service, Burling- 
V ton, Vt., Joseph E. Carrigan, Mr. 

j Program in agriculture and home eco- 
nomics, with cooperation of various 
county agents; employs specialists on 
state staff in farm and home manage- 
ment, marketing, nutrition, and cloth- 
ing; 

Extension workers include: 15 county 
agricultural agents; 12 home demonstra- 
Lfcfm agents; 2 state and II county club 
agents; 710 men, 896 women voluntary 
V local leaders working with adults; 5,942 
%men ? 7,047 women members of local 
'lay groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 114 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

VERMONT COMMISSION ON COUNTRY 
LIFE, 162 College St., Burlington, 
Vt., Henry F. Perkins, ex. vice-fyres. 

Has made survey of educational and 
other facilities of state, and has pub- 



lished recommendations for future pro- 
gram 3 officers and committees carry on 
work by making recommendations known 
to clubs, church groups, granges, etc., 
and by encouraging studies of local 
needs in the light of the Commission's 
judgment; headquarters, office of 
Eugenics Survey of Vermont; Regional 
Library Experiment being carried on in 
charge of trained librarian who assists 
local librarians in improving service; 
legislative committee aids in supporting 
or discouraging passage of laws agree- 
able to policies of the Commission and 
the best interests of Vermont; member- 
ship, 200. 

VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, 
Agricultural Extension Service, Blacks- 
burg, Va., John R. Hutcheson, Mr. 

Specialists in community organization, 
rural sociology, home improvement, 
landscape gardening, and farm and home 
management who assist county agents 
and local groups in carrying out projects 
in agriculture and home economics; 
state administers adult education pro- 
gram in these subjects among farm pop- 
ulation ; 

Extension workers include: 87 white, 
23 Negro county agricultural agents; 48 
white, 7 Negro home demonstration 
agents; 2 white state club agents; 2,815 
men, 2,219 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 4,059 men, 
13,850 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 1,057 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

STATE COLLEGE OF WASHINGTON, Agri- 
cultural Extension Service, Pullman, 
Wash., F. E. Balmer, Mr. 

Various projects in agriculture and 
home economics in cooperation with 
agents employed by counties in farm 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



and home management and other sub- 
jects, who are available for numerous 
local services; 

Extension workers include: 41 county 
agricultural agents; n home demonstra- 
tion agents; I state and 5 county club 
agents; 1,777 men, 1,547 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with adults; 
913 men, 8,315 women members of 
local lay groups reached through adult 
result demonstrations; 320 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Morgantown, 
W. Va., F. D. Fromme, Mr. 

Program administered through five 
distinct divisions of extension work as 
follows: i. Older Four-H Club Mem- 
bers in 20 counties hold monthly meet- 
ings to consider problems of personal 
development, community interests, and 
leadership training, and in turn assume 
responsibility for helping younger club 
members in home economics and agri- 
cultural projects and provide leadership 
for meetings of recreational nature; 
State Volunteers' Camp at Jackson's Mill 
offers leadership training for 200 mem- 
bers of this group annually; C. H. 
Hartley, in charge; 2. Farm women's 
clubs consisting of 6,000 women in 300 
rural communities hold monthly meet- 
ings for discussion of child care, home 
management, etc., and community prob- 
lems including health, citizenship, 
recreation, etc.; state camp of one week's 
duration held annually for definite 
course of study on matters pertaining to 
home and community; Gertrude Hum- 
phreys, in charge; 3. Life Study Insti- 
tutes, cooperative undertaking of Exten- 
sion Division, West Virginia University, 
colleges of state, state Congress of 
Parents and Teachers, Federation of 
Women's Clubs and other state groups 
functioning under own officers organized 
to meet demand on part of rural people 



for more formal type of study groups; 
offering courses in history, literature, 
sociology, citizenship, religion, and 
science; 21 groups studying; A. H. 
Rapking, in charge, 4. Three Regional 
Centers for the promotion of educa- 
tional and recreational activities estab- 
lished m the following places: Jackson's 
Mill, Weston, which serves as regional 
recreational center for youths and adults 
in fifteen counties and as training school 
for youth and adult leadership for state, 
William H. Kendricks, director; Moun- 
tain Lake Institute, Mountain Lake 
Park, Maryland, which includes seven 
counties in a tri-state area, and which 
serves as a meeting place for numerous 
one-day educational gatherings, as train- 
ing center for three church groups, and 
as center for concerts and festivals, I. S. 
Middaugh, director; Oglebay Institute, 
Oglebay Park, rural-urban educational 
center, with physical equipment of park 
of 750 acres and numerous buildings, 
conducting program that includes train- 
ing of leaders of nature groups, nature 
study with 6,000 adults participating in 
1932; specialists groups in astronomy, 
plants and birds, and series of lectures 
on history of music, the wise use of 
leisure, etc.; museum, special institutes, 
and conferences; musical events; Betty 
Eckhardt, executive secretary; 5. Spe- 
cialists in livestock, horticulture, plant 
pathology, agronomy, home economics, 
farm economics and rural sociology, 
three-fourths of whose time is devoted 
to adult education. 

Extension workers include: 51 white 
county agricultural agents; 28 white 
home demonstration agents; 3 state and 
5 county white, I state and I county 
Negro club agents; 2,450 men, 2,293 
women voluntary local leaders working 
with adults; 12,673 men, I4>73 
women members of local lay groups 
reached through adult result demonstra- 
tions; 976 adult leader meetings held. 



AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION 



COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Madison, 
Wise., K. L. Hatch, assoc. dir. 

Adult education in agriculture and 
home economics through cooperation of 
counties which employ agents carrying 
on variety of local projects and informal 
groups, makes available specialists in eco- 
nomics and sociology, engineering, 
foods, clothing, and home management ; 

Extension workers include: 59 county 
agricultural agents; 6 home demonstra- 
tion agents; 4 state and 6 county club 
agents; 3,317 men, 2,394 women vol- 
untary local leaders working with adults; 
3,978 men, 17,053 women members of 
local lay groups reached through adult 
result demonstrations; 475 adult leader 
training meetings held. 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, Agricul- 
tural Extension Service, Laramie, 
Wyo., A. E. Bowmen, dir. 

Extension program in agriculture and 
home economics carried on through 
numerous agents employed by cooperat- 
ing counties; specialists in economics, 
clothing, and home management; 

Extension workers include. 23 county 
agricultural agents; 10 home demonstra- 
tion agents; I state club agent; 576 
men, 1,095 women voluntary local 
leaders working with adults; 2,456 men, 
5,681 women members of local lay 
groups reached through adult result 
demonstrations; 194 adult leader train- 
ing meetings held. 

See also following organizations listed 
under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN COUNTRY LIFE ASSOCIATION 
AMERICAN FARM BUREAU FEDERATION 
FARMERS' EDUCATIONAL AND COOPERA- 
TIVE UNION 

NATIONAL GRANGE OF THE PATRONS OF 
HUSBANDRY 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 
AGRICULTURE 

Also the following articles: 

LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION, p. 

70. 

Music IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 115. 
ADULT EDUCATION FOR NEGROES, p. 

124. 
ADULT EDUCATION UNDER PUBLIC 

SCHOOL AUSPICES, p. 158. 
THE LITTLE THEATER, p. 225. 

READING LIST 

Arnold, Beatrice. Adult Education from 
the Rural Point of View. Washing- 
ton, D. C., National Education Asso- 
ciation. Proceedings and Addresses, 
1928. p. 270-272. 

. Guiding Principles of 

Rural Adult Education. Thirtieth 
Yearbook, Part I, 1931, National 
Society for the Study of Education, 
10 Putnam Street, Danvers, Mass. 

Brunner, E. de S., and J. H. Kolb. 
Rural Social Trends. McGraw-Hill, 
I933- 385 P- 

One of the series of monographs 
prepared under the direction of the 
President's Research Committee on 
Social Trends. Published as Chapter 
X in Recent Social Trends in the 
United States. 

Landis, B. Y., and J. D. Willard. 
Rural Adult Education. Macmillan, 
1933. 240 p Bibliography. 

Interprets important programs of 
rural adult education in the United 
States and suggests measures for their 
improvement. 



ALUMNI EDUCATION 

The term "alumni education" is a comparatively new addition 
to the educator's vocabulary. Although many college administrators, 
prior to the year 1910, may have felt that there was a latent interest 
on the part of alumni in continuing their education, little was done to 
discover in what channels this interest lay, or how best to stimulate the 
lethargic alumnus into action. In 1916, in his inaugural address at 
Dartmouth College, President Hopkins declared that it was the duty 
of colleges and universities to establish intellectual contacts with their 
alumni. "Contacts with what we broadly classify as the arts and sciences 
are less and less possible for men of affairs," he declared. "In many 
a graduate the interest in or enthusiasm for these which the college 
arouses is, therefore, altogether likely to languish, or even die, for 
lack of sustenance. If the college, then, has conviction that its influence 
is worth seeking at the expense of four vital years in the formative 
period of life, is it not logically compelled to search for some method 
of giving access to this influence to its graduates in their subsequent 
years!" 

This was one of the first public acknowledgments made by a 
university president of the need for a new basis of relationship between 
the alumnus and his college. The idea of alumni education spread 
slowly during the next decade, but from time to time various colleges 
reported the initiation of programs. It was for the purpose of determin- 
ing how much interest there was among alumni in continuing their 
education and along what lines that interest had developed that a study 
was made in 1929 under the joint auspices of the American Association 
for Adult Education and the American Alumni Council, by Wilfred 
B. Shaw. Six months were allotted to the survey and forty-one institu- 
tions were visited by Mr. Shaw. 

The study showed that alumni education is being conducted chiefly 
through two media, the "alumni college" and the reading program. The 
alumni college, institute, or conference is held immediately following 
commencement exercises, or at some other period during the year when 
alumni are likely to return to the campus. For the duration of the 
college, alumni are housed in dormitories and fraternity houses and, in 

16 



ALUMNI EDUCATION 17 

effect, go to college again. The daily schedule is usually as follows: 
mornings are allotted to lectures by faculty members and visiting lec- 
turers j afternoons are devoted to outdoor sports 5 evenings are set aside 
for informal meetings. The reading programs conducted for alumni 
differ a great deal in content and in merit. In some instances programs 
are confined to the publication in the alumni periodical of short lists 
of recommended readings j in others, very carefully prepared annotated 
reading lists on a variety of subjects are issued frequently, the college 
provides recommended books on request, and the college library is pre- 
pared to supply the alumnus with bibliographies for his special needs. 

"Unquestionably the most definite result of the six months' investi- 
gation," the report of the study states, "has been a demonstration that 
interest in a continuing educational program for college alumni is 
widespread among college executives and alumni officers. It is equally 
true, however, that up to the present time the alumni, collectively at 
least, do not understand the implications of the program, though there 
is a keen interest on the part of those to whom the suggestion has been 
properly presented." 

A subsequent report by Mr. Shaw, based on information received 
from members of the American Alumni Council, published in the April, 
1931, issue of the Journal of Adult Education, states that 76 univer- 
sities and colleges had alumni education programs actively in operation, 
with 1 8 additional institutions engaged in drawing up plans for such 
programs. 

During the winter of 1932-33 the American Association for Adult 
Education sent questionnaires to nearly 500 colleges and universities 
in the United States, asking for information regarding the extent of 
their alumni education programs. Returns were received from 261 
colleges. Of these, 90 reported that no program of alumni education 
had been undertaken. In many instances the reason given was lack of 
funds 5 in other cases it was stated that there was no request from 
alumni for programs. On the basis of the 261 returns, it was found that 
54 institutions are conducting alumni colleges, educational conferences, 
or institutes. Attendance ranges from a score to 500, and the duration 
of the meeting varies from a half-day to a week. Almost without ex- 
ception subjects discussed deal with modern trends and ideas. Various 
aspects of the psychology, art, literature, economics and education of 
today are repeatedly found to be scheduled for discussion at these 
meetings, an evidence that alumni want instruction that will bring them 
up to date on subjects they studied as undergraduates. In a number of 
instances conferences and institutes sponsored by the college or alumni 



1 8 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

association have been open to undergraduates and to the public, as well 
as to alumni. An example of this plan is the Institute of Euthenics at 
Vassar College (see below). 

Reported methods of stimulating reading interests of alumni in- 
cluded the publication of book lists and book reviews in college or 
alumni magazines, the issuing of book lists in leaflet form, and the 
printing of reading lists in connection with institute or conference lec- 
tures. Ninety-five colleges stated that book lists are prepared for 
individual alumni on request. A notable example of alumni reading lists 
is a book of 155 pages, comprising 150 lists, issued by the University 
of Michigan, under the title, Michigan Reading List. 

Lecture service, through which community alumni dubs are sup- 
plied with lecturers from the college faculty, is maintained by 75 
institutions. The majority report that there is little demand for series 
of lectures on one subject j alumni prefer single lectures at irregular 
intervals on a variety of subjects. In some instances lecturers are sent 
by the institution at no expense to alumni 5 in others small fees are 
charged. At a number of institutions, lecture service is rendered by the 
extension department. Parenthetically, it should be noted that alumni 
secretaries are giving wide publicity to the many activities of the exten- 
sion departments in order that alumni may make full use of the oppor- 
tunities available. 

Eight institutions report offering special radio lectures- for alumni 5 
others state that they are operating radio stations and broadcasting edu- 
cational features, which might be valuable to alumni, but which were 
not addressed particularly to them. 

"Personal aid service" reported as rendered by 104 colleges is a new 
name for an old practice. It includes the maintenance of direct contact 
between alumni and faculty, by means of which the alumnus may seek 
advice from faculty members on questions pertaining to his work. Since 
1930 placement bureaus have been an important branch of this service. 

The American Alumni Council is issuing an "Alumni Features Ser- 
vice," consisting of a series of educational articles written by eminent 
men and women especially for alumni magazines. The first two series 
on "Contemporary Thought" and on "Continued Education for 
Alumni" were sent to 150 alumni periodicals. Many of them used the 
releases in full. 

The preceding account shows that steady progress is being made in 
the number of institutions adopting alumni education programs and that 
many different means are being employed to tempt the alumnus to 
continue his education. However, the fact must not be overlooked that 



ALUMNI EDUCATION 19 

only a small percentage of the total number of alumni is being reached. 
This can be attributed in part to economic conditions 3 men and women 
without work can not attend alumni colleges. It does not dispose of the 
whole problem, however. Perhaps as the adult population comes more 
and more to think of education as a lifelong process alumni will 
naturally turn to their colleges for intellectual guidance. This is by no 
means the case at present. j} j^ 

Among the colleges conducting programs in alumni education are those 
listed below. Since it is obviously impossible to include here the programs of 
all institutions, care has been taken to select those that illustrate the many 
different methods of promoting alumni education. This list is arranged 
alphabetically by name of institution. 



ADELPHI COLLEGE, THE ADELPHI 
COLLEGE ALUMNAE ASSOCIATION, 
Heliport, N. Y, Genevieve B. 
Earle, churn. 

Two-day conference on Social 
Trends, October, 19335 books reviewed 
in alumnae bulletin, alumnae given 
privilege of borrowing books from col- 
lege library. 

ALLEGHENY COLLEGE, Meadville, Pa. 

First alumni college held in fall of 
1932; program included addresses by 
nationally known speakers, one-half day 
of lectures and discussion groups for 
teachers and opening of all college 
classes to alumni; alumni encouraged to 
borrow books from college library; col- 
lege sponsors College-Community Lec- 
ture-Music course for alumni and 
others. 

AMHERST COLLEGE, Amherst, Mass. 

Annual meeting of Alumni Council 
of one and one-half days' duration, with 
addresses by members of faculty and 
guest speakers; opportunity given mem- 
bers of Alumni Visiting Committee to 
meet with several departments of col- 
lege; attendance, 200. 

BARNARD COLLEGE, New York, N. Y. 

Annual series of alumnae lectures, 
sponsored by Alumnae Committee on 



Continued Education; topics discussed 
by authorities include international ques- 
tions, aspects of modern literature, scien- 
tific subjects, etc.; attendance, 250; 
book lists issued occasionally in connec- 
tion with lectures; books lent alumnae 
on request by college library. 

BOWDOIN COLLEGE, Brunswick, Me., 
Philip S. Wilder, alumni sec. 

Biennial institutes of eight to four- 
teen days' duration, directed by authori- 
ties, including lectures and round table 
conferences on chosen subject (1933, 
modern literature), open to alumni and 
interested persons; college library lends 
500 volumes to alumni annually. 

BUCKNELL UNIVERSITY, Lewisburg, Pa., 
A. G. Stroughton, alumni sec. 



Two-day conference on 
annually, attendance, 500. 



education 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Berkeley, 
Calif., Robert Sibley, alumni sec. 

One-day alumni conference, 1932, 
with attendance of 250 delegates chosen 
from class representatives, alumni rep- 
resentatives from different communities 
of California, special committees, officers 
of local clubs, and alumni interested in 
various activities, discussion of univer- 



20 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



sity problems and aspects of student wel- 
fare ; about 100 books lent annually to 
alumni by university library; books dis- 
cussed occasionally in columns of Cali- 
fornia Monthly, lecture service for occa- 
sional lectures to alumni; provision for 
guided study and discussion groups 
under direction of faculty, radio broad- 
casts by alumni association, personal aid 
service. 

CASE SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE, 
Cleveland, Ohio, Charles F. Chap- 
man, alumni sec. 

Two- or three-day industrial confer- 
ence for lectures and discussion on such 
technical subjects as air conditioning, 
welding, and metals and alloys, inter- 
national authorities address sessions; at- 
tendance, 500; publishes alumni maga- 
zine. 

CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF AMERICA, 
Washington, D. C., Joseph M. 
Murphy, alumni sec. 

Alumni education program only re- 
cently begun; plans for series of semi- 
monthly lectures on topics of general 
cultural interest to alumni and friends 
of university, books in college library 
lent to alumni on request; reading lists 
published in alumni magazine. 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, Alumni 
Council, Chicago, 111., Charlton T. 
Beck, alumm sec. 

Two-day alumni conference in 1933; 
topics included: survey courses at college 
level in biology, physical and social 
sciences, and humanities; presentation 
of recent developments in teaching of 
law and business in graduate professional 
schools; report on home study through 
correspondence as an integral part of 
University work; vocational guidance 
for undergraduates; alumni clubs have 
frequently shown talking pictures on 
Oxidation and Reduction, Molecular 



Theory of Matter, etc. as part of gen- 
eral courses in physical sciences; atten- 
dance varies from IOO to 700, alumni 
in vicinity of college may obtain library 
privileges on payment of small fee; 
personal aid service; lecture service for 
occasional lectures; annual departmen- 
tal letters including book lists sent to 
graduates who have specialized in vari- 
ous departments by faculty members of 
each department. 

CLARK UNIVERSITY, Worcester, Mass. 

Lecture service for alumni; college 
offers annual series of fine arts lectures 
to alumni and friends, personal aid 
service; alumni clubs have discussion 
groups. 

COLGATE UNIVERSITY, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Six-day alumni college 1931; topics 
discussed by faculty and guest lecturers 
included current international problems, 
the adult education movement, use of 
leisure time, taxation, prehistoric man, 
etc.; attendance, 40. 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, New York, 
N. Y., Clarence E. Lovejoy, alumm 
sec. 

From 1929-31 Alumni Federation of 
University held succession of courses at 
Columbia University Club on interna- 
tional relations, economics, psychology, 
social science, etc., given by Columbia 
faculty members and other authorities; 
since 1931 has held series of meetings on 
international relations on Saturday and 
Sunday afternoons during winter at 
Metropolitan Museum; during 1933-34, 
through courtesy of the Institute of Arts 
and Sciences of Columbia, which holds 
meetings nightly in McMillan Theater, 
Federation's Committee on Adult Edu- 
cation received total of 600 free tickets 
for 20 Thursday evening meetings on 
The World We Live In; personal aid 
service available. 



ALUMNI EDUCATION 



21 



CONNECTICUT COLLEGE, New London, 
Conn., Dorothy Feltner, alumnae sec. 

Alumnae week-end consisting of series 
o round tables and lecture conferences, 
topics of current educational interest dis- 
cussed; attendance, 1 00 5 reading lists 
compiled by faculty available to 
alumnae on request, also available at 
each, chapter headquarters; faculty pre- 
pares special reading lists on request, 
library lends books to alumnae; educa- 
tional articles in each issue of Alumnae 
News. 

UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON, Dayton, Ohio, 
Merle P. Smith, alumni sec. 

Engineers Club and Law Club com- 
posed of graduates of engineering and 
law departments meet monthly for dis- 
cussion and lecture by faculty member 
or other authority; Bellarmine Society 
at University holds weekly meetings 
open to alumni for discussion of social, 
moral, and religious topics; book lists 
compiled by library staff upon request; 
occasional lectures and guidance to 
groups on request; personal aid service. 

DENISON UNIVERSITY, Granville, Ohio, 
J, B. Jelke, alumni sec. 

Half -day educational conference held 
annually at Homecoming; subjects dis- 
cussed, 1932, included modern litera- 
ture, prehistoric mounds in Ohio, etc., 
attendance, 100; alumni reading lists 
distributed on request, compiled on re- 
quest; books lent to alumni by college 
library. 

UNIVERSITY OF DENVER, Denver, Colo. 

Two-day Teachers' Trek held for 
alumni in teaching profession for dis- 
cussion of various educational problems; 
attendance, 355 book lists issued by 
library; alumni magazine publishes book 
lists monthly; 200 books lent annually 
to alumni by college library; lecture 
service and personal aid service available. 



EMORY UNIVERSITY, Atlanta, Ga. 

Alumni urged to attend four-day 
Citizenship Conference annually; sub- 
jects discussed at last conference in- 
cluded The Constitution of the United 
States, Soviet Russia, Germany, etc.; 
book lists issued; alumni magazine prints 
book lists and reviews; reading lists 
compiled on request by library staff; 
books lent by library to alumni. 

GOXJCHER COLLEGE, Baltimore, Md. 

Series of book lists for alumnae pub- 
lished m cooperation with Enoch Pratt 
Free Library and distributed on re- 
quest; books lent by college library; 
lecture service for occasional lectures, 
for courses, for guided study and discus- 
sion groups; lectures on World Peace in 
Central Europe and Recent Trends in 
American Foreign Policy held Com- 
mencement Week 1933; personal aid 
service rendered through Appointments 
Bureau and through alumnae office; 
series of Chamber Music Evenings 
arranged for alumnae and friends by 
Committee on Continuing Education of 
Alumnae Association. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Graduate School 
of Education, Cambridge, Mass., 
Fred C. Smith, alumni sec. 

Harvard Teachers Association holds 
annual conferences of about one week's 
duration on educational problems; at- 
tendance at meetings varies from 40 to 
400; services of appointment office 
available to all alumni; boob lent 
alumni by library on request; publishes 
Harvard Teachers Record. 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, ALUMNI AS- 
SOCIATION, Urbana, 111., Carl Stephens, 
gen. sec. 

Alumni Association maintains weekly 
radio feature including series, "Con- 
tinued Education for Alumni," consist- 



22 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



ing of talks by faculty members on va- 
rious subjects; no alumni college held; 
lists of bulletins, including bibliogra- 
phies, published by the University 
for use of alumni and others; secretary 
of Association has served for five years 
as editor of "Alumni Features Service," 
series of articles by noted educators 
which have been distributed monthly to 
150 alumni magazines, under auspices 
of American Alumni Council. 

UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, ALUMNI ASSOCIA- 
TION, Iowa City, la., Frederic G. 
Higbee, ex. sec. 

Conferences for alumni and others 
interested in mathematics, journalism, 
science, modern languages, etc.; atten- 
dance varies from 50-200; University 
of Iowa News Bulletin publishes 
monthly "An Alumni Book Rack," which 
is distributed free to 21,000 alumni. 

LAFAYETTE COLLEGE, Easton, Pa., 
Joseph E. Bell, alumni sec. 

Annual five-day Alumni College; sub- 
jects discussed, 1932, included Contem- 
porary Tendencies in Architectures, 
Some Outstanding Features of City 
Planning, Past and Future; attendance, 
130; book lists issued in leaflet form 
and sometimes recommended reading 
lists included in college magazine; has 
introduced new type book review pre- 
senting various social and scientific 
trends of whole related field and rela- 
tion of book to it; college library lends 
books to local alumni; alumni magazine 
encourages readers to seek assistance on 
professional problems from faculty. 

LAWRENCE COLLEGE, Appleton, Wise. 

Three-day alumni college annually \ 
subjects discussed include The New 
Germany, Chaucer's England, The Can- 
terbury Pilgrimage, and others; atten- 
dance, 40; maintains alumni reading 



service, by means of which graduates are 
lent books, free of charge, from selected 
list reviewed in monthly alumni maga- 
zine; from February 1930 to Decem- 
ber 1932, nearly 7,000 books borrowed 
from collection by 43 per cent of 
alumni; books also lent alumni from 
general collection of college library. 

LONG ISLAND UNIVERSITY, Brooklyn, 

N. y. 

One-day Alumni Institute held 1933, 
at which heads of departments outlined 
latest work being done in their particu- 
lar fields; book lists distributed in con- 
junction with Institute; books lent 
alumni by college library. 

LOYOLA COLLEGE, Evergreen, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Privately-organized and faculty-ad- 
vised Philomat Club has been active for 
some years; principal topics discussed 
include modern philosophical, religious 
and social questions; book lists issued in 
leaflet form and distributed on request 
to alumni; books lent alumni by col- 
lege library; personal aid service. 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, Bureau of 
Alumni Relations, Ann Arbor, Mich., 
Wilfred B. Shaw, dir. 

Annual five-day alumni university; 
subjects discussed 1933, Present-day 
European Politics, Sidelights on Ameri- 
can History, New Conceptions in 
Physics, The Modern Novel, etc.; at- 
tendance, 70; Medical School held 
symposium for its alumni, attendance, 
150; extensive alumni reading pro- 
gram, including distribution to date of 
series of about 300 individual mimeo- 
graphed reading lists sent to some 3,000 
alumni, and publication of book com- 
prising some 150 lists; lecture service 
for alumni, including guidance for 
study and discussion group; personal aid 



ALUMNI EDUCATION 



service except where commercial project 
or extensive research is involved; has 
organized Alumni Advisory Council to 
help plan educational program for 
alumni; publishes bulletins for alumni 
stressing educational program of univer- 
sity 5 news dissemination service for 
alumni and others; cooperates with ex- 
tension and placement service for bene- 
fit of alumni. 

MIDDLEBURY COLLEGE, Middlebury, 
Vt., E. J. Wiley, alumni sec. 

No alumni college, but large number 
of graduates attend Bread Loaf School 
of English and French, Spanish, Italian, 
and German schools conducted in sum- 
mer by college, alumni magazine serves 
as vehicle for experimenting with vari- 
ous types of alumni education, such as 
series of articles prepared by professor- 
emeritus encouraging alumni to study 
and learn sonnets. 

MILWAUKEE-DOWNER COLLEGE, Mil- 
waukee, Wise., Elizabeth VonEiff 
Strohmeyer, alumnae sec. 

Two one-hour lectures by faculty 
members during class reunions m June; 
subjects, 1933, Points of View in Mod- 
ern Psychology, and Economic Problems 
of 19335 attendance, 50; alumnae 
privileged to enroll in certain of regular 
college courses (music, economics, and 
contemporary literature) during school 
year; Home Economics Alumnae Asso- 
ciation periodically issues mimeographed 
book lists; lecture service for alumnae, 
including courses in investment, house 
management, and dietetics. 

MOUNT HOLYOKE COLLEGE, South 
Hadley, Mass., Mary C. J. Higley, 
alumnae sec. 

Alumnae Weekend Conference held 
occasionally; subject 1932, Modern Art, 
included lectures on appreciation, water 



colors, and etchings, attendance, 50; 
book lists issued with conference pro- 
grams and in the Alumnae Quarterly. 

NEW JERSEY COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, 
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, 
N.J. 

In 1933 special lectures for alumnae 
on Alumnae Day; alumnae informed of 
campus lectures, musical events, college 
radio programs, etc.; services of Per- 
sonnel Bureau available. 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, ALUMNI FED- 
ERATION, New York, N. Y., B. A. 
Ross, sec. 

Alumni Association of School of 
Commerce, Accounts and Finance con-r- 
ducts Institute of Business; subjects dis- 
cussed, 1931, included The Economics 
of Marketing, Distribution from the 
Point of View of the Manufacturer, the 
Wholesaler, the Retailer, etc.; atten- 
dance, 200; also conducted forum in 
April 1933 on The Inside of Politics as 
it Affects the Business Man, and Cur- 
rent Banking Problems; attendance, 
500; Alumni Association of the College 
of Dentistry conducted dental clinic; 
subjects discussed included surgery, etc.; 
attendance, 150; Alumni Association of 
Medical College conducted medical 
clinic, attendance, 250, subjects dis- 
cussed included Newer Methods of 
Diagnosis in Disease Characterized by 
Pain, etc. 

THE WOMEN'S COLLEGE OF THE UNI- 
VERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, 
Greensboro, N. C., Clara B. Byrd, 
alumnae sec. 

Fourth in series of alumnae seminars 
scheduled to take place April, 1934; 
alumnae magazine carries book reviews 
from time to time; alumnae may borrow 
books from college library; college 
maintains lecture course on campus, and 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



alumnae have privilege of buying tickets 
for course; placement bureau renders 
service to alumnae. 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, Evanston 
and Chicago, 111., E. H. Stromberg, 
alumni sec. 

Occasional alumni round tables, con- 
sisting of series of lectures and discus- 
sions, attendance, 50; book lists issued 
and distributed on request; alumni have 
privilege of borrowing books from 
library. 

UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME, South 
Bend, Ind. 

Alumni education program carried on 
chiefly through alumni magazine in 
which former president of University 
conducts book page regularly and di- 
rector of religious activities on campus 
conducts page of discussion in field of 
religion; alumni office arranges occa- 
sional lectures by faculty members on 
request. 

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, Columbus, 
Ohio, John B. Full en, alumni sec. 

First annual alumni college in 1933; 
lectures in field of contemporary 
thought, art, literature, music, biologi- 
cal, social and physical sciences by 
faculty members; attendance, 300; 
broadcasting station over which series of 
educational programs is given. 

OHIO WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY, Dela- 
ware, Ohio, Hobart H. Bell, alumni 
sec. 

Three-day alumni college immedi- 
ately after commencement; subjects 
discussed included international rela- 
tionships, religious thought, political, 
economic, social trends, contemporary 
trends in English literature; attendance, 
115; book lists issued and distributed on 
request; personal aid service; printed 



lectures of professors occasionally dis- 
tributed. 

OKLAHOMA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, 
Chickasha, Okla., Ruth Toothaker, 
alumnae sec. 

Groups of graduates meet regularly 
with department heads to discuss spe- 
cific problems; college library lends 
books to alumnae on request; personal 
aid service; placement bureau; scholar- 
ship awards; fosters annual meetings at 
College and sectional meetings through- 
out state. 

PENNSYLVANIA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., Elsie McCreery, 
alumnae sec. 

Series of adult education courses on 
campus under auspices of Alumnae As- 
sociation; subjects for 1932 included 
French conversation, current events, the 
contemporary novel, heredity, voice 
speaking choir, Browning courses, etc.; 
attendance, 120. 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Wharton Institute holds two-day 
alumni conference annually; 1932 pro- 
gram included lectures on commerce, 
political economy, etc., supplemented 
by round table discussions; attendance, 
500; book lists appear regularly in col- 
lege magazine; thousands of books lent 
annually to alumni by college library; 
weekly lectures for alumni at Univer- 
sity; personal aid service. 

POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, Brooklyn, 

N. Y. 

Series of free lectures for alumni 
held periodically; subject of series, 
I 93 2 "33> Economics Applied, including 
study of savings bank deposits, compara- 
tive figures on crop values and construc- 
tion industry, etc.; attendance, 200. 



ALUMNI EDUCATION 



PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, Princeton, 
N.J. 

Three-day series of informal talks 
to alumni by University faculty; gen- 
eral topic, June, 1933, Governmental 
Measures for the Revival of Business; 
reading lists compiled in about fifty 
different subjects sent to alumni on re- 
quest; announcement of publication of 
lists in Alumni Weekly resulted in re- 
quests from 500 alumni; books lent to 
alumni by college library; personal aid 
service. 

RADCLIFFE COLLEGE, Cambridge, 
Mass., Susanne H, Ricker, alumnae 
sec. 

One-day alumnae conference con- 
sisting of lectures and round table dis- 
cussions held once or twice a year; 
subjects of conferences have included 
astronomy, modern economics, psy- 
chology, modern music, contemporary 
and modern literature; average total at- 
tendance, 150; bibliographies prepared 
and book collections based on book lists 
available to alumnae at Radcliffe and 
Harvard libraries; bibliographies also 
published in college magazine. 

UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER, Rochester, 
N. Y., Hugh A. Smith, alumni sec. 

No alumni college necessary since 
considerable percentage of graduates are 
served by extension service of Univer- 
sity; Alumni Campus Nights held at 
regular intervals at which members of 
faculty speak on some timely subject, 
followed by general discussion. 

SMITH COLLEGE, Northampton, Mass., 
Florence Snow, alumnae sec. 

Five-day Alumnae College held June, 
1933; general subject of meeting, Great 
Britain in the Twentieth Century, in- 
cluded discussion of economic, social, 
and cultural developments, in series of 



25 

three daily lectures; lectures on music 
and art in evenings; attendance, about 
210; at least three book lists issued in 
leaflet form each year distributed free 
on request to hundreds of members of 
Alumnae Association; personal aid serv- 
ice to alumnae. 

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, 
Los Angeles, Calif., Josephine Wice, 
alumni sec. 

Has developed systematic plan to 
stimulate alumni reading interest by 
issuing monthly reading lists as supple- 
ments to alumni magazine; alumni 
given choice of receiving supplements 
in twelve different fields of thought; 
books lent by college library; lecture 
service for alumni for occasional lec- 
tures and for guided study and discus- 
sion groups; personal aid service. 

SPRINGFIELD COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSO- 
CIATION, Springfield, Mass., George 
O. Draper, alumni sec. 

Lectures open to alumni and fami- 
lies; topic, 1933, report of Hoover 
Commission on Social Trends, reading 
lists prepared for further study for those 
attending lectures. 

STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 
Hoboken, N. J. 

Yearly economic conference at Stev- 
ens Engineering Camp, Johnsonburg, 
N. J., during ten days preceding Labor 
Day; subject 1932 conference, Money 
and Banking, with morning lectures in 
nature of reviews and academic work 
and evening lectures by men prominent 
in fields of money and banking, fol- 
lowed by round table discussions; day 
enrollment, about 40, evening average, 
55; winter forum on economics with 
faculty of economics department as lec- 
turers, book lists printed in college 
magazine; personal aid service. 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY, ALUMNI ASSOCI- 
ATION, Syracuse, N. Y., J. Winifred 
Hughes, ex. sec. 

Alumnae of honorary society in 
charge of annual one and one-half day 
alumni college held in June, at which 
political and educational questions are 
discussed; attendance, 300; Medical 
Alumni Association holds two-day re- 
union at which addresses on medical 
subjects are presented and visits are 
made to clinics and hospitals of city, 
attendance, 1255 teaching alumni hold 
two-day conference in December for 
consideration of general problems; over 
400 enrolled in Alumni Reading Course, 
whereby alumni obtain reading lists, 
reading suggestions and books selected 
by Will Durant, radio station WMAC 
operated by university reaches alumni 
within radius of two hundred miles 
with lectures, concerts, etc.; printed 
lectures by faculty members sent to 
alumni club meetings. 

TUFTS COLLEGE, Medford, Mass. 

Ten two-hour medical lectures per 
year for alumni under auspices of Wil- 
liam Harvey Society; reading lists in 
alumni magazine; dental study club, 
dental clinic, dramatic society and 
scribblers (writing) clubs with alumni 
membership. 

VASSAR COLLEGE, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 
Mildred H. McAfee, alumnae sec. 

Six weeks' Summer Institute of Eu- 
thenics, not restricted to alumnae, offer- 
ing opportunity to parents, teachers, so- 
cial workers, etc., for study, discussions 
and individual conferences with experts 
in field of family education, during 
summer 1933 offered courses in child 
psychology, adolescent psychology, men- 
tal hygiene, parent education, design 
and interior decoration, leadership, food 
preparation, etc.; attendance, 64 adults, 
48 children; Cooperative Book Shop 



issues book notices on request to ap- 
proximately 50 per cent of graduates; 
considerable number of books lent to 
alumnae in immediate neighborhood 
by college library; week-end confer- 
ences occasionally at Alumnae House; 
forum on Recent Economic Trends held 
day following commencement. 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Charlottes- 
ville, Va. 

Annual two weeks' Institute of Pub- 
lic Affairs at which governmental prob- 
lems of national, state, and local con- 
cern are discussed by administrators of 
public affairs from all parts of country, 
open to alumni; round table attend- 
ance, 560; Extension Department oc- 
casionally conducts courses exclusively 
for alumni; quarterly postgraduate 
clinics at Medical School for alumni 
and others. 

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, Seattle, 
Wash., David Pollock, alumni sec. 

Annual Alumni Education Week of 
three days' duration for discussion of 
present-day economic and social prob- 
lems; attendance, 1933, I,OOO. 

WELLESLEY COLLEGE, ALUMNAE AS- 
SOCIATION, Wellesley, Mass., Kathleen 
Elliott, ex. sec. 

Annual educational conference of two 
days' duration; topic for 1933, Lei- 
sure: An Opportunity for Fulfillment 
in a Changing World; attendance, 1 00; 
book lists published in college magazine 
three or four times a year; books lent 
alumnae by college library. 

WELLS COLLEGE, Aurora, N. Y., 
Pauline Jones, alumnae sec. 

Annual three-day Alumnae College, 
immediately following commencement 
in June; program for 1933 included 
courses in sociology, aesthetics, and psy- 



ALUMNI EDUCATION 



chology, and a continuation of Modern 
Art Forums, maximum attendance, 28; 
minimum attending all courses regu- 
larly, 16; reading lists provided alum- 
nae on registration for courses; also 
printed in alumnae magazine; organized 
clubs in twenty cities include educa- 
tional features in programs. 

WESLEYAN COLLEGE, Macon, Ga. 

Annual Alumnae-College Days of 
two to four days' duration, subjects 
discussed, 1932, included modern edu- 
cational problems, science, literature, 
sociology, and religion; attendance, 200; 
book lists issued occasionally and dis- 
tributed to entire alumnae body; lecture 
service for occasional lectures. 

WESLEYAN UNIVERSITY, Middletown, 
Conn., H M. Connelly, alumni sec. 

Five-day Alumni Week after com- 
mencement 1932, discussion of current 
problems in economics, contemporary 
history, science and international rela- 
tions, attendance, 51; registration not 
sufficient to justify holding college 
1933; book lists prepared for Alumni 
Weekend; personal aid service. 

WHEATON COLLEGE, Norton, Mass. 

Two-day Alumnae Council in 1933 
for discussion of college curriculum, at- 
tendance, 60 ; also half-day Alumnae 
Institute with short lectures by profes- 
sors of various departments, attendance, 
75; college maintains Appointment 
Bureau; one of local alumnae clubs 
during winter 1932-33 had series of 
talks on contemporary dramatists of six 
countries. 

WINTHROP COLLEGE, THE SOUTH 
CAROLINA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, 
Rock Hill, So. Car. 

Alumnae Weekend of six days' dura- 
tion held annually; lectures in 1932 in- 



cluded two series one purely cultural, 
the other of practical nature; attend- 
ance, 75; professional institute held 
once a year, when senior students go 
out to schools and allow alumnae who 
are teaching in these schools to return 
to college for study and observation. 

XAVIER UNIVERSITY, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Edward P. Vender Haar, alumni sec. 

Yearly Alumni Lecture Series of ap- 
proximately eight lectures on various 
topics open to alumni and public; col- 
lege library lends books to alumni; no 
program held 1933. 

YALE UNIVERSITY, New Haven, Conn., 
Marion L. Phillips, alumni registrar 

Alumni afforded opportunity to visit 
classrooms, laboratories, and exhibitions 
in library, art gallery, and museum 
on annual Alumni University Day; Yale 
Graduate Reading Lists, compiled by 
members of faculty and printed in 
Yale Alumni Weekly, reprinted and 
distributed in pamphlet form. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN ALUMNI COUNCIL 
AMERICAN COLLEGE PERSONNEL ASSO- 
CIATION 

And the following articles: 

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE 

UNEMPLOYED, p. 238. 
UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, p. 2 5 4- 

READING LIST 

Alumni Reading Lists. Prepared with 
the aid of members of the faculties 
of the University of Michigan, by 
the Library Extension Service in co- 
operation with the Bureau of Alumni 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Relations. Ann Arbor, University of 
Michigan Press, 1931. 155 p. 

The list embraces approximately 
one hundred and fifty subjects, com- 
piled by specialists in the fields con- 
cerned. Selections are based upon the 
courses given in the university dur- 
ing the year and titles are taken from 
bibliographies prepared for use of 
university students in residence. 

American Association of University 
Women. Alumni and Adult Educa- 
tion* Its History, Development and 
Scope. Washington, D. C., 1930. 
Bulletin VII. 

Shaw, W. B. Alumni and Adult Edu- 



cation: An Introductory Survey, Un- 
dertaken by the American* Associa- 
tion for Adult Education, in coop- 
eration with the American Alumni 
Council. American Association for 
Adult Education, 1929. 117 p. 

A report of the alumni education 
programs of more than forty institu- 
tions in the United States and a dis- 
cussion of the various methods of 
alumni education now in use. 
Stone, F. F. and J. A. Charters, Alumni 
Interest in Continuing Education. 
Columbus, Ohio State University, 
1932. 40 p. 

A study of a typical alumni group. 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION 

The American Association for Adult Education owes its inception 
to a conference of persons familiar with different aspects of adult edu- 
cation called by the Carnegie Corporation of New York in 1924. At 
that time more than two million adults in the United States were 
endeavoring to continue their education, although there was no con- 
scious adult education movement. Members of the conference were 
unanimous in recognizing the importance of a joint attack, and a year 
later another conference of men and women having large responsibili- 
ties for different phases of adult education was held in Cleveland, at 
which the preliminary results of five basic studies undertaken by the 
Carnegie Corporation were presented. This conference unanimously 
approved in principle the formation of a national association designed 
to correlate the scattered and unrelated enterprises in adult education. 
It recommended, however, that the plans for the formation of such an 
association should be nation-wide and should be in the hands of men 
and women actually engaged in the teaching of adults. Accordingly, 
four regional conferences of workers in adult education (held in New 
York, San Francisco, Nashville, and Chicago) approved the plan and 
chose delegates to attend an organization meeting held in Chicago on 
March 26, 1926. At this meeting a constitution was adopted, and 
officers and board members were elected. 

Primarily the Association is intended to serve as a clearing house 
for information in the field of adult education j to assist enterprises 
already in operation 5 to help organizations and groups to initiate 
activities in adult education 5 and to aid and advise individuals who, 
although occupied with some primary vocation or interest, desire to 
continue their education. To this end, the working program of the 
Association has been concerned with gathering existing information j with 
stimulating, sponsoring, and in some cases, conducting experimentation 
and research 5 and with the dissemination of the information thus 
secured. 

From its inception, the Association has felt that valuable service 
could be rendered to adult education in America by establishing a 
library in its special field. Through both gift and purchase of books, 

29 



30 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

pamphlets, magazine articles, newspaper clippings, and other fugitive 
material, the library has been built up until now it can be conservatively 
stated that the Association possesses the most comprehensive collection 
of materials in this country dealing with the general subject of adult 
education in all its various manifestations and aspects, whether in the 
United States or abroad. A special member of the staff of the Associa- 
tion is available at all times to place the facilities of the library at the 
disposal of visitors or to answer inquiries received by mail. 

Not content with assembling existing information, the Association 
has made studies of the work being done in this country in the field 
of adult education 5 it has conducted or assisted in the conduct of studies 
of underlying problems problems of aim, of method and technique, of 
means and materials, etc.j it has assisted in demonstrations and experi- 
ments in new types of adult education 5 it has cooperated with com- 
munity efforts to organize groups for study or to establish larger 
agencies for adult education. In short, the Association has concerned 
itself not only with strengthening the old, but also with creating a new 
body of sound theory and constructive practice. 

The Association further has sought to stimulate public interest in 
adult education (without resorting to special pleading), and to dis- 
seminate information to administrators, teachers, and students through 
the annual meetings of the Association, through the arrangement of 
local or regional conferences, by establishing cooperative relations with 
both national and local adult education bodies in this and in other 
countries, by personal contact or by correspondence, and by publishing 
material of interest and use to workers in adult education or securing the 
publication by others of such material. 

The publication program of the Association has been twofold. From 
time to time studies have been issued in book form comprising surveys 
of various aspects of activity in this country (such as New Schools for 
Older Students by Nathaniel Peffer), descriptive and critical reports on 
specific enterprises (such as What is This Opportunity School? by F. H. 
Swift and J. W. Studebaker), and research studies in theory or practice 
(such as Adult Learning by E. L. Thorndike and others). A complete 
list of these publications is appended hereto. 

For the first two and one-half years of its existence, the Association 
also published occasional bulletins, adequate for presenting the bare 
facts about adult education, but wholly inhospitable as media for the 
dissemination of ideas. Consequently, the Journal of Adult Education 
was established as an open forum inviting constructive criticism of aims 
and methods of assisting adult learners to secure opportunity for 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT EDUCATION 3! 

advancement in character, culture, and vocational efficiency. Publication 
of the Journal has now become a major activity of the Association. 

The membership of the Association comprises organizations and 
institutions whose educational work for adults is not conducted for 
profit j individuals professionally engaged in adult education 5 students 
in adult education classes, study groups, or working individually 5 and 
other persons interested in adult education. Annual dues for organiza- 
tions or institutions are $55 for individuals, $3. Membership includes 
subscription to the Journal of Adult Education. 

RALPH A. BEALS, Assistant to the Director > 
American Association for Adult Education. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE ASSOCIATION 

Journal of Adult Education (Ameri- charge other than the regular mem- 
can), bership fee ($3 for individuals; $5 
Issued four times a year. Sent to for organizations and institutions), 
members of the Association without Subscription, $3; single copy, $.75. 

Studies in Adult Education 

American Library Association. Libraries Landis, B. Y., and J. D. Willard. Rural 

and Adult Education. Macmillan, Adult Education. Macmillan, 1933. 

1926. 284 p. $2.50. 229 p. $1.75. 

Bittner, W. S., and H. F. Mallory. Lorimer, Frank. The Making of Adult 

University Teaching by Mail. Mac- Minds in a Metropolitan Area. Pre- 

millan, 1933. 355 p. $2.50. pared under the direction of the 

Evans, O. D. Educational Opportunities Brooklyn Conference on Adult Edu- 

for Young Workers. Macmillan, cation. Macmillan, 1931. 245 p. $2. 

1926. 380 p. $3. NofFsinger, J. S. Correspondence 

Gray, W. S., and Ruth Munroe. The Schools, Lyceums, Chautauquas. Mac- 
Reading Interests and Habits of millan, 1926. 145 p. $1.50. 
Adults. Macmillan, 1929. 298 p. PefTer, Nathaniel. Educational Experi- 
$3.50. ments in Industry. Macmillan, 1932. 

Hall-Quest, Alfred L. The Uni- 207 p. $1.50. 

versity Afield. Macmillan, 1926. New Schools for Older Stu- 

292 p. $3. dents. Macmillan, 1926. 250 p. 

Kolbe, P. R. Urban Influences on $2.50. 

Higher Education in England and Thorndike, E. L., and others. Adult 

the United States. Macmillan, 1928. Learning. Macmillan, 1928. 335 p. 

254 p. $2. $2.25. 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Other Publications 
Issued, Sponsored, or Aided by the Association 



Campbell, Olive Dame. The Danish 
Folk School. Macmillan, 1928. 

359 P- $* 

Cartwright, Morse A., ed. Unemploy- 
ment and Adult Education: A Sym- 
posium. American Association for 
Adult Education, 1931. 63 p. $.50. 

Fisher, D. C. Why Stop Learning? 
Harcourt, 1927. 301 p. $2. 

Gray, William S., Wil Lou Gray, and 
J. W. Tilton. The Opportunity 
Schools of South Carolina. American 
Association for Adult Education, 
1932. 141 p. $.50. 

Handbook of Adult Education in the 
United States. $1.50 to members; 
$2 to non-members. 

Herring, J. W. Social Planning and 
Adult Education. Macmillan, 1933. 
138 p. $1.25. 

Hill, Helen D. Effect of the Bryn 
Mawr Summer School as Measured 
in the Activities of Its Students. Af- 
filiated Summer Schools for Women 
Workers in Industry and American 
Association for Adult Education, 
1929. 133 p. Free, 

MacCormick, A. H. The Education of 
Adult Prisoners, a Survey and a Pro- 
gram. National Society of Penal In- 
formation, 1931. 456 p. $2.50. 

Macgowan, Kenneth. Footlights Across 
America. Harcourt, 1929. 398 p. 

$3-75. 

Marsh, C. S. Adult Education in a 
Community. Prepared under the di- 
rection of the Buffalo Educational 
Council. American Association for 
Adult Education, 1926. 192 p. Paper, 
$.50; boards, $.75. 

Shaw, W. B. Alumni and Adult Edu- 
cation: An Introductory Survey, Un- 
dertaken by the Association, in co- 



operation with the American Alumni 
Council. American Association for 
Adult Education, 1929. 117 p. $.50. 

Smith, Hilda W. Women Workers at 
the Bryn Mawr Summer School, Af- 
filiated Summer Schools for Women 
Workers in Industry and American 
Association for Adult Education, 
1929. 346 p. $1.50. 

Stearns, W. F. Adult Education in 
Massachusetts: A Preliminary Survey 
of Opportunities and Needs. Pre- 
pared under the direction of the 
Massachusetts Commission on the En- 
richment of Adult Life. Boston, The 
Massachusetts Commission on the En- 
richment of Adult Life, 1932. 55 p. 
$.10. 

Stone, F. F. and Jessie A. Charters. 
Alumni Interest in Continuing Edu- 
cation. Columbus, The Ohio State 
University, 1932. 40 p. Free. 

Swift, F H. and J. W. Studebaker. 
What Is This Opportunity School? 
American Association for Adult Edu- 
cation, 1932. 87 p. $.50. 

Tyson, Levering. Education Tunes In: 
A Study of Radio Broadcasting in 
Adult Education. American Associa- 
tion for Adult Education, 1930. 119 
p. Out of print. 

Waples, Douglas, and R. W. Tyler. 
What People Want to Read About: 
A Study of Group Interests and a 
Survey of Problems in Adult Read- 
ing. Chicago, American Library As- 
sociation and the University of Chi- 
cago Press, 1931. 308 p. $3.50. 

World Association for Adult Education. 
International Handbook of Adult 
Education. London, World Associa- 
tion for Adult Education, 1929. 476 
p. $1.50. 



THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION 

The arts, by their very heterogeneity, are peculiarly adapted to the 
leisure-time activities of adults. No other field provides so many different 
forms of activity for the adult student. The bookkeeper shaping his 
piece of wood in an evening manual arts class, the club woman attending 
an art appreciation course at her local museum, the painter at work on 
a landscape requiring a high degree of skill are all probably, with equal 
pleasure and satisfaction, pursuing the arts. 

Recognizing the fact that many different types of groups can find 
a means of expression in some form of art work, a large number of 
agencies are engaged in teaching the various arts to adults: the Fed- 
eral government, through 1,396 home demonstration agents 5 the uni- 
versities, through 187 extension and 66' correspondence courses 5 art 
associations j museums 5 the public schools, men's and women's clubs, 
and settlements. Subject matter covers a wide range, from a course in 
Italian Painting of the Siennese and Umbrian Schools of the Four- 
teenth and Fifteenth Centuries to a practical demonstration of how to 
refinish furniture. Such a diffusion of interest suggests the breadth of 
the field and the extent to which the arts have permeated our social 
structure. 

The number of opportunities for education in the arts open to adults 
living in large cities is well illustrated by the offerings in Boston listed 
by the Prospect Union Educational Exchange in the booklet, Educa- 
tional Opportunities for Working Men and Women. There are 180 
late afternoon, Saturday, and night courses in the arts, of which 33 are 
theoretical and 147 practical. The average cost per session (about two 
hours for each course) is 22 cents in the public institutions, and 88 cents 
in the private schools. A few courses are free or are open at a nominal 
fee. 

The fact that the arts are specialized and subdivided has made 
possible a variety of approaches. Lectures, demonstrations, and practice 
are the methods most used for teaching adults. University extension 
courses base their work on both theory and practice j the public school 
courses are almost without exception limited to practice 5 the lecture 
method is preferred by art associations. 

33 



34 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

Although the objective of much of the art work conducted for 
adults is avocational, many agencies stress the vocational aspects of the 
field in the work they offer. The vocational aim rules in courses spon- 
sored by boards of education in the larger centers of population, where 
courses in applied and commercial art dominate. Similarly, private corre- 
spondence school courses are vocational almost without exception. 
Forty-three replies from questionnaires sent to university extension 
divisions suggest that the extension divisions aim at the same avocational 
objectives as those established for resident students. Not enough in- 
formation is at hand to determine the extent to which this is true, 
although a vocational intent does not seem to be an important factor. 
In general, the universities present the arts as a means of making life 
worth while 5 the public schools and private correspondence schools 
help adolescents and adults to make a living through art. Private insti- 
tutions, like The New School for Social Research, the Y. M. C. A., and 
the Chautauqua Institution to select a few outstanding examples show 
unanimity in favor of practice as against theory, but with notable differ- 
ences. Art instruction in the Y. M. C. A. is almost wholly vocational j 
that offered by the New School for Social Research is cultural, and that 
offered by the Chautauqua Institution, professional in the sense that it 
trains for teaching. 

Teaching methods for adults with an avocational interest in the arts 
are still largely an extension of professional art school methods, 
although it does not necessarily follow that the exhibition-sketch-class- 
lecture procedure planned for commercial artists, painters, architects or 
art teachers is suitable for use with housewives, business men, carpen- 
ters, or bookkeepers. In the future more attention will have to be given 
to the devising of new methods of instruction for those not profession- 
ally engaged in art and more thought will have to be given to the real 
problem of guiding adults in the use of beauty as a vital force in their 
own lives. 

Art associations are of growing importance in the adult education 
movement. They are local organizations whose membership includes 
professionals, semi-professionals and amateurs, who draw and paint in 
the studio, sketch out-of-doors, hold exhibitions and lectures, stage 
demonstrations, or listen to lectures, with little guidance and without 
any definite program. According to a recent survey, associations that 
sponsor exhibitions and lectures, but that do not offer opportunities for 
practice, outnumber in membership those which provide sketch classes 
by about seven to one. Since the benefits derived from membership in 
such an organization are commensurate with the amount of effort spent, 



THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION 35 

it is unfortunate that a larger proportion of members do not actively 
participate in some form of art work. To teagh by doing is a principle 
that might well be applied in towns of over 2,500 population, where 
most of the associations are found. 

In many instances associations own galleries where the works of 
members and other artists are exhibited. An art association which spon- 
sors an exhibition of works other than those of its own members, does 
so, no doubt, partly in the belief that art exhibitions are educational, 
and that they raise the standards of public taste. Such beneficial effects 
are taken for granted 5 proofs are deemed unnecessary. If taste be de- 
fined as an active force tending to effect visible changes in a person's 
environment and in the kind of life he lives, one may harbor some 
doubts as to the amount of "raising of public taste" which can be 
directly traced to the steady increase in attendance at exhibitions, re- 
ported by the American Federation of Arts and other organizations. 

In addition to the organized art associations there are hundreds of 
small groups of persons in all parts of the country meeting informally 
to participate in some form of art expression. An interesting develop- 
ment along this line is the business men's art clubs, which now exist 
in a half dozen cities for the purpose of affording the business man an 
opportunity to pursue an avocational interest in art* Unfortunately, this 
movement has not spread to other professions, although New York City 
has a group of physicians who devote themselves to the practice of art, 
and occasionally one hears of other groups meeting regularly. 

There are numerous impediments in the way of a wider acceptance 
of the arts on the part of the average individual as a means of escape 
from boredom or as an emotional release, the chief of these being the 
general tendency on the part of the layman who has not actively partici- 
pated in any form of art work to underestimate his creative capacities. 
Likewise, sweeping statements such as "artists are born and not made" 
do not encourage the growth of art interests. Also, unfortunately, the 
worth of artistic endeavor is judged only by visible results, and then 
according to narrow standards of technical achievements, set up by our 
illustrators and commercial artists. The amount of satisfactory gain by 
the individual amateur artists is forgotten. No sooner has a landscape 
been painted than it becomes an object for display and, in theory, at 
least, the exhibition is public and hence calls for attention and criticism. 
The remedy is to so multiply exhibitions that each one will have an 
appeal to its own local neighborhood. Under such an arrangement each 
exhibitor would be assured of an audience with a more than casual 



36 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

interest in his work and the timid would be emboldened to become 
creators in their own right. 

ERWIN O. CHRISTENSEN, 
Department of Adult Work, 
American Federation o Arts. 

The following are some of the art projects being conducted for adults 
under the auspices of private and public institutions. The items are arranged 
alphabetically by state and city. 



ART LEAGUE OP WASHINGTON OF THE 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 2111 Ban- 
croft Place, N.W., Washington, D.C., 
Charles Val Clear. 

Entire program of school work based 
on part-time intensive study for adults; 
groups of business and professional peo- 
ple attend classes, morning, evening, 
Saturday, and Sunday 3 galleries under 
direction of League sponsor educational 
exhibits, lectures, informal discussions 
for members and visitors; special lecture 
series by noted artists and educators; ex- 
tension exhibitions held in clubs and 
libraries locally; sponsors competitions 
of art in colleges of United States; two 
traveling exhibitions of paintings of 
Washington artists sent to galleries and 
museums throughout the country; mem- 
bership, 75. 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRI- 
CULTURE EXTENSION SERVICE, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Art as element of rural home mak- 
ing enters into program of 1,396 home 
demonstration agents and other exten- 
sion workers; work deals with design 
and color in clothing, house furnishing, 
home arts and crafts, appreciation of 
good music and pictures; at least 
150,000 rural women and girls made 
improvements in homes following sug- 
gestions of agents in 1930 (latest data 
available); for further information 
about program of Department see p. 
344- 



BUSINESS MEN'S ART CLUB, 65 E. 

Adams St., Chicago, 111. 

Individual and class instruction in 
drawing and painting; exhibits; studio 
open daily 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

BUSINESS MEN'S ART CLUB, Boston, 
Mass., D. D. Addison, fres. 

Bi-monthly lectures and criticisms, 
annual exhibition; membership, 65. 

FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH ART 
CLUB, Rock St., Fall River, Mass., 
Mrs. George R. Dodge. 

Lectures given under auspices of 
club; yearly exhibition; membership, 
60. 

THE HOBBY SCHOOL, 2306 Washington 
St., Newton Lower Falls, Mass., Kay 
Peterson, sec, 

Organized for adults who wish to 
pursue a creative hobby or develop active 
useful appreciation of art; instruction 
and guidance in the development of an 
avocation; activities include drawing, 
painting, block printing, weaving, etc. 

PEOPLE'S INSTITUTE, United Neighbor- 
hood Guild, Inc., 176 Nassau St., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Seymour Barnard, 
dtr+ 

Study groups in history of art, weav- 
ing, clay modeling, metal work, block 
printing, and leatherwork; groups form 



THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION 



37 



nucleus for institutes consisting of lec- 
tures and instruction on such subjects as 
household arts; for further information 
about program of Institute see p. 218. 

THE ARTS GUILD, 309 E. 3^th St., 
New York, N. Y., Mrs. A. T. Dear, 
deem. 

Part-time and evening classes for 
stud7 of literature, painting, sculpture, 
dancing, dramatics, and music, with 
courses in history and philosophy of the 
arts, in crafts for men and women, and 
in home mechanics for men; graduate 
group of full-time students for cultural 
and Tocational study in all the arts, 
history and philosophy of the arts, and 
training in use of arts as instruments of 
education; enrollment, 150. 

THE ART WORKSHOP, 306 E. 35th St., 
New York, N. Y., Mabel Leslie, dir. 

Founded for promotion of creative 
leisure-time education for women in in- 
dustry; enrollment, 125; classes in 
painting, drawing, clay modeling, block 
printing, theater, writing, and music 
held October to May; nominal tuition 
fee; Saturday programs from time to 
time. 

Mt. Ivy Holiday School, under same 
director, at Pomona, Rockland County, 
New York, offers drawing, clay model- 
ing, and metal work during July and 
August; enrollment, 1933, 90. 

COOPER UNION SCHOOLS, Night School 
of Art, Woman's Art School, 8th St. 
and 4th Ave., New York, N. Y., 
Austin Purves, Jr., dir. 

Night School offers courses in illus- 
tration, decorative design, design for 
advertising, costume design and illus- 
tration and sculpture; classes in free- 
hand drawing and modeling open to 
men only; other classes open to both 



men and women; tuition free; eight 
months' session; enrollment, 1,200; 
Woman's Art School offers courses in 
elementary, antique, life, illustration, oil 
and water color painting, design, model- 
ing, interior decoration, commercial art 
and poster work; facilities for work in 
Museum of Decorative Arts; tuition 
free; eight months' session; enrollment, 
325; for further information about pro- 
gram of School, see p. 219. 

EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE ART SCHOOL, 
197 E. Broadway, New York, N. Y., 
Abbo Ostrowsky, dir. 

Courses in drawing, painting, model- 
ing, etching, lithography, batik, wood 
carving; day and evening classes; nomi- 
nal tuition fee; enrollment, 170; for 
further information about program of 
Educational Alliance, see p. 219. 

GREENWICH HOUSE, 27 Barrow St. 
and 1 6 Jones St., New York, N. Y., 
Victor Salvatore, dir. Workshop, 
Maude Robinson 3 dir. Pottery. 

Workshop gives free apprenticeship 
training for boys in cabinet making, 
wood carving, stone cutting, modeling, 
bronze chasing, and casting of all kinds; 
courses in drawing from cast and life, 
furniture design, lettering; open all 
year; enrollment, 71; Pottery School 
offers courses in building and throwing, 
glazing and firing; evening classes for 
adults; enrollment, 100; for further 
information about program of House, 
see p. 210. 

HENRY STREET SETTLEMENT, 265 
Henry St., New York, N. Y., Helen 
Stevens, dir. y Arts and Crafts y Ruth 
Canfield, dir., Pottery. 

Instruction in textile design, batik, 
block printing, embroidery, metalworfc, 
etched and hammered copper an<J silver, 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



wood carving, toy making, leather tool- 
ing; evening classes for adults; nominal 
tuition fee, Pottery gives instruction m 
building, throwing and casting, deco- 
rating, glazing and firing, evening 
classes for adults, with daily individual 
instructions use of studio without in- 
struction allowed for nominal fee; en- 
rollment, arts and crafts, 50; pottery, 
120; for further information about pro- 
gram of Settlement, see p. 210. 

MECHANICS' INSTITUTE, 20 W. 44th 
St., New York, N. Y., Louis Rouil- 
lion, dir. 

Courses in architectural and art sub- 
jects, including freehand drawing, de- 
signing, pen and ink drawing, jewelry, 
printing, layout, sketching, free evening 
school only for men employed during 
the day; three years required for com- 
pletion of course; enrollment, 525; for 
further information about program of 
Institute, see p. 285. 

NEW SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, 
Design Workshop, 66 W. I2th St., 
New York, N. Y., Alvin Johnson, 
dir. 

Any adult may work creatively in any 
medium in workshop 5 offers courses in 
fine and applied arts and architecture, 
lecture courses, evening classes; enroll- 
ment, 70; for further details about pro- 
gram of School, see p. 220. 

NEW YORK EVENING SCHOOL OP INDUS- 
TRIAL ART, 210 E. 42nd St., New 
York, N. Y., George K. Gombarts, 



Courses in book illustration, costume 
design, interior decorating, textile de- 
sign, poster design, mural decoration, 
plastic design, jewelry design, cast and 
figure drawing, and craft work 3 tuition 
free; open two hours four nights a week, 
September to May; staff includes prin- 



cipal, seventeen instructors, and general 
assistant; enrollment, 825. 

PHYSICIANS' ART CLUB, New York, 
N. Y., Louis C. Schroeder, sec. 50 E. 
J2nd St. 

Annual exhibition; membership, 150, 

JOHN REED CLUB, Art Committee, 63 
W. 1 5th St., New York, N. Y., 
Louis Lozowick, chmn. 

Operates in field of workers' educa- 
tion; organization of artists and writers 
with affiliated clubs, functioning under 
same rules in eighteen cities of the 
United States; holds regular exhibitions; 
publishes art portfolios, evening classes 
for members; membership (New York 
City), 200. 

TEXTILE HIGH SCHOOL, 351 W. i8th 
St., New York, N. Y., Florence 
Guilfoy, dir. 

Instruction in applied textile design, 
advertising art, architectural drawing, 
costume draping, design and illustration, 
interior decoration, photography; free 
evening classes; term of ten months; 
754 evening school students majoring in 
art enrolled. 

WESTCHESTER WORKSHOP, Westchester 
County Center, White Plains, N. Y., 
Chester Geppert Marsh, dir. 

Courses in painting, creative art, art 
appreciation, sculpture, design, pottery, 
jewelry, etching, wood carving; some 
classes given by New York University; 
summer course in construction and 
manipulation of marionettes, puppets, 
shadow figures, construction of marion- 
ette stage, including scenery and light- 
ing; writing and rehearsing of plays; 
enrollment, evening school students, 
125; for further information about 
program of Center, see p. 192. 



THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION 



39 



JOHN C. CAMPBELL FOLK SCHOOL, 
Brasstown, N. C., Mrs. John C 
Campbell, lir. 

Informal and elementary instruction 
for girls of school in household arts, 
design, weaving, appreciation of Indian 
culture, including Mexican and Mayan, 
course in wood working and wood carv- 
ing offered to boys ; Craft Guild, organ- 
ized by school, open to any man of 
community interested in various forms 
of handicrafts, upon payment of fifty 
cents per year; Guild members offered 
short talks on well-known paintings and 
on handicrafts; enrollment, 22; for 
further information about program of 
School see p. 221. 

JOHN HUNTINGTON POLYTECHNIC IN- 
STITUTE, 2341 Carnegie Ave., Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Alfred Mewett, 



Courses in architectural design, archi- 
tectural rendering, interior design and 
decoration, lettering, advanced printing 
technique, illustration, landscape archi- 
tecture, commercial life drawing, maga- 
zine layout, fine printing, advertising, 
etching, lithography; evening classes; 
tuition free; term of eight and one-half 
months; enrollment, 1,400. 

CHURCH OF THE COVENANT SCHOOL, 
Erie, Pa. 

Courses in charcoal sketching, history 
of art, clay modeling for nominal fee 
of $3; primarily organized to assist 
young people unable to find employ- 
ment, but also admits teachers and others 
seeking mental stimulation; term of 
eight months; enrollment, from 60 to 
80 students. 

GRAPHIC SKETCH CLUB, 719 Catharine 
St., Philadelphia, Pa., Samuel S. 
Fleisher, far. 

Classes in painting, sculpture, illus- 
tration, fashion designing, etching, 



sketching, rhythmic expression in dance, 
clay modeling; open free of charge to 
everyone, regardless of age, sex, creed, 
or color, permanent and annual exhibi- 
tions; evening, Saturday, and Sunday 
classes; open all year, enrollment, 2,000. 

LA FRANCE ART INSTITUTE, 4420 Paul 
St., No. Philadelphia, Pa., Abraham 
Molind, pritt. 

Offers without charge courses in cast- 
ing, design, commercial art, illustration, 
costume portrait, sketching, and life; 
evening and Saturday morning classes; 
term of eight months; evening enroll- 
ment, 165. 

THE PHILADELPHIA ART ALLIANCE, 
251 So. 1 8th St., Philadelphia, Pa., 
Clara R. Mason, ex. sec. 

Furthers the arts of music, drama, 
painting, sculpture, interpretative danc- 
ing, interior decoration, literature, 
crafts, and other arts, by exhibitions, 
free to public, lectures, musicales, and 
the sponsoring of fine plays; through 
its Circulating Picture Club, Alliance 
lends pictures (with cooperation of art- 
ists) in same manner as books are lent 
from a library; membership, 2,100. 

IRENE KAUFMANN SETTLEMENT ART 
SCHOOL, 1835 Center Ave., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Sidney A. Teller, ex. far* 

Classes in drawing, painting, model- 
ing for nominal tuition fee; evening 
classes; term of eight months; enroll- 
ment, 88; for further information 
about program of Settlement, see p. 214. 

AQUIDNECK COTTAGE INDUSTRIES, 40 
School St., Newport, R. I., Susan P. 
Swinburne, suft. 

Lessons in all branches of needle- 
work. 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



JAMES LEE MEMORIAL ACADEMY OF 
ARTS, 690 Adams Ave., Memphis, 
Tenn., Florence M. Mclntyre, Mr. 

Classes in fine and applied arts, jew- 
elry, pottery, and modeling; supported 
by Memphis Art Association and City 
of Memphis; tuition free; term of eight 
months; enrollment, 235. 



FOREST COMMUNITY FOUNDATION, 

Shenandoah Community Workers, 
Bird Haven, Va. 

Community enterprise conducted by 
and in the interest of a group of native 
workmen, specializing in wrought iron 
and wood work; designed to help native 
handcrafts survive. 



Among the colleges and universities offering home study and extension 
courses are the following. The items are arranged alphabetically by name of 
institution. 



UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA, Art Depart- 
ment, Division of University Exten- 
sion, Tucson, Ariz. 

Home study courses in costume de- 
sign, clothing selection, and home fur- 
nishings; for further information about 
program of Division, see University 
Extension. 

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS, Art Depart- 
ment, General Extension Service, 
Fayetteville, Ark., Elizabeth Gal- 
braith, art Mr. 

Home study courses in elementary 
and high school art, history and appre- 
ciation of art; group study courses in 
art and art appreciation offered to 
women's clubs and other groups; for 
further information about program of 
Extension Service, see University Ex- 
tension. 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Art De- 
partment, University Extension Divi- 
sion, Berkeley, Calif., Leon J. Rich- 
ardson, Mr. 

Classes in history and appreciation of 
art, interior decoration, design, pottery, 
commercial art, painting, block printing, 
etching, art education, anatomy, color, 
metal work, cartooning, leather, and 



stagecraft; home study courses in his- 
tory and appreciation of art, freehand 
drawing, interior decoration, and es- 
thetics; for further information about 
program of Division, see University 
Extension. 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, Art Depart- 
ment, Home Study Department, Chi- 
cago, 111., John Shapley, chmn. deft. 

Extension courses in history and ap- 
preciation of art, interior decoration, 
painting; home study courses in history 
and appreciation of art, freehand draw- 
ing, costume design, elementary and 
high school art, design, and architecture; 
for further information about program 
of Department, see University Exten- 
sion. 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, Art Depart- 
ment, University Extension, New 
York, N. Y., Arthur Young, in 
charge, art courses. 

Home study courses in history and 
appreciation of art; history of Italian 
painting; enrollment, 1930-33, 295; 
extension classes in art appreciation, art 
structure and design, clay modeling, 
drawing and painting; for further in- 
formation about Extension program, sec 
University Extension. 



THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, Art Depart- 
ment, General Extension Division, 
Gainesville, Fla., Jean O. Mitchell, 
in charge, art courses. 

Home study courses in theory of color 
and design, home decoration, pencil 
drawing and perspective, and public 
school art; for further information 
about program of Division, see Univer- 
sity Extension. 

INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Art Department, 
Extension Division, Bloomington, 
Ind., Harry Engel, art dir. 

Extension courses in commercial art, 
architecture, freehand drawing, interior 
decoration, painting; home study courses 
in history and appreciation of art, paint- 
ing, and commercial art; for further 
information about program of Division, 
see University Extension. 

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, Art Depart- 
ment, University Extension Division, 
Lawrence, Kan., Helen E. WagstafI, 
sec., bureau of general information. 

Bureau of Visual Instruction distrib- 
utes slides and films for use of art 
classes; Bureau of Correspondence Study 
offers course in sketching and lettering, 
Bureau of General Information offers, 
through Extension Library Service, art 
prints, package libraries, study outlines 
and reading courses on art subjects; for 
further information about program of 
Division, see University Extension. 

MASSACHUSETTS DEPARTMENT OF EDU- 
CATION, Art Department, Division of 
University Extension, Boston, Mass. 

Extension courses in history and ap- 
preciation of art, interior decoration, 
freehand drawing, commercial art, 
fashion drawing, painting and sketching 
for recreation, etching, art in industry; 
home study courses in history and ap- 



preciation of art, freehand drawing, 
lettering, commercial art, show-card 
writing, and interior decoration; for 
further information about program of 
Division, see University Extension. 

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, Art De- 
partment, General Extension Divi- 
sion, Minneapolis, Minn., Ruth Ray- 
mond, art dir* 

Extension courses in history and ap- 
preciation of art, interior decoration, 
freehand drawing, design, architecture, 
art education, and commercial drawing; 
for further information about program 
of Division, see University Extension. 

UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, Art Depart- 
ment, Division of University Exten- 
sion, Lincoln, Nebr., A. A. Reed, dir. 

Home study courses in freehand 
drawing, design and interior decoration, 
history and appreciation of art; for fur- 
ther information about program of Divi- 
sion, see University Extension. 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, Art Depart- 
ment, University Extension Division, 
Washington Square East, New York, 
N. Y Bernard Myers, lecturer on 
art. 

Extension courses in the history and 
appreciation of art; for further infor- 
mation about program of Division, see 
University Extension. 

OREGON SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCA- 
TION, Art Department, General Ex- 
tension Division, University of Ore- 
gon, Eugene, Ore. 

Extension courses in history and ap- 
preciation of art, freehand drawing, de- 
sign, and commercial art; for further 
information about program of System, 
see University Extension. 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE, Art De- 
partment, Division of University Ex- 
tension, State College, Pa., Frank H. 
Koos, asst. far. 

Home study courses in history and 
appreciation of art,* freehand drawing, 
applied design, history of architecture, 
mechanical drawing, and advanced engi- 
neering drawing} for further informa- 
tion about program of Division, see 
University Extension. 



UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH DAKOTA, Art 
Department, Division of University 
Extension, Vermillion, S. D., L. C. 
Mitchell, art far. 

Home study courses in history and 
appreciation of art; for further infor- 
mation about program of Division, see 
University Extension. 



UNIVERSITY OF UTAH, Art Department, 
Division of University Extension, 
Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Elementary art course and course in 
methods of teaching art through home 
study division; courses in pottery, in- 
terior decorating, home building and 
furnishing through extension division 
in downtown section of city; for fur- 
ther information about program of Ex- 
tension, see University Extension. 



UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Art Depart- 
ment, Division of University Exten- 
sion, Charlottesville, Va. 

Extension courses in history and ap- 
preciation of art and archaeology 5 con- 
ducts, in cooperation with American 
Federation of Arts, art exhibits in se- 
lected rural communities 5 for further 
information about Division, see Uni- 
versity Extension. 



UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, Art De- 
partment, Extension Service, Seattle, 
Wash., Walter Isaacs, art far. 

Extension courses in freehand draw- 
ing, history and appreciation of art, 
jewelry, furniture design, pottery, metal 
work, and costume design, home study 
courses in history and appreciation of 
art, costume design, and lettering; for 
further information about program of 
Service, see University Extension. 

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, Art Depart- 
ment, University Extension Division, 
Madison, Wise., A. H. Smith, re- 
corder, 

Home study courses in lettering and 
show-card writing; for further infor- 
mation about program of Division, see 
University Extension. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF ARTS 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS 

COLLEGE ART ASSOCIATION 

FEDERATED COUNCIL ON ART EDUCA- 
TION 

GENERAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S 
CLUBS 

INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 

JEWISH WELFARE BOARD 

NATIONAL ALLIANCE OF ART AND IN- 
DUSTRY, INC. 

NATIONAL COMMISSION ON THE EN- 
RICHMENT OF ADULT LIFE 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIA- 
TION 

Also the following articles: 

MUSEUMS IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 

105. 
ADULT EDUCATION UNDER PUBLIC 

SCHOOL AUSPICES, p. 158. 
ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS, 

p. 203. 
UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, p. 254. 



THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION 



43 



READING LIST 

Duffus, R. L. The American Renais- 
sance. Knopf, 1928. 

"The Undergraduate Looks at 
Art" is the title of the first part of 
the book; part two deals with the 
practical schools for technical train- 
ing in the arts; part three deals with 
the non-academic and informal or- 
ganizations for art instruction; part 



four is entitled "Dusting Off the 
Museums"; part five discusses "The 
Arts Dramatic." 

Keppel, F. P. and R. L. Duffus. The 
Arts in American Life. McGraw- 
Hill, 1933- 

Published separately and included 
as Chapter XIX, Recent Social Trends 
in the United, States, prepared under 
the direction of the President's Re- 
search Committee on Social Trends. 



COMMUNITY AND STATE ORGANIZATIONS OF 
ADULT EDUCATION AGENCIES 

The initial attempt in the United States to organize the educational 
facilities of an entire community with reference to the adult and his 
needs was made in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1924, when the Adult Education 
Association of Cleveland was formed. Shortly after that date agencies in 
Buffalo, Chicago, Detroit, St. Louis, and a number of other cities fol- 
lowed Cleveland's example and organized similar associations. Regional 
and state organizations were also formed. Some of these organizations 
are known as adult education councils, some as adult education com- 
mittees or boards, others as conferences, but whatever the term used the 
purpose of all groups is the same to provide an opportunity for an 
interchange of ideas on the part of representatives of non-profit-making 
agencies engaged in work with adults toward the end that unnecessary 
duplication of effort may be avoided, that efforts may be coordinated, 
and that the quality of the work offered may be improved. 

The programs of the state and regional organizations vary consider- 
ably. In some instances activities are limited to annual conferences, 
usually of one day's duration 5 in others, notably the California Asso- 
ciation for Adult Education, the program includes maintaining an 
information service about adult education activities throughout the 
state, conducting experiments in adult education, organizing classes, 
and holding a summer school in cooperation with the State Department 
of Education and other state agencies. 

The program of community organizations usually includes the 
making of a survey of the facilities for adult education in the region 
and studying the needs of the people, establishing a clearing house for 
information on opportunities for adult education offered by the various 
educational agencies in the community, and obtaining publicity for 
adult education projects. The public library, with the assistance of other 
members of the organization, usually collects detailed information about 
local educational and recreational opportunities open to adults and 
serves as a center for such information for member agencies and the 
public as well. 

While membership in community organizations is frequently open 

44 



ORGANIZATIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION AGENCIES 45 

to anyone in the community with an interest in adult education, it is 
largely composed of representatives of such organizations as libraries, 
public schools, Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tions, parent-teacher associations, settlements, museums, etc. Sometimes 
the churches are represented, sometimes not. 

Methods of financing adult education organizations vary. Since a 
full-time secretary is not usually employed, expenses incurred are small. 
Accordingly, many associations have no membership fee, and one or 
more of the member agencies, the public library, for example, absorbs 
necessary expenditures for such items as postage and stationery. A few 
organizations have received grants from foundations for special projects 
and a few receive regular support from local institutions. When a mem- 
bership fee is charged it rarely exceeds $3 for individuals 5 in a few 
instances there is a larger fee for institutions and organizations. The 
work of the organization, when there is no paid secretary, is carried on 
by officers, usually a chairman and secretary, and by various com- 
mittees. 

Meetings of local organizations are held during the fall and winter, 
at regular intervals. The meetings are informal in character. Members 
announce special projects being conducted by their agencies 5 chairmen 
of committees report as necessary sometimes addresses are made by 
visiting authorities. Time is usually allowed for informal discussion of 
one or more aspects of the council's program. 

D. R. 

So rapid has been the growth in the number of these organizations dur- 
ing the past year that it is probable that some of the more recently formed 
agencies are not included in the following list. Every effort has been made, 
however, to publish as complete a list as possible. This list is arranged 
alphabetically by state and city. 

CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT churches, and community organizations 5 

EDUCATION, 308 California State during early years of Association di- 

Bldg., Los Angeles, Calif., Lyman rectors and members of staff conducted 

Bryson, ex. Jir., Lucy Wilcox Adams, and helped establish discussion groups 

assoc. dir. throughout state and held forums and 

series of summer schools for adults who 

Founded in 1927 to study and evalu- wished to study art, philosophy, eco- 

ate all types of adult education activity, nomics, etc., without university credit, 

scholastic, and non-scholastic, and to and conducted schools for training of 

conduct experiments which may be of teachers in methods and principles of 

value to existing groups; cooperates adult education in cooperation with 

closely with State Department of Edu- State Department of Education and 

cation, state universities, evening schools University of California; clearing house 

and voluntary groups, such as clubs, for information about adult education 



4 6 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



activities throughout state; in 1933 
made survey of public adult education 
in state; in same year cooperated with 
other institutions of state in conducting 
Summer School for Industrial Workers 
see p. 303. 

ADULT EDUCATION COUNCIL OF DEN- 
VER, 414 1 4th St., Denver, Colo., 
John W. Amesse, fres. f Guy Fox, 
chmn. 9 board of dir. 

Founded in 1933; program not yet 
formulated; purpose is to gather to- 
gether representative group of citizens 
to express and interpret needs and in- 
terests of people in Denver in respect 
to adult education j to further idea of 
education as a process continuing 
throughout life; to serve as a clearing 
house for information in field of adult 
education in Denver; to assist enter- 
prises already in operation; to help 
organizations and groups to initiate de- 
sirable adult educational activities; to 
collect and disseminate information re- 
lating to adult education; and to aid 
and advise individuals who desire to 
continue learning by themselves. 

ADULT EDUCATION COUNCIL OF CHI- 
CAGO, 224 So, Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago, 111., Fred Atkins Moore, ex. 
Mr. 

Central agency and cooperative serv- 
ice bureau for educational organizations 
and institutions; permanent secretary on 
salary; maintains list of educational 
organizations offering courses and serv- 
ices; speakers* bureau; three weekly radio 
programs; functional committees on 
civic education, economic education, 
volunteers; developing joint program of 
civic and economic education and enlist- 
ing and training volunteer leaders; an- 
nual all-day conference and luncheon 
conferences for discussion of various 
types of adult education; directors' 



meeting held monthly, supported by 
membership fees, $10 to $100 for or- 
ganizations, $2.50 or more for indi- 
viduals, and by speakers' bureau com- 
missions on fees; issues Educational 
Events in Chicago, monthly September 
to March 



INDIANAPOLIS ADULT EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION, Indianapolis, Ind., L. L. 
Dickerson, dir. 

Clearing house for information about 
work done by various member agencies; 
holds meetings of representatives of 
organizations for purpose of learning 
about policies and programs of all agen- 
cies, eliminating all avoidable duplica- 
tion, and making plans for filling nota- 
ble existing needs; undertakes to bring 
to public attention conspicuous worthy 
cultural opportunities relatively 
known. 



un- 



LOUISIANA ADVISORY BOARD ON ADULT 
EDUCATION, University Station, Baton 
Rouge, La., Glenn H. Holloway, 
sec. 

Organized to plan and coordinate of- 
ferings in adult education of various 
educational agencies within the state; 
individual institutions experimenting 
separately to determine which projects 
can be extended over state by each in- 
stitution acting in its own particular 
field; see also Agricultural Extension 
Service, College of Agriculture, Uni- 
versity of Louisiana, p. 7, 



ADULT EDUCATION COUNCIL OF 
GREATER BOSTON, Boston, Mass., 
William F. Stearns, sec^ Kirjkley 
Mather, chmn. of organizing com- 
mittee. 

Council in process of formation. 



ORGANIZATIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION AGENCIES 47 



SPRINGFIELD LEISURE TIME COUNCIL, 
School Department, City Hall, 
Springfield, Mass., Josephine D. Ma- 
son, sec* 

Purpose of Council is to stimulate, 
foster and coordinate activities which 
contribute to the enrichment of adult 
life; program in process of formation; 
membership, 50, see also Springfield 
Public Schools, p. 170. 

DETROIT INSTITUTE OF ADULT EDUCA- 
TION, 1397 E. Jefferson Ave , De- 
troit, Mich., Margaret S. Sanger, Mr. 

Program temporarily suspended. 

COMMITTEE TO PROMOTE ADULT EDU- 
CATION, Flint, Mich., 913 Flint P. 
Smith Bldg. M. C. Hurd, chmn. 

Survey of adult education opportuni- 
ties in city made by Committee showed 
need for more classes, as result General 
Motors Institute opened classes to pub- 
lic and offered some courses in business 
practice to fit needs of local retail busi- 
ness institutions; during past year ar- 
ranged series of meetings devoted to 
discussion of all types of adult education 
being carried on in city, led by persons 
prominent in each field; membership, 
14 institutions. 

MINNEAPOLIS COUNCIL FOR ADULT ED- 
UCATION, 4.02 Administration Bldg., 
University of Minnesota, Minneapo- 
lis, Minn., A. H. Speer, sec. 

Organized 1929, serves as consulting 
organization composed of representa- 
tives of all agencies in city whose work 
is in any way related to adult education 
in any of its forms; membership re- 
stricted to representatives of non-profit- 
making organizations; surveyed adult 
education opportunities in city; three 
discussion meetings, four executive 
board meetings held annually; occa- 
sional forum meetings. 



RADBURN ASSOCIATION, Fair Lawn, 
N. J., Robert B. Hudson, asst. to mgr. 

Organized 1929; serves 500 families; 
citizens' committee on adult education 
guided by interest-finding questionnaires 
determines program; popular discussion 
courses offered under competent leader- 
ship at nominal fee; little theater group 
presents several plays each season; Rad- 
burn Friends of Music discuss music ap- 
preciation and encourage musical per- 
formances 

ALBANY CITY AND COUNTY ADULT ED- 
UCATION COUNCIL, Albany Public Li- 
brary, Albany, N. Y., J. T. Loree, 
chmn.) Winifred A. Sutherland, sec. 

Organized 1932; coordinates and cor- 
relates work of various organizations in 
city and county engaged in adult edu- 
cation activities for purpose of avoiding 
needless duplication of effort; fosters 
increased interest in educational pro- 
grams in community; eventually hopes 
to encourage new enterprises in field of 
adult education in community; monthly 
meetings held; membership, over 50 or- 
ganizations. 

BROOKLYN CONFERENCE ON ADULT ED- 
UCATION, Seth Low Junior College, 
375 Pearl St., Brooklyn, N. Y., Ed- 
ward J. Allen, p-es.y Seymour Bar- 
nard, sec. 

Coordinates adult education activities 
in Brooklyn; preparing directory of 
adult education agencies in city; com- 
mittee working on plan to facilitate 
greater use of teacher service from New 
York State Department of Education 
financed by state relief funds; five to 
eight luncheon meetings held annually 
for informal discussion, and occasional 
formal meetings with guest speakers; 
annual membership fee $2; made com- 
munity survey and published The Mak- 
ing of Adult Minds in a Metropolitan 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Area by Frank Lorimer, issued by means 
of grant from Carnegie Corporation of 
New York upon recommendation of 
American Association for Adult Educa- 
tion. 

BUFFALO EDUCATIONAL COUNCIL, Gros- 
venor Library, Buffalo, N. Y., A. H. 
Shearer, sec. 

Organized in 1925 to unite efforts of 
educational agencies in Buffalo, mem- 
bership restricted to representatives 
of non-profit-making organizations en- 
gaged in adult education; made survey 
of educational facilities of Buffalo in 
1926, published under title, Adult Ed- 
ucation in a Community; Buffalo Pub- 
lic Library, a member of Council, main- 
tains list of adult education opportuni- 
ties in city; occasional evening meetings, 
attendance 30-60, addressed by mem- 
bers of Council and occasional visiting 
speakers; membership, 31 organizations; 
annual fee, $5. 

HARLEM ADULT EDUCATION COMMIT- 
TEE, see p. 127. 

NEW YORK ADULT EDUCATION COUN- 
CIL, 366 Madison Ave., New York, 
N. Y., Winifred Fisher, ex. sec. 

Composed of both lay and profes- 
sional persons, works for more effective 
cooperation in securing an adequate 
program for adult education in Metro- 
politan area; acts as avenue for counsel- 
ing among agencies, for consideration of 
common problems, for encouragement of 
public interest and participation in adult 
education, and for planning on a com- 
munity-wide basis; provides following 
central services: file of adult education 
activities in the area; free information 
service for individuals on adult educa- 
tion opportunities; consultations for co- 
operating agencies; looseleaf Notebook 
of Adult Education News for cooper- 
ating agencies, with regular releases, oc- 



casional releases to members; meetings, 
some with speakers and some for dis- 
cussion and counseling on various ques- 
tions with which adult education is con- 
cerned; membership dues, individuals, 
$2, associate, $1, cooperating organiza- 
tions, $25, $10, and $5. 

THE SCHENECTADY COUNCIL ON EDU- 
CATION, Department of Public In- 
struction, 1 08 Union St., Schenec- 
tady, N. Y., Wilma D. Scott, sec. 

Organized October 1930; eleven 
committees on commercial education, 
fine arts, home making, citizenship, in- 
dustrial education, collegiate and pro- 
fessional education, mental and phys- 
ical health, parent education, recreation, 
religious education, and rural education 
have made survey of adult education 
opportunities in city in their particular 
fields; one committee has compiled re- 
port into single compact unit dealing 
with past, present, and future status of 
the Council; another committee com- 
piling list of local organizations engaged 
in adult education to be placed in pub- 
lic library and other public agencies; oc- 
casional informal meetings. 

THE ADULT EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 
OF CLEVELAND, Room 439, Board of 
Education Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio, 
Alice S. Tyler, sec. 

Aims to encourage use of leisure for 
self -education, to work toward an in- 
telligent and informed public opinion 
by promoting free and tolerant discus- 
sion of foreign and domestic affairs, to 
work toward a better understanding 
among the various groups in local popu- 
lation by interpreting the contribution 
each makes to American civilization, 
and to bring together peoples of differ- 
ing racial and religious backgrounds on 
an educational basis of tolerance; pro- 
vides training courses in methods of 



ORGANIZATIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION AGENCIES 49 



adult education; organizes groups for 
study and discussion ; suggests study pro- 
grams to clubs and other organizations; 
conferences and institutes on subjects of 
current interest and forums in various 
neighborhoods of city 5 disseminates in- 
formation about educational facilities of 
city; publishes Announcer ', monthly 
eight months of year; News Letter, is- 
sued to members three times a year; 
membership, 600. 

OHIO CONFERENCE ON ADULT EDUCA- 
TION, Department of Adult Educa- 
tion, Ohio State University, Colum- 
bus, Ohio, Jessie A. Charters, sec. 

Organized 1932; coordinating agency 
for various organizations and agencies 
carrying on adult education activities 
and programs; leadership training 
courses for parents and adult education 
workers; organizes city and county adult 
education units; annual convention in 
interest of adult education; cooperates 
with State Department of Education 
and public schools; dues, $3 for organi- 
zations, $i for individuals. 

TOLEDO COUNCIL FOR ADULT EDUCA- 
TION, Toledo Museum of Art, To- 
ledo, Ohio, Elisabeth J. Merrill, sec. 

Organized October, 1933; plans to 
serve as a clearing house for informa- 
tion about adult education in Toledo; 
endeavoring to discover any duplication 
of effort among agencies engaged in 
adult education and any lack of facili- 
ties for adult education in city; mem- 
bership includes representatives of all 
types of adult education in city. 

PITTSBURGH COUNCIL ON ADULT EDU- 
CATION, Carnegie Library of Pitts- 
burgh, Pittsburgh, Pa., Charles W. 
Mason, sec. 

Organized 1932; attempts to coor- 
dinate adult education agencies in Pitts- 



burgh and to arouse public consciousness 
on present needs for morale building; 
membership restricted to representatives 
of non-profit-making adult education 
organizations; no membership fee; as- 
sessment may be voted to cover inciden- 
tal expenses of postage, stationery, etc.; 
Carnegie Library maintains list of adult 
education classes in city; preliminary 
survey of adult education opportunities 
in city made in cooperation with Uni- 
versity of Pittsburgh; posts cards on 
educational opportunities in street cars, 
on bulletin boards, etc.; three or four 
luncheon meetings annually, attendance, 
20-30, with Informal short addresses by 
members of Council on progress of in- 
dividual agencies; Committee on Phi- 
losophy of Adult Education studying 
problem preparatory to conducting sem- 
inar for own members; Committee on 
Discussion Groups trains group leaders; 
Committee on Informal Adult Educa- 
tion studying the variety, quality, and 
effectiveness of informal activities in 
order to assist in promotion of new pro- 
grams and increase efficiency of those 
now functioning; Committee on Schools 
for the Unemployed brings together 
those concerned with solution of unem- 
ployment problem; Speaker's Bureau 
clears for all agencies which use 
speakers. 

NASHVILLE EDUCATIONAL COUNCIL, 
Carnegie Library, Nashville, Tenn., 
F. K. W. Drury, Mr. 

Not active at present. 

PROVISIONAL COMMITTEE ON ADULT 
EDUCATION IN VERMONT, 94 Grove 
St., Rutland, Vt , Marion Gary, 
chmn. 

Operating on temporary basis until 
funds can be secured for permanent as- 
sociation ; indirectly sponsoring Regional 
Library Service Project; Adult Educa- 
tion Section of Committee on Educa- 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



tional Policies formed Vermont Com- 
mission on Country Life in 1931 that 
included representatives from major or- 
ganizations in state concerned with 
adult education ; serves as clearing house 
of information in adult education; mem- 
bership, 10 organizations. 

RICHMOND COUNCIL OF ADULT EDUCA- 
TION, Public Library, Richmond, Va., 
Thomas B. Ayer, In. 

Council formed during fall of 1933; 
plans in process of formation. 

VIRGINIA STATE CONFERENCE ON ADULT 
EDUCATION, Extension Division, Uni- 
versity of Virginia, University, Va., 
George B. Zehmer, dir. 

Annual conferences for discussion of 
state and national problems of adult 
education, sponsored by Extension Di- 
vision, held at time of meeting of Insti- 
tute of Public Affairs. 

PACIFIC NORTHWEST ASSOCIATION FOR 
ADULT EDUCATION, W. 4004 Queen 
Ave., Spokane, Wash., Rhoda M. 
White, fres. 

Annual conferences isuccessively in 
each of four states of Pacific North- 
west Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Wash- 
ington; 1934 meeting to be held m 



Portland, Oregon, topic for discussion: 
What has adult education for these 
times in these states? ; membership, 100. 

SPOKANE CENTRAL COMMITTEE FOR 
ADULT EDUCATION, W. 4004 Queen 
Ave, Spokane, Wash, Rhoda M. 
White, Mr. 

Conducts Educational Exchange, free 
information service, where those wish- 
ing to learn may register for a teacher 
or group leader in any subject, and 
where men and women may register 
who are prepared to teach or lead dis- 
cussion groups or to lecture on given 
subjects; membership, IOO. 

MILWAUKEE COUNTY ADULT EDUCA- 
TION COUNCIL, 626 No. Jackson St., 
Milwaukee, Wise., Marion Neprud, 
sec. 

Organized 1933 to foster closer ac- 
quaintanceship and cooperation among 
various non-profit adult education 
agencies; program in process of forma- 
tion; committee working on list of ed- 
ucational organizations offering courses 
and services for adults to supplement 
list already compiled by public library; 
membership open to anyone interested 
in adult education; fee of not more 
than $i annually to be charged; monthly 
dinner meetings to be held. 



Following are the secretaries of the various state COMMISSIONS on the EN- 
RICHMENT of ADULT LIFE of the NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION. 
A general statement of the work of the Commissions appears in the list of 
National Organizations under National Education Association, Commission 
on the Enrichment of Adult Life. 



Frank L. Grove, sec., 417-420 First Na- 
tional Bank Bldg., Montgomery, Ala. 

N. D. Pulliam, sec., Madison School, 
Phoenix, Ariz. 

Roy W. Cloud, sec. y 155 Sansome St., 
San Francisco, Calif. 



W. B. Mooney, sec., 530 Common- 
wealth Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

Gordon C. Swift, sec., Superintendent 
of Schools, Watertown, Conn. 

Kyle T. Alfriend, sec., 400 Vineville 
Ave., Macon, Ga. 



ORGANIZATIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION AGENCIES 51 



John I. Hillman, sec., Room 331, Sonna 
Bldg., Boise, Idaho. 

Charles F. Pye, sec., 415 Shops Bldg., 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

P. H. Griffith, sec., Box 541, Baton 
Rouge, La. 

Adalbert W. Gordon, sec., State House, 
Augusta, Me. 

Hugh Nixon, sec., 15 Ashburton Place, 
Boston, Mass. 

E. T. Cameron, sec., 935 No. Wash- 
ington Ave., Lansing, Mich. 

Bernice D. Gestie, sec., Minnesota Jour- 
nal of Education, 2462 University 
Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

R. J. Cunningham, sec., Box 217, 7 
Kohrs Block, Helena, Mont. 

Everett M. Hosman, sec., 511 Richards 
Bldg., Lincoln, Nebr. 

Lillian Esden, sec., Reno High School, 
Reno, Nev. 

Arvie Eldred, sec., 240 State St., Al- 
bany, N. Y. 

C. M. Howell, sec., 708 Continental 
Bldg , Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Jule B. Warren, sec., Box 274, Raleigh, 
N. C. 

E. F. Carleton, sec., 408 Salmon St., 
Portland, Ore. 

J. P. Coates, sec., 1218 Senate St., Co- 
lumbia, S. C. 

N, E. Steele, sec., Room 3, Perry Bldg., 
Sioux Falls, S. D. 

Hazel Q, Todd, sec., Civic Center, 
149^ Regent St., Salt Lake City, 
Utah. 

Marion C. Parkhurst, sec., Ira Allen 
School, Burlington, Vt. 

J. H. Hickman, sec., 1816 Washington 
St., Charleston, W. Va. 

B. E. McCormick, sec., 716 Beaver 
Bldg., Madison, Wise. 



READING LIST 

Cleveland Conference for Educational 
Cooperation. Annual Report and Re- 
ports of Committees. The Cleveland 
Conference, Cleveland, Ohio, 1928. 

157 P- 

Aims to discover the educational 
and cultural needs of the community 
as a whole. Embodies four committee 
reports: Exchange of Service 5 Train- 
ing of Teachers; Art, Music and the 
Drama; Research and Graduate In- 
struction. 

Herring, John W. Social Planning and 
Adult Education. Macmillan, 1933. 
138 p.^ 

An interpretation of the program 
of the Chester County (Pennsylvania) 
Health and Welfare Council an ad- 
venture in community planning. 
Lorimer, Frank. The Making of Adult 
Minds in a Metropolitan Area. Mac- 
millan, 1931. 245 p. 

Results of study made for the 
Brooklyn Conference on Adult Edu- 
cation. Study is based on the belief 
that the making of adult minds is the 
fundamental task of the day, and 
that it is a lifelong process. Account 
is taken of organized courses of study, 
attendance at museums and libraries, 
reading of newspapers, radio- pro- 
grams, and community center activi- 
ties. 

Marsh, C. S. Adult Education in a Com- 
munity. American Association for 
Adult Education, 1926. 192 p. 

A record of the organization of the 
Buffalo New York Educational Coun- 
cil, one of the earliest efforts to or- 
ganize adult education facilities on a 
community basis. 



PRIVATE CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS 

There are in the United States approximately fifty correspondence 
schools of importance which are organized and operated on a strictly 
commercial basis. These schools, for the most part, offer only trade, 
vocational, and technical courses. Some of the textual materials espe- 
cially prepared by these schools for their students are considered to be 
among the best vocational literature which is available today within the 
fields covered. Practically all well-recognized trades or vocations are 
served by one or more of these institutions. 

The private correspondence school caters primarily to the adult. The 
median age of the 50x3,000 students enrolled by this group during 1931 
was approximately twenty-six years j the middle fifty per cent ranged 
between the ages of twenty-two and twenty-nine. These schools func- 
tion most successfully within the field of "job improvement." For the 
most part their students are employed men and women who hope to 
raise themselves to a level of greater efficiency or responsibility and 
thus eventually to increase their income. Most correspondence schools 
secure their enrollments through a direct economic appeal. Such an 
appeal is usually not considered to be orthodox by conservative institu- 
tions of higher education 5 but apparently it is approved by indus- 
trial and commercial corporations in America, for more than 5,000 of 
them have some kind of contractual relations with private correspond- 
ence schools for the "up-grading" and training of their employees. In 
many instances special home study or correspondence courses have been 
prepared for the sales employees of corporations having a national dis- 
tribution of such products as automobiles and shoes, or maintaining 
large groups of personnel in chain, department, and drug stores. 

There is little or no conflict between the practical courses offered by 
these private correspondence schools in the trade and vocational field 
and those offered by resident institutions. They are supplementary to 
our present public educational system rather than competitive. 

In addition to the above mentioned private correspondence schools 
there is a large number of irresponsible institutions whose courses of 
study are of questionable merit. Their offerings frequently consist of 
courses which are either obsolete or are given without personal instruc- 

53 



PRIVATE CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS 53 

tion that is, they are reading courses only. Schools of this type have in 
the past been responsible for casting an unfavorable reflection upon the 
entire correspondence school field. It is desirable, therefore, for the 
student to investigate the rating of a correspondence school before 
enrolling. 

The National Home Study Council, Washington, D. C, was or- 
ganized in 1926 as an inspecting and approving agency for this entire 
field. The Council cooperates with privately owned correspondence 
schools and other interested agencies in making effective a constructive 
program designed to curb and eliminate unfair exploitation of ambitious 
persons by unworthy correspondence or home study schools. A full 
description of the program of the Council appears on page 336. 

J* S. NOFFSINGER, Director, 

National Home Study Council. 

Since only non-profit-making organizations are listed in this book, 
readers are referred to the National Home Study Council for information 
concerning privately owned and operated correspondence schools. A descrip- 
tion of correspondence courses under university auspices appears on p. 255. 

See also the following organizations National University Extension Asso- 
listed under National Organizations: ciation. 

_ Encyclopaedia Britannica. Correspond- 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF BANKING ence Schook A edition> ^ Vl> 

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS ,^g 

NATIONAL HOME STUDY COUNCIL R ', smne - of the movement written 

by J. S. Noffsinger, Director of the 
READING LIST National Home Study Council. 

NofFsinger, J. S. Correspondence 

Bittner, W. S., and H. F. Mallory. Schools, Lyceums, Chautauquas. Mac- 
University Teaching by Mail. Mac- millan, 1926. 14.5 p. 
millan, 1933. 384 p. Summary of an investigation into 

Records the results of a two-year the type of instruction offered by the 
survey of university and college cor- widely advertised correspondence 
respondence instruction. Most of the schools, and of the mass education 
study is confined to the work of in- given in lyceum halls and chautauqua 
stitutions that are members of the circuit tents. 



COURSES IN ADULT EDUCATION 

Courses in adult education offered by American educational institu- 
tions are still in the experimental stage. In most institutions they consist 
of a discussion of the history, aims, methods, and achievements of the 
movement and of the various philosophies underlying it. Research in 
adult education problems is sometimes a part of the course. 

In addition to these courses on the general subject of adult educa- 
tion there are a number of courses for teachers, social workers, and others 
planning to instruct parent education groups. Admittance to such courses 
is usually restricted to students with an adequate background of 
psychology, sociology, education, and practical experience, since they 
deal with methods of conducting project supervisions, lectures, and 
field laboratory work with parent education groups rather than with the 
subject matter of child study. 

Courses in methods of teaching non-English speaking foreign-born 
and native-born illiterates are being offered in a few institutions. Fre- 
quently these courses require the student to do a considerable amount of 
practice teaching with organized classes. 

It is significant, in view of the economic situation and the resultant 
cutting of budgets, that an increasing number of institutions are includ- 
ing courses in adult education and in the technique of teaching adults in 
their curricula. 

D. R. 

Among the courses in adult education being offered during 1933-34 are 
the following, listed alphabetically under the name of the institution. 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, School of ondary Credential for teaching citizen- 
Education, Berkeley, Calif., George ship to adults; two unit course. 
A. Rice and Fanny L. Bulger, in 
charge, adult ed. course. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Extension 

. , , j. . ^ Division, 815 So. Hill St., Los An- 

Course includes discussion of nature -. n I-* i? j T TTT n 

j L- . r j i* j i_ geles, Calif., Frederic P. Woellner, 
and objectives of adult education, choice * ' 

of materials, organization and presenta- 

tion; practice, under supervision, with Course in Principles of Adult Educa- 
classes of adults; may be offered in par- t tion including analysis of adult educa- 
tial fulfilment of requirements of State tion movement to ascertain methods for 
Board of Education for the Special Sec- organizing and conducting special and 

54 



COURSES IN ADULT EDUCATION 



evening classes for mature students; 
problems of citizenship, Americaniza- 
tion, vocational and liberal education 
considered; two unit course; for fur- 
ther information concerning program 
of Extension Division see University 
Extension. 

STANFORD UNIVERSITY, SCHOOL OP ED- 
UCATION, STANFORD UNIVERSITY, 
Calif., William M. Proctor, frof. of 
ed. 

Seminar on development of agencies 
which provide educational opportunities 
for adults, including study of history, 
aims and purposes of agencies that pro- 
vide educational opportunities for adults 
in America and Europe; philosophy, 
methods of teaching, sources of support, 
and administration of adult education 
also investigated; five unit course. 

GEORGE WILLIAMS COLLEGE, Hyde 
Park, Chicago, 111., Hedley S. Di- 
mock, in charge, adult ed. course. 

Course includes survey of adult edu- 
cation movement in United States and 
other countries; philosophy of adult ed- 
ucation; relation to leisure; types of 
adult education programs involving the 
use of arts, drama, music, pictures, crafts, 
discussions, forum groups, formal school- 
ing; critical evaluation of existing pro- 
grams in Chicago; four points credit. 

STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, Iowa City, 
la., C. L. Robbins, frof. of ed. 

Offers for credit comprehensive 
course in adult education including his- 
tory, methods of teaching adults, devel- 
opment of various forms, etc., in the 
United States and abroad. 

MASSACHUSETTS DEPARTMENT OF ED- 
UCATION, Boston, Mass., Mary L. 
Guyton, state sufv., adult alien ed. 

Course in Problems and Procedures 
in Adult Alien Education, offered for 



55 

purpose of preparing teachers to work 
in field of adult alien education; in- 
cludes study of political, social, and cul- 
tural backgrounds of largest racial 
groups in State, methods of teaching 
adult immigrants, study of immigrant 
law, etc.; fifteen lectures, two semester 
hours; course in Supervision of Instruc- 
tion in Adult Alien Education, planned 
especially for supervisors and experi- 
enced teachers who have taken prelim- 
inary course in practical applications of 
techniques, methods and principles of 
supervision offered by Department 
(others properly qualified also ad- 
mitted) ; emphasis placed on underlying 
principles of sociology and psychology 
on which education of the adult alien 
is based; both courses offered for credit; 
also open to auditors. 

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ADULT 
EDUCATION CENTRE, THE TWEN- 
TIETH CENTURY CLUB, 3 Joy St., 
Boston, Mass., Kirtley F. Mather, 
chmn. 

Course in Adult Education Its Aims 
and Methods, with lectures by visiting 
authorities; arranged for leaders of 
adult work in industry, religion, social 
and educational work; for further in- 
formation about Twentieth Century 
Club, see p. 102. 

TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNI- 
VERSITY, New York, N. Y., E. deS. 
Brunner, frof. of ed., chief adviser, 
adult ed. courses; F. E. Johnson, frof. 
of ed., and Frank Cyr, assoc. in rural 
ed., Elizabeth C. Morriss, assoc. in 
adult ed. 

Offers for credit toward the bache- 
lor's, master's, or doctor's degree courses 
in adult education, during winter and 
spring terms, including: introductory 
course covering various developments in 
field of adult education, such as univer- 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



sity extension, public school and adult 
education, workers' education, etc.; 
course on Adult Education Problems, 
conducted as student-faculty discussion 
group and seminar for scholarship stu- 
dents and others properly qualified 5 
course on The Cooperative Extension 
Service; course in Field Work in Adult 
Education for teachers of limited expe- 
rience who have attended or are attend- 
ing courses leading to specialized fields 
or functions in adult education j course 
in Research in Adult Education; adult 
education department constructs pro- 
grams of students majoring in adult ed- 
ucation on individual basis and instead 
of adding new courses utilizes those of- 
fered by other departments (for exam- 
ple, a student proposing to develop 
course for adults in biology works with 
individual attention under professors of 
biology, curriculum making, and adult 
education, the latter helping the stu- 
dent to use material from other depart- 
ments in working out his individual 
problem) . 

HARLEM ADULT EDUCATION COMMIT- 
TEE, New York Public Library 
1 3 5th St. Branch, New York, N. Y. 

Offering course on adult education, 
1934., including eleven lectures on such 
subjects as Educational Experiments in 
Russia, Adult Education in Social 
Agencies, Community Correlation of 
Adult Education Programs, The State as 
an Adult Educator, Adult Education in 
England and the Scandinavian Coun- 
tries, etc. 

EVENING AND EXTENSION SESSIONS, 
HUNTER COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF 
NEW YORK, Park Ave. and 68th St., 
New York, N. Y., A. Broderick Co- 
hen, dir. 

Offers following courses: Adult Edu- 
cation, a course dealing with typical 
movements in adult education, their 



origins, underlying philosophy, aims, 
methods, and achievements; open only 
to graduate students, and to teachers of 
three years' experience; two credits to- 
ward master's degree; Methods of 
Teaching English to non-English Speak- 
ing Adults, including work with those in 
evening schools, factory classes, and home 
classes; observation and practice teaching 
required; one credit toward bachelor 
of science degree in education, Meth- 
ods of Work with Foreign-born Adults 
full-time or part-time activities, in- 
cluding methods of organizing and 
teaching session classes in day or evening 
schools or organizing and conducting 
varied activities in specific district on 
full-time plan under public or private 
auspices, with special attention to Meth- 
ods of Recruiting and Teaching Illiter- 
ates and Beginners; observation and 
practice teaching required; one credit 
toward degree of bachelor of science in 
education; Adult Education for the For- 
eign-born, intended for teachers, social 
workers and others interested in adjust- 
ment of resident foreign-born adults to 
American conditions and social de- 
mands, two credits; elementary course 
in Theory and Methods of Parent Edu- 
cation for teachers of immigrant adults, 
including lectures, discussion, home ob- 
servation, collateral reading, two cred- 
its; Field Work in Adult Education, for 
teachers of limited experience in adult 
education; students assigned to practice 
teaching and other community activities 
under supervision; two credits, ad- 
vanced course in Theory and Methods 
of Parent Education for teachers of im- 
migrant adults, including evaluation of 
materials and various ways of present- 
ing them to classes of foreign-born pa- 
rents; two credits toward degree of 
bachelor of science in education; for 
further information about Evening and 
Extension program, see University Ex- 
tension. 



COURSES IN ADULT EDUCATION 



57 



EXTENSION DIVISION, UNIVERSITY OF 
ROCHESTER, Rochester, N. Y., Alonzo 
G. Grace, Mr. 

Offers teachers and leaders course on 
underlying philosophy and fields of 
adult education in America and Europe, 
technique and methods of teaching 
adults, principles of group discussion, 
materials of adult education with spe- 
cial reference to formal and informal 
adult education programs, also offers 
course in methods of parent education, 
for further information about program 
of Extension Division, see University 
Extension. 

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, Department 
of Adult Education, College of Edu- 
cation, Columbus, Ohio, Jessie A. 
Charters, chmn. of deft. 

Course in Theory and Problems of 
Adult Education, background course for 
leaders and others intending to special- 
ize in parental education, including his- 
torical and international survey of move- 
ment, relation of parental education to 
movement, theories and problems of or- 
ganization, curriculum material, and 
methods of teaching parents' study 
groups; admission only after consulta- 
tion with instructor; two credit hours. 

See also the following article: 

TRAINING LEADERS FOR ADULT 
GROUPS, p. 233. 



READING LIST 



Beglinger, N. J. Methods in Adult Ele- 
mentary Education. Scribner, 1928. 
183 p. 

Critically concerned with teaching 
English, especially to foreigners. Em- 
phasizes the necessity for training in 
reading. 

Ellis, A. Caswell. Research Projects in 
Adult Education. American Associa- 
tion for Adult Education. In prepa- 
ration. 

Gray, W. S. Manual for Teachers of 
Adult Illiterates. Washington, Na- 
tional Advisory Committee on Illit- 
eracy, 1930. 239 p. 

This study is in three parts: Part I 
deals with the organization of classes, 
preparation of teachers, problems and 
aims of instruction ; Part II deals with 
the method and content of courses in 
teaching native illiterates; and Part 
III, with method and content of 
courses in the teaching of foreign- 
born illiterates. 

United States Department of the In- 
terior, Office of Education. Methods 
of Teaching Adult Aliens and Native 
Illiterates. Washington, D. C., Gov- 
ernment Printing Office. Bulletin 
1927, No. 7. 

For use in colleges, universities, 
and normal schools, and for teachers 
of adults. Topical bibliographies. 



ADULT EDUCATION AND THE FOREIGN BORN 

Education for the foreign-born adult, frequently called immigrant 
education, is one of the oldest forms of organized adult education in the 
United States. The admission of 28,000,000 immigrants to the United 
States since 1889 has given rise to certain special educational needs. The 
bulk of thisTgreat foreign-born population have needed to learn the 
language of the country, to acquire sufficient knowledge of American 
history and government to qualify for American citizenship and, in 
general, to adjust themselves to the conditions and institutions of their 
new environment. To meet these needs there have been organized in the 
last twenty years extensive classes in English and civics, designed 
primarily for the foreign born. 

In broader perspective, the educational needs of the foreign born and 
native born do not greatly differ. Interest and instruction in biology, 
music, or economics are much the same whether the student was born 
in Italy or Idaho. To be sure, study must be carried on through the 
medium of a familiar language, and if the student does not know 
English, some other language must be employed. Therefore several of 
the societies established in this country by foreign-born people conduct 
a considerable variety of lectures, classes, and other adult educational 
activities in the mother tongue of their members. Opportunities for 
advanced study for those unable to use English are, however, strictly 
limited. Most foreign language societies attempt little beyond occasional 
lectures. Our public school systems and universities offer practically 
nothing for the non-English speaking adult. Except for individual study, 
a knowledge of English is almost indispensable to the man or woman of 
foreign birth wishing to pursue any form of adult education. This fact 
and the difficulties which the average immigrant experiences in be- 
coming wholly at home in English, have made the foreign language 
press important as an educational influence. 

So far as the educational interests and needs of the foreign born are 
to be distinguished from those of the native born, the difference lies 
in acquiring the knowledge of English and the elements of American 
government and history necessary for naturalization. Because these are 
the principal points of difference there has been in many quarters a 

58 



ADULT EDUCATION AND THE FOREIGN BORN 59 

tendency to assume that the educational needs and interests of the 
foreign born are limited to English and civics a confusion of thought 
furthered by the fact that many immigrants have had little or no formal 
education. As a result, there developed methods of instruction ill- 
adapted to adults, and an attitude of superiority keenly resented by the 
foreign born, especially in the earlier years of immigrant education. 

Prior to 1915, little effort was made to provide opportunities for 
the immigrant to learn English or to qualify for citizenship. Some cities 
provided evening school classes, but the country as a whole was oblivious 
to the problem. The war focused attention on the alien, and in an in- 
credibly short time all sorts of pkns for "Americanizing 3 ' him sprang 
into being. Public school systems established courses in English and 
training for citizenship 5 social agencies, patriotic organizations, chambers 
of commerce, industrial plants, etc. organized classes or in other ways 
promoted "Americanization." Both the United States Office of Educa- 
tion and the Bureau of Naturalization were active in providing leader- 
ship for programs of immigrant education or in securing educational 
opportunities for applicants for citizenship. 

The public school systems of the several states took the lead in the 
movement and made the most significant contributions to it. A mass of 
state legislation was enacted within a remarkably short period. In 1915, 
only New Jersey and Massachusetts had legislation bearing on the sub- 
ject of immigrant education. By 1920, twenty-seven states had such 
legislation, eighteen of them granting permission to local school authori- 
ties to establish classes for the instruction of the foreign born, and nine 
making the establishment of such classes mandatory under certain con- 
ditions. Eighteen states at this time gave financial aid for the main- 
tenance of such classes, usually on a "fifty-fifty" basis. By 1927, five 
more states had enacted legislation in this field. Since then, however, 
there has been no new legislation of any significance. Indeed, even 
before 1927 a reaction had set in. Interest in immigrant education 
dwindled greatly. Many of the private agencies withdrew or greatly 
curtailed their activities. The Bureau of Naturalization abandoned most 
of its educational activities, as not rightfully constituting part of its 
work. This reaction has been furthered by the reduction in immigration, 
and particularly by the depression and the resulting necessity for 
economy. While most of the large cities of the country continue to 
furnish evening school classes, and in some places day classes, for their 
adult inhabitants, in many of them such facilities have been grfeatly cur- 
tailed. New York City, for example, cut its 1933 budget for evening 
elementary schools by forty per cent According to the United States 



60 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

Office of Education, reports from various State Departments of Educa- 
tion show that as a general rule no evening schools are held in cities with 
fewer than ten thousand people. Similarly, no evening schools, with the 
exception of two or three states, are reported in rural districts. As a 
result, a very considerable part of our non-English speaking population 
has no definite opportunity for education. 

This is not, of course, true of all states. A few have admirable 
programs and are steadily extending their activities. Delaware and 
California have made notable progress. Connecticut, Massachusetts, and 
New York are endeavoring to provide adequate educational opportuni- 
ties for their large foreign-born populations. Certain cities, like Minne- 
apolis and Washington, are doing work of special excellence, with 
separate schools devoted to day and evening classes for adults. 

Despite its shortcomings, immigrant education has accomplished 
notable results. Hundreds of thousands of foreign-born men and women 
have been enrolled in public school classes from which they have drawn 
invaluable instruction, encouragement, and stimulus. If instruction has 
sometimes been perfunctory and patronizing, more often it has been 
infused with fine feeling and devotion. In many states there has been an 
honest attempt to deal competently with a difficult problem and by means 
of teacher training to promote skilled and tactful instruction. As a result 
immigrant education has frequently been a humanizing movement for 
pupil, teacher, and community alike. For many a teacher, association with 
men and women of many lands has resulted in inspiration and enlarged 
horizons. In many communities successful classes have effected a new 
understanding and appreciation of the immigrant, his problems, and 
achievements. 

Social agencies, settlements, factories, and other private agencies have 
in general relinquished most of their activity in education for the foreign 
born to the public school system. The Neighborhood Teacher Associa- 
tion in New York, with its home classes for foreign-born women, and 
the National Council of Jewish Women are notable exceptions. 

Many of the numerous foreign language organizations in the United 
States have declared education to be one of their chief aims. While their 
educational achievements fall short, as a rule, of their expressed purpose, 
the immigrant's own organizations have always been a first stepping 
stone to cultural advancement and to broader intellectual life in 
America, Meetings of these societies are among the few places where 
adult foreigners freely go and express themselves on the subjects in 
which they are interested. Such contacts and discussions have been the 
stimulus to a wide variety of educational work. Only in the exceptional 



ADULT EDUCATION AND THE FOREIGN BORN 6 1 

case, however, are these activities consolidated into systematic courses 
and consecutive study. The most common type of activity is the lecture, 
either a single lecture or a series. Among the other types of educational 
effort which foreign language organizations have undertaken for their 
members are reading circles, traveling libraries, singing and dramatic 
societies, folk high schools, literary clubs, "people's universities," sokols, 
and turnvereins, as well as occasional systematic study courses. A few are 
accomplishing significant work in providing instruction in English and 
civics or in offering opportunities for advanced study, particularly in 
cultural subjects, in the native language of the membership. The 
majority, because of a lack of resources, preparatory education, or 
trained leadership, are not carrying out a systematic educational pro- 
gram. In view of the variety of their activities and the vast number of 
people affected, foreign language organizations must be considered as 
making, in the aggregate, an important contribution to the education of 
the foreign born. 

Although immigrant education has played no small part in the 
adult education movement, it has always been something of a stepchild. 
However convenient, the term "adult education for the foreign born" 
is apt to be misleading. Instruction in our language and institutions is 
only a small section of the educational needs and interests of the foreign 
born. Once the hurdle of language is overcome, adult education is 
essentially the same, whether the student was born in Poland or Penn- 
sylvania. 

READ LEWIS, Director, 

Foreign Language Information Service. 

See the following organizations listed Also the following: THE NEIGHBOR- 
under National Organizations: HOOD TEACHER ASSOCIATION, p. 220. 

AMERICAN TURNERBUND And the following articles: 

JEWISH WELFARE BOARD ADULT EDUCATION UNDER PUBLIC 

NATIONAL CATHOLIC WELFARE CON- SCHOOL AUSPICES, p. 158. 

FERENCE THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT 

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON NATURALIZA- EDUCATION, p. 185. 

TION AND CITIZENSHIP ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS, 

POLISH NATIONAL ALLIANCE OF NORTH p 20 ^ 

AMERICA 

RUSSIAN CONSOLIDATED MUTUAL AID READING LIST 

SOCIETY OF AMERICA 

SLOVENE NATIONAL BENEFIT SOCIETY American Library Association. Reading 

STEUBEN SOCIETY OF AMERICA Service to the Foreign Born. Chicago, 

WORKMEN'S CIRCLE 1929. 60 p. 



62 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Compiled by Committee on Work 
with the Foreign Born* Chapters 
on: Approach to the Foreign-Born 
Reader; Lists for Americanization 
Workers; Program to Coordinate 
Work in Adult Education by Libra- 
ries and Schools; Cataloguing For- 
eign Literature; Racial Organizations 
with Educational Programs; National 
Organizations that Promote Ameri- 
canization and Inter-Racial Under- 
standing. 

Eaton, Allen H. Immigrant Gifts to 
American Life. Russell Sage Founda- 
tion, 1932. 185 p. 

A record of some of the cultural 
contributions made by our foreign- 
born citizens, written for the com- 
munity worker, educator, museum di- 



rector, and student of immigrant 
problems. 

Herlihy, Charles M. Adult Education 
for Foreign-Born and Native Illit- 
erates. U. S. Office of Education Bul- 
letin 1925, No. 36. Washington, 
D. C Government Printing Office. 
Census data on immigrant educa- 
tion and illiteracy among native born. 
National survey of state and Federal 
adult education programs. 

Sharlip, W., and A. A. Owens. Adult 
Immigrant Education. Macmillan, 
1925. 317 p. 

Deals not only with the pedagogy 
of immigrant education, but also with 
certain objectives and principles. It is 
developed from experience and prac- 
tice in Philadelphia. 



OPEN FORUMS 

The open forum is a voluntary assembly of people gathered together 
for the purpose of discussing all matters of public interest under the 
guidance of acknowledged leaders, with full opportunity for participa- 
tion by the audience. Every real forum meeting consists of two parts: 
an address by an expert and, equally important, a question and discus- 
sion period in which any member of the audience is free to ask a ques- 
tion and to advance his own views. 

Forums are purely individualistic and autonomous. There is a loose 
federation known as the Open Forum National Council, but each forum 
determines its own procedure and sets up its own standards. The forums 
vary, therefore, with the character of the community. Some are carried 
on under the auspices of a community committee, others are sponsored 
by churches, women's and men's clubs, service clubs, or by Young Men's 
Christian Associations, Young Women's Christian Associations, Young 
Men's Hebrew Associations, or Young Women's Hebrew Associations. 

The Open Forum National Council describes the forum as follows: 
"The forum avoids partisanship, eliminates sectarianism, and disowns 
class distinctions. The forum is not a deliberative assembly. It is not a 
debate, nor a concert, not an entertainment, though it has in turn all 
the allurement, intensity, contention, delight, and excitement that 
characterize these widely varied occasions." 

At least fifty per cent of the success of any forum, the Council be- 
lieves, is due to its chairman. "Qualities essential for a chairman are 
those required for leadership anywhere quickness of apprehension, 
depth of comprehension, breadth of sympathy and a sense of humor. 
The chairman must interpret the speaker to the audience, the audience 
to the speaker, and the audience to itself." 

Experience has shown that it is advisable to have a single individual 
preside continuously, for only by continuity can chairman and audience 
become mutually acquainted. It is the duty of the chairman to sum- 
marize briefly the message of the speaker, to open the discussion, to 
restate questions when necessary, and to meet the pauses that some- 
times occur, with pertinent questions which will start discussion. 

Various forums have various ways of raising the funds necessary 

63 



64 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

to meet their expenses. Expenses range from a very little to a great 
deal, according to the intensity and scope of the work undertaken. In 
the main, financial support comes from one or more of three sources: 
from an endowment or established organization 5 from the contributions 
of those attending forum meetings 5 from a group of public-spirited 
men and women who give or guarantee the necessary revenues. 

In Des MoineSj Iowa, there is being conducted under the auspices 
and direction of the public school system an experiment in the use of 
the forum as an instrument for the community-wide education of adults, 
which is especially worthy of note here in that it is the first demonstra- 
tion of its kind in this country. The purpose of the experiment is to 
work out in one community a pattern that will show how the functions 
of organized public education in any community may be extended to 
include a vital program of adult education carried on under the direc- 
tion and control of the Board of Education. The forum was selected as 
the medium for the experiment. Under the direct supervision of the 
superintendent of schools, forums where men and women can meet regu- 
larly throughout the school year to study and discuss current economic 
and political problems have been organized and conducted in all parts 
of the city. The forums are being led by persons chosen for their knowl- 
edge of the social sciences and their practical understanding of present- 
day problems, their experience as teachers, leaders and lecturers, and 
their ability to write. The project is being financed for a five-year period 
by a grant made by the Carnegie Corporation on recommendation of 
the American Association for Adult Education. The meetings are open 
to all citizens of Des Moines without charge. The approximate attend- 
ance from January to July, 1933, was 48,000. 

D. R. 

Following is a list of some of the forums now being conducted in va- 
rious parts of the United States. They are given alphabetically by state and 
city. 

ASSOCIATED FORUMS, 214 Loma Drive, events and characters in American His- 

Los Angeles, Calif., F. W. Roman, taj) 5 Long Beach (current events, So- 

leader. v * et Russia) 5 Pasadena Town Meeting; 

Literature and Art; and The World To- 

Consists of seven separate forums: the day; all organized on same basis but 
Parliament of Man (discusses world af- specializing in different subjects; holds 
fairs, emphasizing political, economic, weekly meetings on different days dur- 
and social problems) ; Wanderers and ing winter months and monthly meet- 
Wayfarers (philosophy, literature, and ings during summer; financed by $10 
art) ; the Glendale Forum (current annual subscription fee or single admis- 



OPEN FORUMS 



sion of $.50; publishes magazine; av- 
erage attendance per meeting, 75-400; 
approximate annual attendance, 10,000. 

BRIDGEPORT SUNDAY EVENING COMMU- 
NITY FORUM, 877 Park Ave., Bridge- 
port, Conn., Grace L. West, sec. 

Sunday night program, November to 
May; supported by weekly offering and 
membership dues; lectures and discus- 
sions on current events, world affairs, 
and on religious, political, social, edu- 
cational, and civic questions; public- 
ity program through newspaper adver- 
tising and news items, post card notices, 
printed flyers, bulletins, window cards, 
calendars; membership and board of di- 
rectors include outstanding leaders 
among Jewish, Catholic and Protestant 
people; attendance varies from 200 to 
1,350 per meeting. 

FLORIDA FORUM AND ASSEMBLY, DAY- 
tona Beach, Fla., Robert S. Holmes, 
fres. 

Thirteen meetings from December to 
April; budget of $1,500 raised by sil- 
ver offering and contributions of 
friends; discussions on such topics as 
The Great Russian Experiment, Com- 
munism, Fascism, Democracy, Political 
Causes of the World Depression, etc.; 
maintains library for use of forum 
members; gives credit toward annual 
certificate or Forum Diploma for three 
years' forum attendance; publicity 
through local press and The Forum 
News; average attendance per meeting, 
1,600; approximate attendance per sea- 
son, 20,000. 

ATLANTA FORUM ASSOCIATION, Atlanta, 
Ga., L. E. Loemker, pres. 

Monthly meetings October to May; 
financed by membership fees; discusses 
social and political topics such as So- 
cial Reform in Russia, County Jails 



in Georgia, and The Background of 
Hitler; cooperated with League for In- 
dustrial Democracy in bringing series 
of lectures to Atlanta which were open 
to both white and colored persons; an- 
nual letters and monthly notices of 
meetings to regular attendants; notices 
to press; average attendance per meet- 
ing, 50-75; approximate attendance for 
season, 350. 

CHICAGO FORUM, 224 So. Michigan 
Ave., Chicago, 111., Fred Atkins 
Moore, Mr* 

Twenty Sunday afternoon discussions 
November to April; financed by ticket 
sales; discussions on public welfare, so- 
cial and civic problems, race relations, 
national and international affairs; spe- 
cial lectures and debates; publicity 
through the press and by direct mail; 
average attendance, 300; approximate 
attendance for season, 7,000. 

PEORIA SUNDAY EVENING LECTURESHIP, 
908 Hamilton Blvd., Peoria, 111., 
Clinton Lee Scott, <#r. 

Twelve Sunday forums in winter; 
financed by subscriptions and offerings; 
discussions stress economic and political 
conditions in United States and abroad, 
religion, marriage, and current move- 
ments in foreign countries; publicity 
through newspapers, outdoor bulletin 
boards, and direct mailing; average at- 
tendance, 400; approximate attendance 
for season, 4,800. 

DES MOINES FORUM, Des Moines, Iowa, 
John W. Studebaker, Mr. 

Operates under the Board of Directors 
of the Des Moines Public Schools for 
general benefit of people of Des 
Moines; forums conducted by staff of 
four regular leaders, authorities in their 
respective fields, and by other experts 
who lead from one to five or six meet- 



66 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Ings 5 three types of forums conducted 
during 1933-34: neighborhood forums, 
held in twenty-three different locations 
in various parts of city every other week 
during school year, led by "regular" 
leaders 5 central forums, held weekly in 
five centrally located school buildings 
for twenty-two consecutive weeks dur- 
ing winter and spring, led by visiting 
leaders; city-wide forums conducted by 
visiting speakers and attended by all 
forum leaders, who participate in dis- 
cussion following lecture 5 topics for dis- 
cussion include Plans for National Re- 
covery, Proposed Solutions for Our Tax 
Muddle, Italian Fascism, The Growth 
of Modern Germany, etc.; public li- 
brary prepares reading lists and study 
outlines on subjects discussed; wide pub- 
licity given meetings by newspapers and 
by circularization of broadsides and 
pamphlets; financed by Carnegie Cor- 
poration of New York upon recommen- 
dation of American Association for 
Adult Education for a five-year period 
as an experiment in adult education; av- 
erage attendance per session, 136; ap- 
proximate attendance January to July, 
1933* 48,000. 

BALTIMORE OPEN FORUM, 513 Park 
Ave., Baltimore, Mi, Elisabeth Gil- 
man, dir. 

Weekly meetings November to 
March ; financed by subscription of $ I a 
year and collections at meetings; dis- 
cusses economics, politics, literature; 
newspaper publicity; average attendance 
per meeting, 1,000; approximate annual 
attendance, 16,000. 

CUMBERLAND COMMUNITY FORUM, 
Cumberland, Md., Clarence Lippel, 
sec* 

Weekly meetings during winter 
months; financed by admission tickets; 
topics discussed include ethical and so- 
ciological subjects, such as Russia To- 



day, Cause and Treatment of Crime, 
and A Program for America; sponsors 
talks before Kiwanis and Rotary Clubs; 
advertises and sends out prospecti; av- 
erage attendance per meeting, 500. 

FORD HALL FORUM, 1242 Little Bldg., 
Boston, Mass., David K. Niles, dir. 

Weekly meetings Sundays during 
winter; discusses such topics as Public 
Education and the Problem of Democ- 
racy, and other social, economic, and 
religious questions; supported by mem- 
bership dues, by "Ford Hall Folks," 
and by gifts and contributions at meet- 
ings; sponsors the Ford Hall Forum 
Dramatic Society, discussion group, un- 
employment clinic, reading circle and 
other activities, classes in arts and crafts, 
English composition and public speak- 
ing, French, German, Russian; average 
attendance per meeting, 1,300; atten- 
dance per season, 30,000. 

HAVERHILL OPEN FORUM, no Merri- 
mack St., Haverhill, Mass., Ralph E. 
Gardner, sec. 

Now in seventeenth year; bi-monthly 
meetings November to April; financed 
by collections and pledges; discusses 
topics of general interest, such as The 
New Woman in Russia, Has Marriage 
Any Future?, Racketeering High and 
Low, and A Catholic Looks at Life; 
local newspapers carry items about all 
meetings; average attendance per meet- 
ing, 600; approximate attendance per 
season, 6,000. 

MALDEN FORUM, INC., 42 Fairview 
Terrace, Maiden, Mass., Walter I. 
Cole, fres. 

Fifteen weekly meetings during win- 
ter months; supported by collections 
and private subscriptions; immigration 
problems, reparations and inter-allied 
debts, educational and ethical problems 



OPEN FORUMS 



6 7 



discussed; circularizes every home in 
city 5 announcements of meetings placed 
in stores; advertises meetings in news- 
papers; average attendance per week, 
425; approximate attendance for sea- 
son, 6,275. 

METHUEN PUBLIC FORUM, Central 
School Hall, Methuen, Mass., Egbert 
W. A. Jenkinson. 

Regular monthly meetings during 
winter and other meetings scheduled 
when feasible; small contributions 
finance work; discusses economics, po- 
litical parties, unemployment, and other 
current problems; space given to meet- 
ings in newspapers; average attendance, 
300; approximate attendance for sea- 
son, 5,000. 

HAMPSHIRE COUNTY PROGRESSIVE CLUB 
FORUM, 36 Butler Place, Northamp- 
ton, Mass., Mrs. J. B. Dickson, dir. 

Weekly meetings Sundays October to 
January; supported by season tickets of 
$l each and single admission price of 
$.50; programs include such subjects as 
liberalism, present-day philosophy, so- 
cialism, capitalism, communism, eco- 
nomics, international problems and poli- 
cies, and political symposia; 3,000 copies 
season's program distributed; notices in 
newspapers, college papers, and display 
advertisement for each meeting; 
monthly group discussion meetings; av- 
erage attendance, 400; approximate at- 
tendance for season, 4,500. 

PUBLIC FORUM OF BROOKLYN HEIGHTS, 
INC., 20 Myrtle Ave., Brooklyn, 
N. Y., William J. Dilthey, chmn., 
120 Liberty St., New York, N. Y. 

Discussions at weekly meetings 
throughout year on parliamentary and 
civic matters; lectures on historic, scien- 
tific, and medical subjects; debates on 
public welfare, cultural subjects; 



financed by membership dues and vol- 
untary contributions; notices to press; 
average attendance per meeting, 200; 
approximate attendance for season, 
IO,OOO. 

Civic FORUM, 123 W. 43rd St., New 
York, N. Y., George V. Denny, Jr., 
sec. 

Membership in League of Political 
Education includes admission to forums; 
discussions on public affairs, literature, 
travel, international questions, drama, 
art, history, discovery. 

FOREIGN AFFAIRS FORUM, 320 Fifth 
Ave., New York, N. Y., Catharine 
Sedgwick, ex. sec* 

Promotes dissemination of accurate, 
factual information on international sub- 
jects through meetings and radio pro- 
grams; work carried on chiefly in Man- 
hattan but effort being made to bring 
about establishment of branches in other 
parts of country; sponsors series of 
broadcasts on current international sub- 
jects. 

MUHLENBERG FORUM, Muhlenberg 
Branch, New York Public Library, 
209 W. 23rd St., New York, N. Y., 
E. G. Spaulding, chmn. 

Lectures three nights a week during 
winter and discussion groups year round, 
m cooperation with People's Institute; 
admission fee of $.25 not compulsory; 
topics studied include philosophy, ethics, 
literature, language, biology, physics, 
economics, history, art, and psychology; 
discussion groups in philosophy, logic, 
and economics; printed programs dis- 
tributed in all branch libraries; an- 
nouncements at People's Institute lec- 
tures at Cooper Union; notices to daily 
newspapers; printed programs to names 
on mailing list of about 800; average 
lecture attendance, 6l; approximate at- 



68 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



tendance for season: lectures, 3,375; 
discussion groups, 1,652. 

PUBLIC OPEN FORUM, Union St. at 
Wendell Ave., Schenectady, N. Y., 
Louis Navis, chmn., 1138 Waverly 
Place. 

Meets one Thursday a month during 
winter; supported by admission fees; 
subjects discussed include economics and 
social problems such as Unemployment 
Insurance in England, Profits or Pros- 
perity, etc.; advertisements and other 
material mailed to regular attendants; 
average attendance per meeting, 194; 
approximate attendance for season, 777. 

THE PHILADELPHIA FORUM, 1320 Pack- 
ard Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa., William 
K. Huff, ex. Mr. 

Programs held once or twice a week 
October to April; supported by mem- 
bership fees varying from $IO to 
$40; lectures and discussions on poli- 
tics, economics, geography and explora- 
tion, literature and drama; sponsors 
plays, dramatic recitals, musical events; 
The Philadelphia Award bestowed un- 
der its auspices; wide publicity program 
through mail circularization and news- 
papers; publishes The Philadelphia 
Forum Magazine monthly; average at- 
tendance per session, 2,000; approxi- 
mate attendance per season, 80,000. 

COMMUNITY OPEN FORUM, City Hall, 
Reading, Pa., Mrs. H. D. Leven- 
good, dtr., 1442 Hampden Blvd. 

Seven meetings during January, Feb- 
ruary and March ; discussions on govern- 
ment and political problems, moral ques- 
tions and problems of today; financed 
by Woman's Club through membership 
and gifts; displays window cards and 
announcements in press; average at- 
tendance per meeting, 700; approximate 
attendance for season, 4,200. 



DALLAS OPEN FORUM, 2419 Maple 
Ave., Dallas, Texas, Elmer Scott, ex. 
sec. and dir. 

Weekly meetings Sunday afternoons 
November to March; budget of $2,500 
provided by subscription and collections; 
conducts discussions led by authoritative 
speakers on literature, government, edu- 
cation, economics, international affairs, 
philosophy, psychology, religion, etc.; 
wide publicity through bulletin board 
posters in and outside of Dallas, circu- 
lars, newspapers, schools, and public an- 
nouncements; average attendance, 900; 
approximate attendance for season, 
1932-33, 



CENTER OPEN FORUM, 1025 No. Mil- 
waukee St., Milwaukee, Wise., George 
M. Peizer, ex. dir. 

Eight monthly lectures during fall 
and winter; supported by admission 
fees and yearly budget of institution; 
topics selected include moral, ethical, 
civic, and scientific subjects; also offers 
series of lectures on psychology, litera- 
ture, and religion; publicity obtained 
by sending announcements of meetings 
to press and post card announcements to 
members; average attendance, 400; ap- 
proximate annual attendance, 3,000. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS 
FOREIGN POLICY ASSOCIATION 
JEWISH WELFARE BOARD 
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF BUSINESS 

AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S CLUBS, 

INC. 
OPEN FORUM NATIONAL COUNCIL 

Also the following articles: 

POLITICAL EDUCATION, p. 146. 
PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL EDUCATION CON- 

DUCTED BY RELIGIOUS GROUPS, p. 

195. 



OPEN FORUMS 



6 9 



READING LIST 



Ewing, R. L., Methods of Conducting 
Forums and Discussions. Association 
Press, 1926. 43 p. 

Suggestive material on the meth- 
ods of conducting discussions, with 
brief digests of material on social 
problems of general concern. Based 
on the belief that a forum is not a 
debate, and that the leader should 
guide the discussion rather than act 
as an expert on the topic, Valuable 
for group leaders in organizations 
conducting discussions on current 
events and present-day problems. 



Hayes, Cecil B. The American Lyceum 
Its History and Contribution to 
Education. Office of Education Bul- 
letin No. 12, 1932. Washington, 
D. C., Superintendent of Documents. 
72 p. 

A detailed history of the lyceum 
and its place in American literature. 

Lurie, Reuben L. The Challenge of the 
Forum. Boston, Richard Badger, 
1930. 209 p. 

A history of Ford Hall Forum and 
a series of sketches intended to guide 
others in the prosecution of like en- 
deavors. 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 

The conception of the public library as an agency for adult education 
is as old as the library movement itself. In the first page of the intro- 
duction to Public Libraries in the United States of America (Govern- 
ment Printing Office, 1876), the editors say, "The influence of the libra- 
rian as an educator is rarely estimated by outside observers and probably 
seldom realized even by himself. . . . Often advising individual read- 
ers as to a proper course of reading and placing in their hands the books 
they are to read ... the librarian has silently, almost unconsciously, 
gained ascendency over the habits of thought and literary tastes of a 
multitude of readers, who find in the public library their only means of 
intellectual improvement" 

In the era of library expansion which followed the formation of the 
American Library Association in 1876, the education argument was 
present in most statements advocating public library establishment. In 
the years when technical organization and the extension of service to 
new areas and to children were uppermost in the minds of librarians, 
the adult education function was not forgotten. 

But the possibility of adult education through libraries received 
increased attention in the early nineteen-twenties, when librarians and 
others were re-awakened to adult needs. Librarians discovered or 
thought they did that libraries in general were better prepared to 
circulate individual books for general reading and to assist in discovering 
information than they were to guide the adult reader in a process that 
might be, for him, distinctly educational. They, therefore, inaugurated 
a study of the adult education activities and possibilities of libraries 
through a special Commission of the American Library Association. 

The Commission found that "an outstanding deficiency in all forms 
of adult education work" is "the fact that books of suitable kind are 
in few instances supplied in numbers adequate for successful study." It 
recommended three major library activities: first, the maintenance of a 
consulting and advisory service for those who wish to pursue their 
studies independently, especially through the preparation of reading 
courses adapted to individual needs j second, the supplying of reliable 
information concerning opportunities for adult education outside the 

70 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 71 

library; and third, the furnishing of books for adult education activities 
maintained by other organizations. 

The Commission also recommended, "greater attention ... to 
methods by which interest in books and reading will be aroused among 
boys and girls" 3 the continuing of efforts to bring into existence read- 
able books adapted to the needs of adults with limited reading ability^ 
and the further development of state book collections and lending 
facilities to supplement limited local resources. 

The public library is one of democracy's devices for making the 
materials of education available to all citizens. Its chief function is the 
diffusion of ideas as recorded in print. It serves more millions of adults 
than any other publicly-supported adult education enterprise. Its effec- 
tive operation and use are, therefore, a basic necessity, not only for 
other adult education activities, but also for intelligent citizenship. 

In this period of economic distress, the adult education service of 
the library has taken on a new significance. The demand for vocational 
reading has increased greatly, both in preparation for new jobs and 
for increased efficiency in the present occupation. Enforced leisure has 
led some to cultural study. Many are reading eagerly in the hope of 
learning what is wrong with the world and what remedies may be 
found. Reading rooms are crowded, often with men who never before 
knew of the library opportunities open to them. Librarians are meeting 
the challenge, usually with reduced appropriations, and making every 
effort to maintain adult education and other essential library services. 
They are also participating in organized community programs of educa- 
tion or recreation for the unemployed, and cooperating with such 
agencies as "Opportunity Committees for the Unemployed," and with 
"Employment Assistance Bureaus" in planning reading for men seek- 
ing vocational readjustment. See the article on "Educational Opportuni- 
ties for the Unemployed" for a further discussion of library programs 
for the unemployed. 

As already noted, the first organized action was the appointment by 
the American Library Association in 1924 of a Commission on the 
Library and Adult Education, to survey the situation, and to report 
findings and recommendations. This report, Libraries and Adult Edu- 
cation, presented in 1926 after two years of study and conference on 
the part of the members and a staff at the Headquarters offices of the 
Association, is still a basic study. The Council of the American Library 
Association, in accepting the report, at once carried out one recommen- 
dation by setting up a standing Board on the Library and Adult Educa- 



72 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

tion, with members whose terms expire in rotation, to continue the 
work. 

The program of this Board, and its staff at Headquarters, includes 
the giving of information and advice to libraries and to state library 
extension agencies desiring assistance in the extension of their educa- 
tional work with adults 5 cooperation with national institutions, associa- 
tions, and organizations which have educational interests in common, 
such as the American Association for Adult Education and the World 
Association for Adult Education 5 conducting or assisting in investiga- 
tions and studies which promise to be of use to libraries 5 and promoting 
the idea of self-education through good reading. Work has been carried 
on through correspondence and field work, through publications of the 
Association, including the quarterly bulletin, Adult Education and the 
Library (1924-30), now discontinued, and through institutes and round 
tables at national conferences. 

A steadily increasing number of public libraries both municipal and 
county have now developed and are carrying on organized adult educa- 
tion services. While these show an encouraging variety, they fall into 
three major groups, according to the findings of Libraries and Adult 
Education. The first is the giving of consulting and advisory service, 
supplemented by suitable books, to those who wish to pursue their 
studies alone rather than in organized groups or classes. This is termed 
readers' advisory service, and is discussed kter. The second service con- 
sists of furnishing complete and reliable information concerning local 
opportunities for adult education conducted by organizations other than 
the library. The third type of service is supplying books and other 
printed material for adult education activities maintained by other 
organizations. As a result of these activities, the librarian has in several 
instances seen the need of joint action on the part of .local organizations 
and has been responsible for the formation of a local council of adult 
education (see the article on Community and State Organizations of 
Adult Education Agencies, p. 44). 

Large libraries carry on these services through a specially trained 
personnel, organized as a department, or through specialists in various 
departments. Smaller libraries, without a special staff, are doing effective 
work by giving personal service to individual students, by using all 
available tools, and by supplementing the local book supply from state 
book resources. 

The readers' adviser serves as a consultant to the individual inter- 
ested in informal self-education through reading. Like a physician, he 
first diagnoses, then prescribes to fit the particular need. Usually some- 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 73 

what removed from the busy circulation or reference department, the 
readers 3 adviser offers quiet, unhurried conference. A printed list will 
suit one reader; for another a list must be individually prepared. In 
some libraries, the needed books, in the order indicated on the list, are 
made available in the adviser's office 5 in others, the reader is sent with 
his list to the proper department or branch library to obtain the books. 
Those consulting the adviser range from college graduates to those 
with practically no formal education. Vocational and cultural subjects 
are both in demand. Since 1923 when the first experiments in readers' 
advisory service were undertaken, the number of libraries offering such 
help has grown to 48. One library reports 2,724 reading courses 
read in 1932, another an average enrollment of 125 a month. The 
readers' adviser also carries on many of the other adult education activi- 
ties mentioned. 

A cooperative service conducted by the American Library Associa- 
tion is the publication of the Reading with a Purpose courses. These 
courses, issued on a wide variety of subjects, combine an introductory 
statement by an authority with a brief list of readable books. A definite 
effort has been made to keep the courses simple, so that they may be 
suitable ,for the average reader. They have been of assistance particu- 
larly in the library without a special readers' adviser. In many libraries 
they are sold at a nominal price, as well as circulated. To date, 
67 courses have been issued, and nearly 800,000 copies sold. A special 
series on current economic and social problems entitled Exploring 
the Times is now being published. The American Library Associa- 
tion has also published a number of subject lists, such as For Thinking 
America. Libraries also make use of lists and courses issued by univer- 
sity extension divisions, notably, those of the University of North 
Carolina, and by .organizations such as the American Association of 
University Women, alumni groups, and others. Some of the larger 
libraries compile and print their own lists. 

Through printed notices, talks, and personal contacts, the library 
offers organized groups of all kinds such special services as program 
helps and outlines, reading lists on topics studied by groups, special 
collections of books assembled on reserve shelves in the library or de- 
posited at the group's headquarters, book talks and exhibits, lessons on 
the use of the library or a library tour, the use of the library's audito- 
rium or club rooms. Women's dubs, parent-teacher groups, garden and 
other clubs have long used these services. 

Special effort is made to reach young people just leaving school 
and those studying in the organized continuation and night schools. 



74 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

Citizenship classes frequently meet in the library or are brought to the 
library for an introductory visit, contact is made with organizations of 
the foreign born, and simple books for those learning English, in addi- 
tion to books in foreign languages, are made available. Labor unions 
and workers' colleges use deposit collections. Some large industries, 
such as the American Telephone and Telegraph Company and the 
Western Electric Company, buy Reading with a Purpose courses in 
quantity and distribute them to key people on the staff. Special busi- 
ness or company libraries often give educational as well as informa- 
tional service to the employees and make a definite effort to develop 
reading interest. 

Libraries have been quick to take advantage of the stimulus to 
serious, continued reading on topics of the day afforded by the educa- 
tional broadcasts of such organizations as the League of Women Voters 
and the National Advisory Council on Radio in Education. The Amer- 
ican Library Association prepared reading lists for several of these 
series, encouraged those broadcasting to refer the student to his local 
library, and sent out publicity concerning the broadcasts to libraries. 
Individual libraries feature the program announcements on their bul- 
letin boards and distribute them, display the books referred to for ad- 
vance or follow-up reading, sell or distribute the reprints of the talks. 
Some libraries have formed listeners' groups. The Association has pre- 
pared a pamphlet, The Broadcaster and the Librarian, in cooperation 
with the National Advisory Council on Radio in Education. 

The implications of the new movement for alumni education affect 
both college and public libraries profoundly. The A. L.A. Board on the 
Library and Adult Education has served as a clearing house for informa- 
tion on this subject for libraries, and has distributed to a selected num- 
ber the report, Alumni and Adult Education, by Wilfred B. Shaw. A 
sub-committee is continuing to study possibilities of library cooperation. 
It has suggested that the college library's share in the work should 
include the preparation of book lists, the organization of libraries for 
alumni, the actual lending of books, the summary of book sources avail- 
able to alumni in their own communities, and informational service to 
alumni based on material found in books. One library commission coop- 
erates with a college in making the monthly lists of alumni reading 
available to public libraries all over the state. The libraries are posting 
the lists on their bulletin boards and buying the books they lack 5 the 
college urges alumni to use their local libraries and supplies the books 
listed to those who have no access to public libraries. One public library 
secures lists of local alumni from all colleges having alumni reading 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 75 

programs and circularizes the alumni, offering them the resources of the 
library. 

Adequate provision of books in Braille for blind readers is now 
being developed by means of Federal grants to the Library of Congress 
for building up its own collection and that of twenty-two regional col- 
lections in strategically located state and city libraries. The public 
library, which can not meet the heavy expense of building up a separate 
collection, makes the contact with the potential reader and then borrows 
books, postage free, from the nearest regional center. 

The unusual opportunity for adult education in the enforced leisure 
of hospital and correctional or penal institutions, has been recognized. 
More and more city and county libraries are giving extension service 
to local institutions, under the supervision of a librarian qualified for the 
special type of work. A few states have shown the possibilities of effec- 
tive library service in state institutions, organized under a state super- 
visor of institution libraries, or conducted through cooperation between 
the state library commission and the university extension service. The 
Federal government has set up institutional library service under a 
supervising librarian in both the Veterans 5 Administration and the 
Department of Justice. 

Under the county library system a reader served by the smallest 
branch in the cross-roads store or the one-room school may call for 
any service the system offers and obtain it quickly, whether it be books, 
individual reading lists, or reading courses. Opportunity for adult edu- 
cation is provided rural people in some two hundred and thirty coun- 
ties by county libraries. These libraries carry on, necessarily in more 
informal fashion, many of the adult education activities of city libraries. 
The county librarian is prepared to aid the individual student with all 
the resources at her command. She is alert to reinforce the educational 
programs of rural organizations, such as the grange or farm bureau, and 
to assist the county agent and home demonstrator, with books, program 
aids, and study outlines. 

State library extension agencies (state library commissions or state 
libraries, or library divisions of state departments of education) in the 
several states serve as central lending libraries for the state, supple- 
menting the resources of the small public libraries, and giving direct 
service in adult education to persons without local public library service. 
The isokted student calls on the state library agency for reading courses 
or book lists and for the books themselves. The small library with very 
limited resources can, given an alert librarian, borrow constantly from 
the state agency, for a serious reader, books that it could not afford or 



j6 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

might not need again. One state agency with a large collection (Cali- 
fornia) maintains also a union catalog of the larger libraries of the 
state, so that it can locate and make available to the library needing 
it any volume to be found in the libraries of that state. If not available 
there, recourse is had to the Library of Congress. 

For study groups, the state library agency provides both program 
material or study outlines, and books, for long or short time loans. 
Such service is often developed in cooperation with state-wide organiza- 
tions. When one or more of these organizations undertake to study 
parent education, for example, the state library agency purchases in 
some quantity the needed and recommended books, and makes them 
available to groups anywhere in the state. In several states university 
credits are given for reading course work through cooperation between 
the state library extension agency and the university extension division. 

The state library extension agency may take the initiative in meeting 
a state-wide need. An example of this is the program for unemployed 
young people, started by the Oregon State Library, described in the 
article on "Educational Opportunities for the Unemployed" (p. 238). 

The dependence of university extension students upon reference 
books for consultation, and upon a variety of books for collateral and 
supplementary reading, was brought out in a recent report of a Joint 
Committee of the National University Extension Association and the 
American Library Association. This report states that there are two 
types of students needing book service: correspondence students scat- 
tered throughout the state, and students in class centers. Class centers 
are usually located in cities with public libraries, and cooperative meth- 
ods have been developed through which the library is consulted in 
advance by the class organizer and instructor, the material already avail- 
able is collected, additional books bought or borrowed, a reserve shelf 
set up for use of students, or if distances are great, the books actually 
deposited in the class center. For correspondence students who live in 
library service areas, a pkn of cooperation has been worked out whereby 
the extension division notifies the library of the enrollment of a student 
and of his book needs, and calls the student's attention to the help he 
can secure from the library. Students without local public libraries 
borrow from the state library extension agency, from the university 
extension division itself or, in some cases, from the university library. 

The need for the simple, humanized, readable book was recognized 
as fundamental in Libraries and Adult Education. After some research 
on the part of librarians, the American Library Association published 
in 1929 a preliminary list entitled, Readable Books in Many Subjects, 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 77 

compiled by Emma Felsenthal, including some 369 titles embodying in 
some degree simplicity of language, non-technical treatment, brevity of 
statement, fluency, adult approach, and vitality. Cooperation of pub- 
lishers in issuing more books of this type has been solicited. The Amer- 
ican Library Association Board on the Library and Adult Education is 
now continuing the investigation through a Sub-Committee on Read- 
able Books, working closely with Dean W. S. Gray of the University 
of Chicago, studying useful books for foreign-born adults learning 
English, for native-born adults of limited education, and for adult edu- 
cation groups interested in social studies but requiring simple books and 
texts. 

Reading habits and interests of adults are being investigated by a 
Joint Committee on Adult Reading of the American Association for 
Adult Education and the American Library Association. Such studies as 
What People Want To Read About, by Douglas Waples and R. W. 
Tyler, and The Reading Interests and Habits of Adults, by W. S. Gray 
and Ruth Munroe results of studies initiated upon recommendation 
of the Committee have already given the librarian definite data and 
scientific methods. Recent or current studies include reading in the 
Seward Park Branch Library district (the lower East Side of New 
York City) by Douglas Waples and the preparation and classification of 
reading materials for adults of different levels of reading efficiency, by 
W. S. Gray. 

CARL H. MILAM, Secretary, 
American Library Association. 



Adult education methods for libraries are in man7 instances still in the 
experimental stage. The reports of some of these experiments are contained 
in the list of adult education programs conducted by individual libraries 
printed below. Lack of space makes it impossible to include all libraries with 
such programs, but care has been taken to select various types of programs to 
present an adequate picture of the whole field. The following list is arranged 
alphabetically by state and city. 



BIRMINGHAM PUBLIC LIBRARY, Bir- t^fa at institutes and to parent-teacher 

mingham, Ala., Lila May Chapman, associations; prepares book lists on spe- 

fo r cial phases of character education chosen 

annually for emphasis in schools; mu- 

Distributes at library and by mail seum and art gallery; works with local 

radio lectures on contemporary literature committees for specific civic enterprises 

and accompanying reading lists; spon- such as an exhibit of Italian art (1931) 

sors public lectures and dramatic read- and Cotton Exhibition (1932) ; audi- 

ings; cooperates with schools by giving toriums available for university exten- 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



sion classes, clubs, and other groups; 
music room with piano; books for the 
blind j advisory service for individuals 
and groups; Reading with a Purpose 
courses recommended and displayed; 
printed lists and posters from A.L.A. 
and other sources on display and for 
distribution. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY, Pine Bluff, Ark., Car- 
roll W. Bishop. In. 

Librarian or reference librarian acts 
as readers' adviser and gives advice on 
reading courses; uses Reading with a 
Purpose series; suggests material and 
current literature to readers, secures ma- 
terial listed for local night school 
classes; lists vocational readings for the 
unemployed; provides parents' shelf of 
books and magazines; makes talks before 
discussion groups upon request; monthly 
Book Lovers' Tea, open to public, aims 
to stimulate good community reading. 

LITTLE ROCK PUBLIC LIBRARY, Little 
Rock, Ark., Vera J. Snook, In. 

Librarian and reference librarian 
carry on adult education work and make 
available Reading with a Purpose and 
other lists and courses; supplies book 
needs of local business and industrial 
men and maintains child study collection 
for use of parent-teacher organizations; 
library lends small collections to study 
groups; cooperates with women's clubs; 
American Association of University 
Women meets in library. 

SOLANO COUNTY FREE LIBRARY, Fair- 
field, Calif., Edith Gantt, In. 

Librarian, special request assistant, 
and head of branches carry on adult 
education as part of reference work; 
library makes use of Reading with a 
Purpose and other courses; cooperates 
with parent-teacher associations, women's 
clubs, American Association of Univer- 



sity Women, and with Americanization 
teachers in informal, individual work 
with foreigners; carries on individual 
work with people all over county, fol- 
lowed up through branch libraries; Pub- 
lic Speaking Class uses assembly room 
of library; plans to organize book dis- 
cussion group and gardening club. 

LONG BEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY, Long 
Beach, Calif., Theodora R. Brewitt, 
/#., Nora Hacker, m charge, readers' 
aid deft. 

Readers' adviser, with three assistants, 
combines advisory service with general 
assistance to readers, prepares reading 
lists and reading courses, registers read- 
ers, promotes use of Reading with a 
Purpose courses, advises individual read- 
ers, maintains collection of books about 
books, files of current book reviews, 
reading lists, and special card files and 
indexes to make information about 
books easily available; adult education 
supervisor makes all special group con- 
tacts (95 organizations served last year), 
gives book reviews, promotes and assists 
"Read-a-Book-Together" groups, and 
other groups with book programs, and 
conducts book discussion groups; library 
cooperates with evening schools by visits 
to class rooms and distribution of book 
lists on subject of courses; sponsors 
course of lectures on current books; 
maintains bulletin boards and informa- 
tion files listing educational opportuni- 
ties and cultural events. 

Los ANGELES COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY, 
Los Angeles, Calif., Helen E. Vogle- 
son, /. 

Head of branches division cooper- 
ates with secretary of California Asso- 
ciation for Adult Education in endeavor 
to establish small study and discussion 
groups in different parts of county; 
branch library rooms offered for meet- 
ing places with library supplying books 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



79 



and other material needed; five such 
groups organized with branch librarian 
serving as chairman or as chairman of 
program committee; county librarian, 
member of Southern Section of Califor- 
nia Association for Adult Education, ac- 
tively cooperates with group of county 
employees organized as County Govern- 
ment Conference, under auspices of 
University of Southern California, and 
supplies study material and brief bib- 
liography for topics presented at weekly 
meetings by different departments, 
attendance, 25-60; through cor- 
respondence with branch library read- 
ers, Reference Division carries on read- 
ers' advisory service; contacts made by 
professionally trained members of staff 
with women's clubs, parent-teacher as- 
sociations, and business and professional 
groups of men and women; nineteen 
such groups, including 1,558 adults ad- 
dressed during year 1931-32; staff gives 
book review talks before local clubs and 
broadcasts weekly radio talks over 
county; also edits bulletin, Books and 
Notes which carries complete anno- 
tated list of books added to collection 
and timely reading lists on various sub- 
jects. 

Los ANGELES PUBLIC LIBRARY, Los An- 
geles, Calif., Althea H. Warren, /., 
Mary Alice Boyd, readers' adviser. 

Adult Education Department includes 
readers' advisory service, general infor- 
mational service, and assistance at union 
catalog, carried on by five trained li- 
brarians; equipment includes files of 
current information concerning adult 
education opportunities (35 evening 
high schools and 2 university exten- 
sion divisions cooperating), and a lend- 
ing collection of boob listed in Reading 
with a Purpose courses; services include: 
display and explanation of Reading with 
a Purpose courses; enrollment of average 
of 125 readers montlxly in reading 



courses; sale of 4,000 Reading with a 
Purpose booklets annually; circulation of 
10,000 books annually; compilation of 
individual lists and study courses; giv- 
ing of club and radio talks; placing of 
exhibits on appreciation of books in li- 
brary; writing occasional papers for pro- 
fessional journals or library meetings; 
working with young people; visiting 
high schools, and giving talks and mak- 
ing lists for young people and leaders; 
giving special aid to young people using 
central library; additional adult educa- 
tion service given by library; free lec- 
ture courses sponsored by library de- 
partment heads, given by university pro- 
fessors and others, annual attendance, 
150,000, publicity on library oppor- 
tunities through press, radio (weekly pe- 
riod donated by local station), and talks 
to clubs and other groups; reading lists 
on specialized subjects and new books 
prepared; book reviews given by li- 
brarians before groups on request; chil- 
dren's librarians cooperate with parent- 
teacher groups; meeting places afforded 
clubs and classes in branches and central 
library; groups conducted through li- 
brary by special appointment; book clubs 
held in branch libraries, conducted by 
librarians; discussion groups in branch 
libraries with leaders sponsored by Cali- 
fornia Association for Adult Education; 
national educational broadcasts noted 
with displays and lists. 

STANISLAUS COUNTY FREE LIBRARY, 
Modesto, Calif., Bessie B. Silverthorn, 
In. 

Displays and encourages use of Read- 
ing with a Purpose courses; main library 
has shelf devoted to boob for parent- 
teacher association which often meets in 
library's assembly room; in cooperation 
with American Association of Univer- 
sity Women, library conducts series of 
lectures on timely topics given by mem- 
bers of Modesto Junior College faculty 



8o 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



during winter months, county librarian 
suggests books for study club reviews 
and plays to be read and discussed by 
modern play study club. 

NAPA COUNTY FREE LIBRARY, Napa, 
Calif., Estella De Ford, In. 

Readers' advisory service is librarian's 
special hobby; social club has been or- 
ganized among French-speaking people 
of county to further study of the lan- 
guage and of the reading of French and 
English books j open forum, organized 
under auspices of library, meets 
monthly. 

SAN DIEGO PUBLIC LIBRARY, San 
Diego, Calif., Cornelia Dyer Plais- 
ter, /#., Ruth M. Fiet, reader? ad- 
viser, Jean Bennett, student admser. 

Adult education program in charge 
of librarian, principal assistants in cir- 
culation, reference and business de- 
partments, and readers' adviser; read- 
ers' aid department has bibliographies, 
indexes, radio notebooks, local edu- 
cational opportunities, clipping and 
pamphlet file, unmounted picture file, 
reference books, Reading with a Pur- 
pose series; cooperates with local edu- 
cational organizations, such as extension 
division of University of California, ex- 
tension program city schools, open fo- 
rums, museums and art galleries, etc.; 
compiles and checks bibliographies; dis- 
plays, featuring educational events, study 
courses, radio broadcasts; student adviser 
checks and follows high school and col- 
lege curricula. 

DENVER PUBLIC LIBRARY, Denver, 
Colo., Malcolm G. Wyer, /#., May 
Wood Wigginton, reader? adviser. 

Readers' adviser prepares special read- 
ing lists, distributes Reading with a 
Purpose courses, and advises and sug- 
gests solutions to reading problems 
through conference with individuals; 



gives book reviews and reading talks to 
clubs and other organizations; with 
librarian, is a member of Adult Educa- 
tion Council of Denver, and has charge 
of reading for all extension courses in 
local colleges and universities; commu- 
nity clubs in various branches (about 
fifty during a year) include in pro- 
grams book reviews, book talks, and 
travel lectures, staff prepares reading 
courses on freshman college subjects for 
benefit of high school graduates not able 
to attend college, and vocational read- 
ing lists for unemployed, library cer- 
tificate of reading given in each project; 
through cooperation with Denver Art 
Museum, holds art exhibits at various 
branch libraries with art appreciation 
lectures by museum staff. 

BRIDGEPORT PUBLIC LIBRARY AND 
READING ROOM, Bridgeport, Conn., 
Orlando C. Davis, In. 

Adult education program conducted 
as part of work of various departments; 
maintains up-to-date subject directory 
of all classes held in city and of uni- 
versity home study courses; features 
Reading with a Purpose courses and sup- 
plies books for these and other courses 
in city, staff meets with program com- 
mittees of literary clubs and parent- 
teacher groups; advises social and recrea- 
tional workers who plan study for lead- 
ers; staff gives talks to education groups; 
teaches use of library to night school 
classes and to other groups on request; 
reference shelves for students in busi- 
ness schools, colleges, university exten- 
sion courses, religious schools, parent- 
teacher courses, citizenship courses. 

NEW HAVEN FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, 
New Haven, Conn., Lindsey Brown, 
In., Beatrice E. Kelliher, readers' ad- 
viser. 

Prepares special reading lists and 
courses, including Reading with a Pur- 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



8l 



pose series; has information on hand 
about adult education opportunities and 
current local events of cultural value; 
cooperates with trades council and labor 
classes, parent-teacher association, eve- 
ning schools and citizenship classes, rec- 
reation centers, racial groups, character 
building associations, and county jail; 
conducts discussion groups and book 
talks occasionally; book column for Sun- 
day newspaper. 

FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Washington, 
D. C., George F. Bowerman, /#., 
Grace B. Finney, chief of advisory 
service, 

Readers 5 advisory service under adult 
education department; division has spe- 
cialized readers' advisers in charge of 
divisions of fine arts, biography, fiction, 
history, and sociology; readers' advisers 
at two major branches; specialized ad- 
visory service given by Technology and 
Washingtoniana Divisions, readers' ad- 
viser in drama attached to reference 
department and readers' adviser to 
adults in children's literature in chil- 
dren's department; collections of Read- 
ing with a Purpose courses at central 
library and major branches; courses also 
sold at all agencies and displayed on 
bulletin board and with collections of 
special or seasonal interest; staff pre- 
pares book lists and reading courses upon 
request, for individuals, for Commu- 
nity Chest, and other groups engaged in 
community and social work, for the 
press (including two weekly lists, one 
on current events), and for library pub- 
lications, lectures, and theatrical per- 
formances; prepares reading list to 
accompany each program of local sym- 
phony orchestra and special lists on sub- 
jects of general interest; Has reference 
file of educational agencies and file of 
catalogs of local schools and univer- 
sities; devotes bulletin board to cur- 
rent educational opportunities; exhibits 



books m connection with educational 
broadcasts, lectures, concerts, drama, 
moving pictures; gives assistance to 
women's clubs with programs and pa- 
pers; gives book talks to local parent* 
teacher association classes from normal 
schools and colleges, clubs and organi- 
zations, and book reviews before sections 
of American Association of University 
Women, Federation of Women's Clubs, 
community clubs, etc.; supplies books 
to educational and social agencies; fur- 
nishes extension service to District Re- 
formatory and to one local hospital; 
gives series of radio book reviews, 
twenty-five weekly talks in 1932-33, 
with library service talk at the end of 
review; publicity through articles and 
announcements in local papers and bul- 
letins, edits monthly bulletin with lists 
on specialized or seasonal subjects; pub- 
lishes monthly Bulletin of Informal 
Educational Opportunities; distributes 
free science and other book lists pre- 
pared and published by other agencies. 

JACKSONVILLE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Jack- 
sonville, Fla., Joseph F. Marron, /#., 
Elizabeth Carter, readers* adviser. 

Emphasizes preparation of reading 
lists for individuals and Reading with 
a Purpose series; keeps records of edu- 
cational broadcasts and of local educa- 
tional opportunities, latter often listed 
In main catalog; prepares book lists for 
open forums, sends them to newspapers, 
and displays them in outdoor kiosk; staff 
gives book talks and exhibits at branches; 
book reviews to newspapers and weekly 
feature, "Books and Current Events." 

CARNEGIE LIBRARY, Atlanta, Ga., Jes- 
sie Hopkins, In. 

Library participating in adult educa- 
tion experiment for Negroes, (see article 
on Adult Education for Negroes.) 



82 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



SAVANNAH PUBLIC LIBRARY, Savannah, 
Ga., Ola M. Wyeth, /., Ruth H. 
Thomson, readers' adviser. 

Readers' adviser plans reading courses 
and makes reading lists to supplement 
them 5 assists new members to get ac- 
quainted with library and helps them 
in selection of books; uses Reading with 
a Purpose courses, distributes special 
reading lists at lectures sponsored by 
Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
and prepares exhibits at library on sub- 
jects of these lectures, gives help to 
those taking extension courses and those 
responsible for civic celebrations in 
planning club programs, book reviews 
appear every week in local newspapers 
and form feature of library's weekly 
radio broadcasts ; publicity given to adult 
education activities of library through 
newspaper, the radio, contact with con- 
tinuation schools, talks before parent- 
teacher associations and other organiza- 
tions. 

CHICAGO PUBLIC LIBRARY, Chicago, 
111., Carl B. Roden, /., Alice M. 
Farquhar, readers' adviser. 

Reader's bureau makes study outlines 
for individuals and groups, and sup- 
plies necessary books; assists club pro- 
gram chairmen in making programs and 
securing material for papers; assists in 
rinding particular book for particular 
need; makes available with the books, 
other reading courses, including Read- 
ing with a Purpose series, Department 
of Education series, etc.; maintains file 
of adult education opportunities in city; 
active member of Chicago Adult Edu- 
cation Council, special services, such as 
use of lecture hall, book talks, special 
book collections, study outlines, etc., 
given all types of adult education work 
in city, including Americanization, hos- 
pital work, evening classes, university 
extension, corporation schools, parent- 



teacher associations, etc.; both branches 
and main library give bulletin board 
and local newspaper publicity to edu- 
cational broadcasts, compile special sup- 
plementary reading lists, and set up 
reserve collections when requested. 

DECATUR PUBLIC LIBRARY, Decatur, 
111., Minnie A. Dill, In. 

Displays Reading with a Purpose 
series in conspicuous place; cooperates 
with lecture courses in city by exhibit- 
ing books recommended, posting reading 
lists, and supplying copies to sponsors; 
talks by business men and university 
professors on economics and world af- 
fairs, etc., given in meeting room of 
library; staff members give talks at 
parent-teacher meetings, woman's club, 
and other organizations; large posters 
advertising library placed in Relief 
headquarters, and lists of books made 
for executive head of this organization; 
reference librarian gives some advisory 
service to individuals. 



PUBLIC LIBRARY, DeKalb, 
111., Juanita Engstrand, In. 

Holds community forum three eve- 
nings a week on present-day social prob- 
lems, economics and politics, in charge 
of professors from State Teachers Col- 
lege, books for classes furnished by 
public library, college library, and indi- 
vidual instructors; lectures open to all 
adults except students and teachers. 

GLENCOE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Glencoe, 
111., Sarah S. Hammond, In. 

Plans and sponsors monthly discus- 
sion groups or forums held Sunday af- 
ternoons in library at which reviews of 
books on international affairs are given; 
attendance averages fifty; French class, 
department of local woman's club, meets 
weekly in library. 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



MITCHELL CARNEGIE PUBLIC LIBRARY, 
Harrisburg, 111., Bernice W. Wiede- 
mann, In. 

Advises readers informally, and sup- 
plies Reading with a Purpose series and 
books suggested by state extension divi- 
sion; provides Child Study Club, Del- 
phian Study Club, and woman's club 
with selected books for study and ma- 
terial for papers; Home Bureau coop- 
erates in making suggestions and in dis- 
tribution of lists; gives book talks each 
winter, followed by discussion; spon- 
sors forums on current questions. 

HIGHLAND PARK PUBLIC LIBRARY, 
Highland Park, 111., Cora Hendee, 
/. 

Series of displays, chiefly of non- 
fiction material, changed every two 
weeks; two exhibits a year of Reading 
with a Purpose courses, and alumni and 
other reading lists; staff gives talks to 
parent-teacher associations, women's 
clubs, chamber of commerce, Rotary 
Club, foreign language group, and 
others; posts best radio programs; gives 
autumn series of six book talks, closing 
with Book Week, aided each time by 
local authority on subject under dis- 
cussion; winter series of talks by local 
celebrities; two regular weekly articles 
in newspapers. 

PEORIA PUBLIC LIBRARY, Peoria, 111., 
Earl W. Browning, In., Nella Beeson, 
reader? adviser. 

Readers' adviser gives talks to busi- 
ness women's clubs and talks on Read- 
ing with a Purpose courses to nurses' 
training class; aids women's clubs in 
planning club programs; makes reading 
lists for readers with special interests; 
evening school classes visit library each 
year for tour of building and introduc- 
tion to special departments; holds an- 
nually eight art exhibits in Art Depart- 
ment; displays spring and fall non- 



83 

fiction in business district store window, 
changing exhibits weekly for ten weeks. 

INDIANAPOLIS PUBLIC LIBRARY, Indian- 
apolis, Ind., Luther L. Dickerson, /#., 
Catherine Bailey, reader? adviser, 

Readers' adviser interviews readers 
interested in self-education through 
reading, gives advice as to suitable books 
and outlines reading courses, has file of 
information about local educational op- 
portunities, displays and promotes use 
of Reading with a Purpose courses; 
courses circulated and sold at all libra- 
ries; librarian chairman of Indianapolis 
Association for Adult Education; library 
gives special assistance to members of 
Federated Women's Clubs following 
Reading with a Purpose, United States 
Bureau of Education, or Indiana Uni- 
versity reading courses for credit in 
Epsilon Sigma Omicron, national honor 
society; cooperates with Butler Univer- 
sity Extension Department in assembling 
groups in library auditorium to listen to 
National Advisory Council on Radio in 
Education "Listen and Learn" broad- 
casts, with special display and advertising 
of books to accompany radio broadcasts; 
reserves books and provides collections 
where needed for university extension 
and similar adult classes; gives special 
assistance to adults seeking to qualify for 
high school credits; prepares bibliogra- 
phies and prints lists for discussion 
groups; prints programs and book lists 
for symphony concerts, art exhibits, 
Jewish community center programs, and 
other important lectures; provides seven 
auditoriums without cost for lectures, 
concerts, literary and educational meet- 
ings, and three small rooms for adult 



SOUTH BEND PUBLIC LIBRARY, South 
Bend, Ind., Ethel G. Baker, In. 

Emphasis placed on individual con- 
tacts; outlines for reading and study 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



made according to reader's interests and 
needs; assistance given clubs in develop- 
ing programs and finding desired ma- 
terial; supervisor teaches use of catalog 
and location of commonly used refer- 
ence books, encourages borrowers to 
select non-fiction; staff members give 
talks to groups when requested. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY OF WARSAW AND 
WAYNE TOWNSHIP, Warsaw, Ind., 
Miriam Netter, In. 

Gives informal guidance to individ- 
ual readers, especially in vocational 
reading; uses Reading with a Purpose 
and other courses in connection with 
project of State Federation of Women's 
Clubs and Extension Division of Indiana 
University leading to membership in 
honor sorority; completion of four 
courses required for membership. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 
E. Joanna Hagey, In. 

Reading with a Purpose courses used 
extensively, compiles reading lists; book 
displays; collection of Bohemian books, 
lends books to stores for salesmanship 
classes, etc.; reserves sections for parent- 
teacher associations; cooperates with 
women's clubs. 

FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, Eva T. Canon, In. 

Librarian, reference librarian, and 
assistant librarian carry on adult educa- 
tion work; display Reading with a Pur- 
pose series; post radio announcements 
of educational value and distribute lists 
from main desk; list of all local edu- 
cational organizations on file; in close 
touch with parent-teacher associations 
and women's clubs; night school classes 
visit library each year; book talks given 
frequently at clubs by staff members; 
extension classes from two Omaha insti- 
tutions meet at library. 



DBS MOINES PUBLIC LIBRARY, Des 
Moines, Iowa, Forrest B. Spaulding, 
In. 

Cooperates with all adult education 
activities in city; staff members address 
many meetings; two auditoriums and 
two small rooms at library open to pub- 
lic for meetings of educational nature; 
prepares book lists and courses for indi- 
viduals and groups; Reading with a 
Purpose used to some extent; gives pub- 
licity on bulletin boards and by exhibits 
at main library, branches, and stations 
to educational programs, broadcasts, and 
forums; newspaper publicity on all 
library activities; other activities of 
library include radio talks (given by 
librarian weekly for past five years), 
exhibits, cooperation with local theaters 
in promoting better films, etc. ; provides 
books for use in connection with public 
forums, and assists with publicity. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY, Indianola, Iowa, Mary 
E. McCoy, In. 

Supplies reference material for club 
programs and help in program making; 
annual library program at parent-teacher 
association meeting; list of educational 
broadcasts on bulletin board; gives 
county farm bureau agent help in pre- 
paring talks on monetary system, agri- 
cultural economics, etc.; book talks and 
forums held at library, attendance 
nearly one hundred, contributes articles 
and news notes about books and library 
activities to local newspaper. 

WICHITA CITY LIBRARY, Wichita, Kan., 
Ruth E. Hammond, In., Gayle Clark, 
reader? adviser. 

Encourages use of Reading with a 
Purpose courses through newspaper pub- 
licity and personal contact; prepares 
brief reading lists to meet individual 
needs and special book lists for study 
clubs; gives clubs assistance in outlining 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



programs; prepares displays of books for 
parent-teacher associations, American 
Association of University Women, 
women's clubs, and other groups; gives 
book talks and book reviews before vari- 
ous groups including hospital nurses' 
training class; posts information con- 
cerning night school courses of Oppor- 
tunity School and extension courses 
of Municipal University, educational 
radio broadcasts and local events of 
educational value; holds art exhibits 
under auspices of Wichita Art Associa- 
tion in library auditorium; various clubs 
and study groups hold meetings in 
library auditorium and committee rooms; 
foreign population small but library 
purchases Spanish and Arabic books for 
use of Mexican and Syrian readers; 
makes special effort to assist unemployed 
with information about various vocations 
and with inspirational and practical 
reading. 

LOUISVILLE FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, 
Louisville, Ky., Harold F. Brigham, 
In. 

Emphasizes personal advisory and 
information service to individuals and 
groups interested in programs of read- 
ing and study; aids in preparing pro- 
grams for clubs and other groups; pre- 
pares special reading lists for individuals 
and distributes reading guides, especially 
Reading with a Purpose series; main- 
tains extensive reserve collections for 
local school classes and study groups; 
gives special publicity to educational 
broadcasts and prepares book displays 
for these; gives occasional radio talks on 
books and reading; posts announcements 
of local lectures and other educational 
events; maintains large scientific mu- 
seum, comprehensive in scope, and pro- 
vides guide tours for classes and groups; 
Parent-Teacher Room offers advisory 
and information service on children's 
books and reading, story telling, dramat- 



ics, and child guidance; calendar of 
local educational events posted in library 
and published weekly in newspaper; 
conducted children's reading, dramatic, 
and story telling clinic for adults as ex- 
perimental community project, covering 
wide range of studies and investigations, 
findings to be promulgated through 
educational program. 

BANGOR PUBLIC LIBRARY, Bangor, Me., 
Elmar T. Boyd, /., Helen W. Yost, 
reader? adviser. 

Head of Circulation Department ad- 
vises borrowers in book selection, stress- 
ing Reading with a Purpose courses; 
calls attention of readers to educational 
broadcasts; book deposits available to 
Americanization class, women's clubs, 
and small reading groups. 

PORTLAND PUBLIC LIBRARY, Portland, 
Me., Jane L. Burbank, /. 

Reference librarian advises readers 
and conducts follow-up on Reading with 
a Purpose courses, but library has no 
formal adult education program; pro- 
vides individual assistance and books for 
many women's clubs, parent-teacher 
groups, and night schools; radio talks 
given each week during winter; mem- 
bers of staff speak at weekly book club 
of Y.W.C.A. and at other study clubs; 
publishes book lists weekly in local 
newspaper. 

ENOCH PRATT FREE LIBRARY, Balti- 
more, Md., Joseph L. Wheeler, /., 
Marion E. Hawes, reader? adviser. 

Will offer lectures, book talks, and 
discussion groups when funds permit use 
of lecture room in new building; adver- 
tises Reading with a Purpose courses 
through show windows in library and 
other displays; makes contacts with local 
groups. 



86 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, Boston, Mass., 
Milton E. Lord, dir. 

Conducts no formal readers' advisory 
service, since demands in this direction 
seem best cared for by specialists in 
library's various departments; provides 
upon application, lists of books and in- 
formation regarding educational courses 
in Boston; cooperates with University 
Extension Division of Massachusetts 
Department of Education and other in- 
stitutions in Boston and vicinity by 
reserving books needed in extension 
courses; l6,ooo lantern slides available 
for loan; program of approximately 100 
free concerts and lectures yearly in Lec- 
ture Hall of Central Library; exhibi- 
tions throughout the year, including 
scholarly exhibitions of incunabula and 
other literary rarities in Library's Treas- 
ure Room; editor of library publications 
frequently gives talks on special ex- 
hibits; publishes brief reading lists occa- 
sionally. 

BROCKTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, Brockton, 
Mass., Harland A. Carpenter, In. 

Reference Department responsible 
for readers' advisory service; gives in- 
formation service about adult education 
opportunities in Greater Boston; series 
of free travel lectures annually; special 
art exhibits for public; cooperates with 
State University Extension courses held 
in library lecture hall; lecture hall avail- 
able for public meetings of civic and 
educational organizations. 

HAVERHILL PUBLIC LIBRARY, Haver- 
hill, Mass., Donald K. Campbell, In. 

Reference librarian assists women's 
clubs in selecting subjects, working up 
bibliographies, collecting material; one 
set of Reading with a Purpose books 
used in advising readers, second set dis- 
played on table in Reference Room; 
compiles individual reading courses and 
recommends reading and source material 



for Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., and Gir-ls' 
Club leaders for courses in ethics, psy- 
chology, sociology, etc.; state extension 
department conducts weekly lecture 
course at library; many club meetings 
at library; talks made to parent-teacher 
and other groups; art exhibits in lec- 
ture hall; Americanization teachers meet 
at library to consult with director, libra- 
rian, and reference librarian about 
methods of library cooperation and to 
select small libraries of books for de- 
posit in class rooms; classes given in- 
struction in use of library; reading 
course books collected and kept on ref- 
erence shelves for use of teachers, regu- 
lar newspaper publicity includes "Ques- 
tion Box" feature, "Books with a Job," 
"United States in History," book re- 
views, and stories on special services. 

CITY LIBRARY, Springfield, Mass., 
Hiller C. Wellman, /., Ida Farrar, 
adviser for foreign language group. 

Ten particularly qualified assistants 
from Reference and Art Departments 
make up advisory service; card index of 
educational opportunities available in 
city; advertises and distributes Reading 
with a Purpose series; reserves books for 
use of women's clubs, university exten- 
sion courses, continuation schools, and 
other organizations; compiles lists of 
books for various local industries, and 
courses of reading on special subjects; 
foreign language groups visit library and 
receive instruction in use of resources; 
provides large collections of pictures and 
phonograph records for use of organi- 
zations and individuals, carries on adult 
education in art and natural history mu- 
seums connected with library, by means 
of lectures, exhibitions, moving pictures, 
and instruction classes, receives pub- 
licity through library bulletin and news- 
paper notes; members of staff give talks 
to clubs, classes, parent-teacher associa- 
tion, etc. 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



WORCESTER FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, 
Worcester, Mass., Robert Kendall 
Shaw, In. 

Provides assistance for persons writing 
club papers and graduate theses j pre- 
pares bibliographies; special collections 
in child study, music, art, and foreign 
languages; maintains deposits in fac- 
tories, hospitals, homes for the aged, 
child guidance clinic; monthly art ex- 
hibitions; book talks (occasionally over 
radio) before women's clubs, mothers' 
clubs, League for the Hard of Hearing, 
women's groups and others in foreign 
and native churches; books for teachers 
of foreign language and Americaniza- 
tion classes; special facilities for teachers 
and normal college students; furnishes 
lists of State University Extension 
courses and books for their use; coop- 
erates with pastors of foreign and native 
churches; sponsors talks at branches; 
book reviews to newspapers and civic 
weekly. 

DETROIT PUBLIC LIBRARY, Detroit, 
Mich., Adam Strohm, In. 

Pioneered m field of adult education; 
part of program discontinued tempo- 
rarily because of lack of funds. 

GRAND RAPIDS PUBLIC LIBRARY, Grand 
Rapids, Mich., Samuel H. Ranck, In. 

No one person designated readers' ad- 
viser but many assistants act in this 
capacity; library prepares reading lists 
for individuals on request; emphasizes 
Reading with a Purpose courses; sub- 
scribes for periodicals in field of every 
local trade, business, profession, and in- 
dustry; purchases books discussed by 
lecturers and exhibits books based on 
educational broadcasts; staff gives book 
and library talks before various groups; 
arranges public lectures weekly or of- 
tener with book lists and exhibits, issues 
citizenship papers in lecture room; ar- 



ranges artistic, historic, and educational 
exhibits. 

KALAMAZOO PUBLIC LIBRARY, Kalama- 
zoo, Mich., Flora B. Roberts, In. 

Reference librarians give informal 
advisory service; library uses Reading 
with a Purpose and other courses; main- 
tains directory of local adult educational 
opportunities, cooperates with organized 
groups, such as women's clubs, night 
schools, discussion groups; educational 
broadcast programs on bulletin board; 
broadcasts weekly book lists locally; mu- 
seum department prepares and arranges 
exhibits. 

ROYAL OAK PUBLIC LIBRARY, Royal 
Oak, Mich., Elizabeth V. Briggs, In. 

Reference librarian in charge readers' 
advisory work; library maintains spe- 
cial file of local educational opportu- 
nities, correspondence and special 
courses, and college catalogs, keeps 
evaluation of local showings of moving 
pictures and furnishes "Movie Column" 
for local paper; provides reading lists 
for parent-teacher organizations; posts 
educational broadcast announcements and 
sends them to press; book talks given at 
clubs by staff published in local news- 
papers, work curtailed because of in- 
sufficient funds. 

DULUTH PUBLIC LIBRARY, Duluth, 
Minn., Harriet Dutcher, acting In. 

Advisory work in connection with 
general circulation and reference work; 
compiles lists of books for both indi- 
viduals and groups; lends lists and 
reading courses such as Reading with 
a Purpose and university extension 
courses of study; list of adult education 
opportunities in city; planned and con- 
ducted adult education conference, out 
of which grew a successful movement 
for night high school work for credit; 
conducts study groups for A.A.U.W.; 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



gives talks on books and readings before 
parent-teacher and other groups and 
vocational guidance conferences, posts 
radio educational broadcasts and gives 
some assistance on local programs. 

MINNEAPOLIS PUBLIC LIBRARY, Minne- 
apolis, Minn., Gratia A. Countryman, 
/#., Glenn M. Lewis, reader? adviser. 

Readers' adviser, with two and some- 
times three trained assistants, gives spe- 
cial help to individuals and groups; 
expert advisers in each department aid 
those seeking to keep up old skills or to 
study new occupations; library acts as 
clearing house of information about 
courses in technical or commercial 
schools; posts lists of extension classes, 
lectures, forums, concerts, or special 
courses each week; lists on timely topics 
for free distribution, collection of 
25,000 lantern slides for lending to 
clubs, schools, ministers, home groups, 
etc., for entertainments, lectures, or 
study; exhibits of rare books, mechani- 
cal models, art objects, and pictures; 
various group meetings use club rooms; 
organized class in short story writing 
which meets weekly, in charge teacher 
obtained through government aid; at- 
tendance, 40; readers' adviser conducts 
Thursday afternoon reading circle for 
maids, many of whom are college gradu- 
ates; also class in English literature 
sponsored by readers' advisers with assist- 
ance of teacher from CWA funds. 

ST. PAUL PUBLIC LIBRARY, St. Paul, 
Minn., Jennie T. Jennings, la. 

Cooperates with Y.M C.A. and Y.W. 
C.A. in offering classes for unemployed 
and with International Institute which 
carries on special work with persons of 
foreign lineage; lists for special groups 
of readers and for individuals who wish 
guidance on special subjects; displays 
and sells Reading with a Purpose book- 
lets; purchases books on handicraft and 



technical subjects; sponsors occasional 
public lectures for adult classes, lends 
collections of records, lantern slides, 
and pictures to persons giving instruc- 
tion in classes or public lectures; ex- 
hibitions of books on art, architecture, 
building, and related subjects; works 
with groups carrying on adult programs, 
e.g. Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A.; distributes 
lists of recent books on special subjects 
such as modern drama, psychology, 
gardening, etc., articles to local news- 
papers calling attention to resources of 
library in special subjects. 

ST. Louis PUBLIC LIBRARY, St. Louis, 
Mo., Arthur Elmore Bostwick, ln t) 
Margery Doud, reader? adviser. 

Readers' Advisory Service combined 
with Information Desk; individual read- 
ing courses outlined on request, Read- 
ing with a Purpose courses circulated 
for home use; aid given readers at pub- 
lic catalog, and advice as regards indi- 
vidual books and courses, conferences 
with club program committees and other 
organization workers; collects informa- 
tion in regard to local educational op- 
portunities; radio and book talks and aid 
to libraries in institutions with adult 
education programs. 

OMAHA PUBLIC LIBRARY, Omaha, 

Nebr., Edith Tobitt, In. 

Readers' adviser and two readers' as- 
sistants select books for readers and fol- 
low up patrons who are reading by lists 
or courses, make book lists and keep 
them up-to-date; displays Reading with 
a Purpose courses in prominent place; 
lists of adult education courses in infor- 
mation file; posts announcements of 
lectures and courses on bulletin boards; 
places cultural books at five business 
houses books selected for credit reading 
at one; selects nature libraries for sum- 
mer camps; sends reading lists to com- 
mercial groups; sends displays of reading 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



matter to professional groups, gives talks 
to parent-teacher associations, cooperates 
with American Association of Univer- 
sity Women and clubs on programs and 
courses; prepares special displays; reads 
to group of blind people every two 
weeks, and prepares lists (in Braille and 
type) of books in Braille which library 
has; Adult Education Council meetings 
often held in library. 

EAST ORANGE PUBLIC LIBRARY, East 
Orange, N. J., Adeline T. Davidson, 
In. 

Displays Reading with a Purpose 
series with books on subjects included; 
also sells courses; distributes regularly 
to organizations, such as Rotary, Ki- 
wanis, and individual business firms, 
business lists and lists of new technical 
books in library; sends lists on "Mother- 
craft" to mothers after securing birth 
certificates of children through local 
Board of Health; distributes lists on 
child study to child study groups; spon- 
sors lecture courses on the novel and 
drama given in library building by lec- 
turers from New York University and 
open to public upon payment of small 
fee; prepares lists of local adult educa- 
tional institutions and courses offered; 
posts lists of lectures given by National 
Advisory Council on Radio in Education 
with appropriate displays of books; 
librarian and members of staff give book 
talks; letters to Sunday school superin- 
tendents and faculty and to women's 
clubs offering facilities of library; dis- 
plays posters in City Hall and chamber 
of commerce calling library to attention 
of unemployed; notices to newspapers 
about all activities. 

MONTCLAIR FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY, 
Montclair, N. J., Margery C. Quig- 
ley, In. 

Library member of local Council of 
Social Agencies which touches all adult 



education activities exclusive of clubs 
and churches; furnishes special collec- 
tions of books and prepares bibliogra- 
phies for any group; supplies adequate 
collection of books, pamphlets, and 
magazines to about 200 persons partici- 
pating in local Economics Forum (see 
p. 245) and in discussion groups held 
between forums. 

NEWARK PUBLIC LIBRARY, Newark, 
N. J., Beatrice Winser, In. 

Adult classes from Newark evening 
schools visit main library or branch once 
during school year and are introduced 
to section of books selected for new 
Americans; classroom libraries sent to 
evening school classrooms on subjects 
being studied, professional libraries on 
special aspects of educational methods 
lent to schools for use of principals 
and teachers for two or three months; 
The Library y official journal, through 
publication of series of expository arti- 
cles on library routine and practices, ex- 
plains to borrowers and visitors library 
resources and procedure; weekly news- 
paper column under successive titles, 
"Where Can I Learn It?", "Are You 
Too Busy to Read? ", "Why Stop Learn- 
ing?", etc. 

PLAINFIELD PUBLIC LIBRARY, Plain- 
field, N. J., Florence M. Bowman, 
In., Elsie F. Whitfield, reader? ad- 
viser. 

Purchases and distributes free "Liv- 
ing and Learning," published by the 
American Association for Adult Educa- 
tion; sells Reading with a Purpose 
pamphlets; keeps in conspicuous place 
educational broadcast programs and sug- 
gests pertinent reading material on re- 
quest; shelf of boob called "Sources 
for Adult Reading"; maintains con- 
tacts with women's clubs, parent-teacher 
associations, and pupils of continuation 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



and night schools; compiles subject lists 
on request. 

ALBANY PUBLIC LIBRARY, ALBANY, 
N. Y., Elizabeth M. Smith, dir., 
Winifred A. Sutherland, special asst. 
m adult education. 

Advisory service on books and read- 
ing with individually planned reading 
courses; special emphasis placed on 
Reading with a Purpose series (2,118 
enrollments from October, 1928, to 
December, 1932); library acts as infor- 
mation center for local adult education 
opportunities, cooperates with Child 
Development and Parent Education 
Committee, Council of Religious Edu- 
cation, and with local study clubs, six 
book talks each year on varied subjects; 
book exhibits within and outside library 
dealing with reading courses and other 
library services; radio program shelf of 
books and pamphlets at mam library to 
call attention to outstanding programs 
on air; gives publicity to all courses for 
adults in city; helped form County 
Adult Education Council and has pre- 
pared list of educational and recrea- 
tional opportunities available for the 
unemployed and their families for use 
in connection with survey conducted by 
Council. 

BlNGHAMTON PUBLIC LlBRARY, Blng- 

hamton, N. Y., Helen A. Stratton, 
/#., Pauline Goembel, chmn., reader? 
advisory com. 

Committee prepares individual read- 
ing courses and holds recommended 
books in reserve, Reading with a Pur- 
pose courses and suggested books dis- 
played; book lists for clubs and study 
groups; collection of books to State 
Employment Service Office, classes in 
immigrant education under auspices of 
Department of Education held in 
library, also Book Review Club; art 
exhibitions under direction of Museum 



of Fine Arts in Art Gallery of library; 
distributes lantern slides borrowed from 
State Department of Visual Instruction, 
one staff meeting each month devoted 
to discussion of special subject such as 
American literature. 

BROOKLYN PUBLIC LIBRARY, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., Milton J. Ferguson, /. 

Reading with a Purpose courses at 
all branches; lists of books for adult 
education groups, information service 
about adult education opportunities 
given by reference departments of larger 
branches , has conducted for several years 
under auspices of Carroll Park Branch 
citizenship classes for Italians; branch 
auditoriums available for lectures and 
meetings of parent-teacher groups, 
women's clubs, and other organizations; 
Department of Library Extension fur- 
nishes books and other library service to 
hospitals, jails, schools, and many adult 
education groups; Children's Depart- 
ment conducts dramatic and reading 
clubs for young people. 

CORTLAND FREE LIBRARY, Cortland, 
N. Y., Byrl J. Kellogg, /* 

Displays special table exhibits of 
books on different subjects, i.e., timely 
topics, Reading with a Purpose, etc., 
Book Week display and frequent art 
exhibits of original illustrations lent by 
leading publishers and local artists, as 
well as rare editions and fine bindings, 
etc., lent by local collectors; owns small 
collection of foreign books, posts bul- 
letins of up-to-date information on all 
phases of adult education work in com- 
munity, and on radio broadcasts; libra- 
rian gives radio broadcasts, talks to local 
groups on library, books, and reading; 
librarian is member of education com- 
mittee of Y.W.C.A. ; cooperates with all 
community adult education projects, 
such as forums, lecture-discussion 
groups, etc.; worb with program com- 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



mittees of women's clubs and individual 
club members; librarian developing in- 
formal readers' advisory service, organ- 
ized publicity for adult education in 
library through local newspapers, church 
calendars, announcements from pulpits 
and in service clubs by library board 
members; Teachers' Book Club and 
Community Book Review Club hold 
meetings in library at which members 
of an advisory committee, selected by 
librarian, give reviews, average attend- 
ance 1932-33, over 200. 

LYNBROOK PUBLIC LIBRARY, Lynbroofc, 
N. Y., Teresa A. Guertin, /. 

Displays collection of Reading with 
a Purpose courses; prepares reading lists 
for women's clubs; collects debate ma- 
terial; librarian gives talks before 
mothers' clubs; distributes multistamp 
lists of recent books of interest to vari- 
ous groups. 

NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY, 476 Fifth 
Ave., New York, N. Y., Edwin H. 
Anderson, dir., Jennie M. Flexner, 
reader? adviser. 

Readers' adviser supplies guidance 
and assistance to adults interested in 
self-education; makes lists to meet needs 
and interests of individual on subjects 
about which he wishes to read system- 
atically; prepares programs of reading 
for groups and study clubs; maintains 
active contacts with organizations of all 
kinds; experimental work carried on in 
1931-1932 with free adult classes in 
continuation schools, with National Ad- 
visory Council on Radio in Education 
in preparation of bibliographies, with 
the Probation Office of Court of Gen- 
eral Sessions from which potential 
readers among adult probationers are 
referred to readers' adviser for guid- 
ance, with the Employment Assistance 
Bureau of the Emergency Unemploy- 
ment Relief Committee from which un- 



employed men seeking vocational read- 
justment are sent for reading lists; an 
experiment, in charge of Sigrid A. 
Edge, is concerned with reading inter- 
ests of individual readers and with 
evaluating the service given them, under 
a grant made by the American Associa- 
tion for Adult Education; information 
about other adult education opportu- 
nities kept up-to-date; talks about serv- 
ices made to clubs, classes, hospital 
training schools, settlements, social serv- 
ice agencies or any groups likely to 
need readers' advisory service. 

Information desks in Reference De- 
partment and all branch libraries 
equipped to give information about adult 
education opportunities in city; over 
3,000 Reading with a Purpose courses 
sold in 1932; library and several officers 
members of the American Association 
for Adult Education and New York 
Adult Education Council; active book 
service furnished to United Parents As- 
sociations, with special collections for 
child study sent to fifteen large groups. 

Harlem Adult Education Experiment 
for Negroes, with headquarters at 1 35th 
Street Branch, conducted under direction 
of Ernestine Rose, librarian, Sarah Reid, 
field worker, Sonya Krutchkoff, readers' 
adviser (see p. 127 for further descrip- 
tion of experiment) ; Muhlenberg 
Branch Library conducts Muhlenberg 
Forum (for further information see p. 
67); George Bruce Branch Library has 
held discussion groups in connection 
with educational broadcasts; lectures, 
and study and discussion groups held in 
many branches; organized work with 
continuation schools, both directly in 
schools and through special rooms in 
three branch libraries for class visits; 
has branches of National League for 
American Citizenship in three libraries, 
for helping foreign-born persons to 
citizenship; study groups for foreign 
born in branch libraries in all foreign 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



districts; Board of Education and other 
groups conduct classes in most branches 
for teaching English to foreign born; 
study of reading in Seward Park Branch 
Library district (Lower East Side) made 
by Douglas Waples in 1932. 

ROCHESTER PUBLIC LIBRARY, Roches- 
ter, N. Y., John Adams Lowe, In. 

Director served on Committee of 
Council of Social Agencies which rec- 
ommended creation of a Council on 
Cooperation in Adult Education; library 
cooperates with experimental Public 
Employment Center by making books 
on vocational guidance available at Cen- 
tral Library and with two-year project 
on parent education and child develop- 
ment of Spelman Fund. 

SYRACUSE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Syracuse, 
N. Y., Paul M. Paine, /. 

Adult education program shared by 
main library and all branches; library 
cooperates with Syracuse University Ex- 
tension Department, Friends of Read- 
ing, Department of Education, etc.; 
offers use of auditorium at main and 
branch libraries to educational organiza- 
tions; circulates book collections, lantern 
slides, music scores, pictures, maps, 
travel folders; prepares special lists on 
request for organizations and individ- 
uals; makes Reading with a Purpose 
series available for organizations and 
individuals; staff gives book talks; holds 
exhibits; sends announcements of library 
activities to daily papers; gives service 
to large number of local clubs and 
associations; prints posters and folders. 

MASONIC GRAND LODGE LIBRARY, 
Fargo, N. D., Clara A. Richards, In. 

Uses Reading with a Purpose courses; 
prepares program outlines for special 
groups; reading lists for individuals and 



groups prepared on request; for past ten 
years has been broadcasting lectures, 
book talks, book reviews; receives state- 
wide publicity through Masonic organ- 
izations; service is supported solely by 
Masonic Lodge, but use of library is 
open to all persons throughout state. 

AKRON PUBLIC LIBRARY, Akron, Ohio, 
Will H. Collins, /., Corinne A. 
Metz, readers' adviser* 

Readers' adviser assists readers with 
problems concerning books and reading, 
prepares courses of reading for indi- 
viduals, aids study clubs and classes in 
preparing programs, and club members 
with material for club papers, cooper- 
ates with other adult education agencies 
by preparing lists and arranging for 
their book supply; through book ex- 
hibits, cooperation with other agencies, 
and attendance at meetings for educa- 
tional and cultural betterment empha- 
sizes library's encouragement of, and as- 
sistance in, all educational and cultural 
movements in community; adviser's office 
serves as clearing house for information 
regarding local educational opportunities. 

PUBLIC LIBRARY OF CINCINNATI, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Chalmers Hadley, /#., 
Pauline J. Fihe, dir.> readers' bureau. 

Director of Readers' Bureau prepares 
individual reading courses, reading lists 
and outlines, and distributes Reading 
with a Purpose courses and printed lists, 
maintains consultation service in gen- 
eral circulation work; serves as clearing 
house for information about all adult 
classes in city; distributes radio reading 
guides; prepares programs for study 
groups and discussions; bulletin board 
carries announcements of lectures, fo- 
rums, concerts, exhibits and radio pro- 
grams of interest to adults; collections 
for special groups (self-taught language 
series, big type library, etc.); addresses 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



93 



on adult education before clubs and 
classes; displays timely books and lists 
and prepares annotated bibliographies 
for local newspapers; gives floor space 
to and maintains close cooperation with. 
Committee on Opportunities for the 
Unemployed (see p. 248), assists indus- 
trial workers and foreign-born groups, 
parent-teacher associations, adult eve- 
ning classes, Y.W.C.A., etc., through 
talks, group reading lists, and individual 
reading courses; maintains special file 
of vocational books and prepares lists 
for vocational counselors of public 
schools; Readers' Bureau represented at 
all counselors' meetings; reading lists 
inserted in travel folders supplied by 
travel bureau; suggests reading outlines 
for missionary and young people's 
church groups. 

CLEVELAND PUBLIC LIBRARY, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Linda A. Eastman, /., 
Lucia H. Sanderson, readers' adviser. 

Extension Division for Adult Educa- 
tion (School Department) supplies sup- 
plementary reading and talks on use of 
library to adult classes in public schools 
and other organizations, gives library 
service to two extension evening high 
schools; Education Section of Sociology 
Division keeps up-to-date information 
about educational opportunities in city 
and elsewhere, through card index of 
classes, schools, subjects, and courses, 
supplemented by official catalogs and 
directory of foreign language teachers; 
readers' adviser plans reading courses 
and helps solve reading problems for in- 
dividuals; uses Reading with a Purpose 
series as both reference and circulating 
material; staff serves on committees and 
cooperates with local and national or- 
ganizations; prepares subject bibliog- 
raphies for foreign affairs institutes and 
other meetings; gives book talks at main 
library in cooperation with Adult Edu- 
cation Association; in cooperation with 



museums, one adult and three young 
people's poetry groups meet under vol- 
unteer leadership; P. T. A., women's 
clubs, citizenship classes, study and dis- 
cussion groups use club rooms exten- 
sively in branch libraries for winter pro- 
grams of concerts and lectures given 
frequently in cooperation with foreign 
groups; staff gives book talks and talks 
on library service to these and similar 
groups outside library and lectures on 
story-telling and resources of library to 
playground workers, nurses, and pa- 
rental study groups; prepares exhibits 
for trade conventions and educational 
institutes; gives assistance to women's 
clubs in preparation of programs; pro- 
vides book exhibits with reading lists 
for lectures, classes, concerts and forums; 
annual exhibit of school and college 
announcements and displays for educa- 
tional broadcasts; prepares bookmark 
reading lists for moving pictures, con- 
certs, plays, operas, and exhibitions at 
request of theaters and printed at their 
expense; displays and lists in programs 
of Cleveland Orchestra, etc.; present 
conditions have temporarily curtailed 
some parts of program. 

YOUNGSTOWN PUBLIC LIBRARY, Youngs- 
town, Ohio, Clarence W. Sumner, /. 

Members of Adult Department as- 
signed to readers* assistant duty; staff 
prepares book lists and bibliographies, 
uses Reading with a Purpose series; 
places special emphasis on work with 
women's clubs 3 civic and business or- 
ganizations, such as the chamber of 
commerce, parent-teacher association, 
and foreign language groups, working 
particularly with and through the In- 
ternational Institute; librarian and sev- 
eral department heads give talks and 
book reviews before clubs and organiza- 
tions; staff gives series of weekly radio 
broadcasts on cultural subjects; receives 
publicity from newspapers. 



94 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



MXJSKOGEE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Musko- 
gee, Qkla,, Cora Case Porter, /#. 

Adult education work done largely 
through Reference Department; uses 
and distributes Reading with a Purpose 
series in cooperation with Epsilon Sigma 
Omicron, honorary educational sorority 
of General Federation of Women's 
Clubs; disseminates information about 
adult education opportunities through 
use of pamphlets and bulletin board; 
service to women's clubs, men's night 
classes in public speaking, finance, etc.; 
gives publicity to educational broadcasts 
and other adult education media. 

LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF PORTLAND, 
Portland, Ore., Anne M. Mulheron, 
ln. y Lillian F. Nisbet, reader? ad- 
viser. 

Readers' advisory service plans read- 
ing and study lists for individuals and 
clubs to meet specific needs as deter- 
mined by personal interviews; maintains 
file of information on educational op- 
portunities, local classes, schools and 
college, private teachers and educational 
broadcasts, maintains close relationship 
with University of Oregon Extension 
Division; plans programs and study 
lists for various study clubs, such as 
parent-teacher associations, the Ameri- 
can Association of University Women, 
women's clubs, and informal reading 
and study groups; prepares and distrib- 
utes book lists in connection with edu- 
cation broadcasts; organizes "Read-a- 
Book-Together" clubs, informal groups 
that read and discuss worth-while books. 

CARNEGIE LIBRARY OF PITTSBURGH, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., Ralph Munn, dir., 
Charles W. Mason, readers' counselor. 

Advisory service supported during 
first two and a half years by grant of 
$21,000 from Buhl Foundation of 
Pittsburgh; various specialists on library 



staff cooperate in acting as informal 
"faculty"; counselor's office prepares 
individual reading courses and main- 
tains records that permit a consistent 
follow-up and guidance of readers using 
service, Lending and Reference Depart- 
ments display and distribute Reading 
with a Purpose pamphlets, mimeo- 
graphed lists and reading courses and 
cooperate with all educational and civic 
organizations by book displays and pos- 
ters; counselor serves as secretary of 
Pittsburgh Council on Adult Education 
(see p. 49 for further information) 
and maintains card index of educational 
opportunities in city; by cooperating 
with outside agencies, effectiveness of 
service is increased and best publicity af- 
forded, prepares bibliographies and ren- 
ders book service to organizations con- 
ducting lectures, discussion groups, and 
educational reading programs. 

OSTERHOUT FREE LIBRARY, Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa., Mary Neikirk Baker, /., 
Casindania P. Eaton, readers* adviser. 

Adviser prepares reading courses, lists, 
bibliographies for individuals and or- 
ganizations; places special emphasis on 
junior groups and readers with particu- 
lar problems; acts as information center 
on local adult education opportunities; 
has established contact with Y. M. C. A., 
Y. W. C. A., United Charities, contin- 
uation and night schools 5 has conducted 
seminar in modern poetry and series of 
book forums. 

PROVIDENCE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Provi- 
dence, R. L, Clarence E. Sherman, 
/#., Ruth C. Coombs, readers' ad- 
viser. 

Readers' adviser works in close co- 
operation with all departments; seeks all 
possible community contacts schools, 
colleges, parent-teacher associations, 
clubs, stores, factories; prepares reading 
and study courses for individual readers 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



95 



(335 courses in 1932); maintains direc- 
tory of local educational opportunities, 
including radio and lectures; "book ser- 
vice," including suggestions, but not 
reference work, available to all adult 
readers (4,100 requests in 1932); car- 
ries on community work and publicity, 
club lectures and book talks, school vis- 
iting (night, continuation, and citizen- 
ship classes), preparation of club study 
programs, committee work with adult 
education agencies; has distributed sev- 
eral hundred "Depression College" pos- 
ters; obtains publicity through bulletin 
boards and exhibits, newspaper articles, 
posters, lectures, school, factory and club 
visits, circular letters, book talks, and 
committee work. 

SOUTH DAKOTA FREE LIBRARY COM- 
MISSION, Pierre, S. D., Leora J. 
Lewis, dir. 

During past five years has carried on 
"Reading in the Home" project in coop- 
eration with State Agricultural Exten- 
sion Service, started at request of mem- 
bers of home extension clubs as a means 
of adding variety to programs; during 
first year bulletin issued including book 
lists, information about library facilities 
in state, etc.; during succeeding years 
other bulletins on the novel, on Knowing 
America through Books, and other topics 
issued, accompanied by discussion sheets 
including suggestions for critical study 
and reading; director has held county- 
wide training schools in fifteen counties 
attended by reading leaders of clubs; 
more than 5,000 women each year have 
done a part of suggested reading and 
have participated in club discussions. 

CHATTANOOGA PUBLIC LIBRARY, Chatta- 
nooga, Tenn., Nora Crimmins, dir. 

Reference librarian acts as readers' 
adviser to organized groups such as pa- 
rent-teacher association, American Asso- 
ciation of University Women, night 



school classes, banking debating societies, 
etc.; displays and circulates Reading 
with a Purpose series and compiles and 
distributes other lists; keeps in touch 
with University lecture program and 
with discussion groups having leaders 
and lectures from University and library 
staffs; holds group meetings and round 
table discussions for county groups, 
quarterly; staff gives book talks to clubs 
in city. 

CARNEGIE LIBRARY OF NASHVILLE, 
Nashville, Tenn., F. K. W. Drury, 
In. 

Gives special attention to Reading 
with a Purpose courses; makes and dis- 
tributes reading lists; compiles weekly 
"Calendar of Educational Events," re- 
leased through Bulletin and bulletin 
board, and printed in local papers; 
makes available list of lectures and speak- 
ers; special service to various groups, 
such as parent-teacher associations, the 
American Association of University 
Women, and the Watkins Institute; li- 
brarian chairman of local Adult Educa- 
tion Council. 

TYRRELL PUBLIC LIBRARY, Beaumont, 
Texas, Kathleen D. Munn, In. 

Reference assistant and assistant li- 
brarian carry on adult education work in 
informal way; in close touch with ju- 
nior college in evening adult education 
classes, with parent-teacher associations, 
with woman's club, and civic organiza- 
tions; information and books about edu- 
cational broadcasts on display; book 
talks to clubs; frequent newspaper pub- 
licity. 

EL PASO PUBLIC LIBRARY, El Paso, 
Texas, Maud Durlin Sullivan, /. 

Compiles individual reading lists on 
wide variety of subjects and outlines on 
special subjects with references for 
study clubs in city and county; supplies 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



books for Reading with a Purpose 
courses; makes up programs including 
books and other material for informal 
groups studying international relations, 
economic conditions, and Southwest his- 
tory j supplies material for individuals 
taking university extension courses and 
for free course for prospectors given by 
College of Mines and Arts; gives spe- 
cial service to night school students, in- 
dustrial groups, and for new projects 
for unemployed, such as placer mining; 
prepares educational broadcasts and ma- 
terial for series of broadcasts on South- 
west and other subjects, sends weekly 
annotated notices of new books to news- 
paper, 

CARNEGIE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Fort 
Worth, Texas, Mrs. Charles Scheuber, 
/#., Emily Garnett, asst. in charge) 
readers' service bureau. 

Readers' Service Bureau started 1931; 
posts on bulletin board announcements 
outlining opportunities offered and 
sends notices to newspapers; offers read- 
ing courses based on Reading with a 
Purpose series, outlines by Cincinnati 
Public Library and University of Michi- 
gan Alumni reading lists; special courses 
outlined to meet needs of individual 
students; outlines in constant use by 
program committees of women's clubs; 
670 persons have registered for 77 
courses; maintains information service 
about local adult education opportunities. 

SEATTLE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Seattle, 
Wash., Judson T. Jennings, In. 

Adult Education Department tempo- 
rarily discontinued because of lack of 
funds; in so far as possible other mem- 
bers of staff attempting to carry on 
work; under present arrangement books 
on adult education movement and voca- 
tional guidance shelved in Parent- 
Teacher Room, where file of educational 
opportunities and information about va- 



rious radio education activities is kept 
up-to-date; Reading with a Purpose 
courses and books listed in courses avail- 
able in Parent-Teacher Room and else- 
where throughout library system; study 
programs for women's clubs supplied by 
Reference Department. 

MILWAUKEE PUBLIC LIBRARY, Milwau- 
kee, Wise., Matthew S. Dudgeon, /., 
Hazel I. Medway, head> adult educa- 
tion div. 

Three librarians in adult education 
department, readers' adviser plans spe- 
cial courses and acts as guide to indi- 
vidual readers for Reading with a Pur- 
pose courses; makes assignment of 
courses after interview with each 
reader; 2,724 reading courses read in 
1932; assists in making up club pro- 
grams, preparing reading lists for groups, 
etc.; bureau of information maintains 
card catalog of all agencies in commu- 
nity offering part-time adult education 
opportunities, subjects taught, terms of 
admission to classes, etc.; offers collec- 
tions of books and special service to 
evening schools, University of Wisconsin 
extension classes, study groups, educa- 
tional departments of stores and fac- 
tories, labor unions, postal and police 
department, house of correction, etc.; 
gives book talks, sends representatives to 
various groups to offer library coopera- 
tion and to urge members to use library. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION 
AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE LI- 
BRARY ASSOCIATION 
SPECIAL LIBRARIES ASSOCIATION 

See also the following articles: 

ADULT EDUCATION FOR NEGROES, p. 

124. 
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE 

UNEMPLOYED, p. 238. 



LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION 



97 



READING LIST 

Adult Education and the Library* 

Published quarterly, Nov., 1924-00!., 
1930. Now discontinued. 

American Library Association. Libraries 
and Adult Education. Macmillan, 
1926. 284 p. 

The result of two years' study of 
the conception and practice of adult 
education in this country, emphasiz- 
ing the opportunity of the libraries to 
associate their work closely with adult 
education of all types. 

Gray, W. S., and Ruth Munroe. Read- 
ing Interests and Habits of Adults. 
Macmillan, 1929. 298 p. 

Contains digest of investigations, 
individual case studies and suggestions 



for future investigations. Bibliogra- 
phy. 

Waples, Douglas, and R. W. Tyler. 
What People Want to Read About. 
A Study of Group Interests and a 
Survey of Problems in Adult Read- 
ing. Chicago, American Library As- 
sociation and the University of Chi- 
cago Press, 1931. 308 p. 

A two-year preliminary study to 
develop methods and materials where- 
by the reading interests of any group 
of people can be defined. A sampling 
of literate adults exclusive of the 
special student or aimless reader. Con- 
clusions and recommendations for use 
of publishers, booksellers, newspapers, 
magazines, public libraries and stu- 
dents of adult education. 



LYCEUMS AND CHAUTAUQUAS 

The importance of the lyceum in the history of adult education in 
the United States can not be over-emphasized. Started in colonial days, 
it represents the earliest organized attempt in America to provide a 
means for the diffusion of knowledge among adults. To the American, 
particularly the New Englander of the nineteenth and early twentieth 
century, it stood for all that was best in the intellectual life of the nation. 
Among those who lent prestige to the lyceum platform are some of 
the great names in American letters Ralph Waldo Emerson, James 
Russell Lowell, Henry David Thoreau, and Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

The first lyceum was formed in Millbury, Massachusetts, in 1826, 
as a result of the efforts of Josiah Holbrook of Derby, Connecticut, 
who for a number of years previous to that date had been lecturing 
throughout Connecticut and Massachusetts and encouraging small 
groups to meet for sustained study of the subjects in which they were 
interested. The development of the movement was rapid. Twelve or 
fifteen nearby villages promptly followed the example of Millbury and 
early in 1827 the first county lyceum was organized in Worcester 
County, Massachusetts. The membership of these first lyceums con- 
sisted chiefly of farmers and mechanics who met "for the purpose of 
self-culture, community instruction, and mutual discussion of common 
public interests." By 1828 nearly one hundred branches of the American 
lyceum had been formed and by the end of 1834 nearly three thousand 
town lyceums were scattered throughout the United States, from Boston 
to Detroit and from Maine to Florida. 

The early lyceums were addressed on a wide variety of subjects by 
local persons. The next step was the exchange of speakers between 
lyceums of neighboring communities and the payment of fees to 
speakers. 

The emergence of the professional lecturer, and the consequent for- 
mation of the lecture bureau, resulted in the lyceum as we know it today 
& purely commercial arrangement between a sponsoring organization 
in a town and a booking agency in a metropolitan center. The town 
itself now merely furnishes a paying audience 5 the agency provides five 
or six events a season, usually a lecture, two or three musical programs, 
and a drama. 

98 



LYCEUMS AND CHAUTAUQUAS 99 

The example of the lyceum led Bishop John H. Vincent and Lewis 
Miller in 1874. to expand a Sunday School association into a general 
adult education venture. The result was Chautauqua Institution, which 
still flourishes. Physically Chautauqua comprises 365 acres of wooded 
land on the shore of Lake Chautauqua, New York, with a variety of 
accommodations for nearly 15,000 summer residents. Each summer the 
Institution offers lecture courses and informal study groups led by recog- 
nized authorities, and covering practically the entire field of general 
education. Nationally and internationally-known speakers give single lec- 
tures and series of lectures. A notable musical program of symphony 
concerts, operas, chamber music recitals and choral festivals, and a series 
of dramatic performances is also a part of the summer session. Thou- 
sands of people from ail parts of the United States return to Chautau- 
qua summer after summer for study and for recreation. During the 
winter the Institution conducts The Chautauqua Literary and Scientific 
Circle, organized "for the purpose of supplying popular educational 
stimulus to adults through the medium of carefully directed home read- 
ing." Members of The Circle meet at Chautauqua during the summer 
for study and discussion. A detailed description of the Institution's pro- 
gram for the current year may be found on page 321. 

The success of Chautauqua Institution inspired the formation of 
hundreds of organizations wholly commercial in character that adopted 
the name "chautauqua" but that were never in any way related to the 
original institution. At first these chautauquas were independent of each 
other and secured their lecturers and other attractions either directly 
or from lyceum bureaus. Later, traveling or circuit chautauquas were 
organized in large cities and sent out to small towns that could never 
hope to have their own permanent chautauquas. Competitive chautau- 
qua companies sprang up all over the country. These circuit chautauquas 
operate during the summer months, usually staying in one town from 
three days to a week and offering a program similar to that of the com- 
mercial lyceum, consisting of a few lectures, a drama or two, music, and 
"entertainments." Each chautauqua has a number of tents that will 
accommodate audiences of many hundreds of people, and performers 
travel from town to town and from tent to tent so that there is no break 
in the circuit. 

Guided by the mixed motives of private profit and public service, 
the chautauqua movement has played no small part in the education 
and direction of American opinion, but there is a wide gap between its 
possibilities and its performances. The fact that it is a private business 



100 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



instead of a public institution has placed certain definite limitations upon 
its power and usefulness. 

During the past few years the depression and the radio have been 
responsible for a sharp decline in attendance throughout the country. 
This may be only a temporary condition, or it may mean that the Amer- 
ican village and small town are ready for a new development. 

D. R. 



Since only non-profit-making and non-commercial organizations are in- 
cluded in this book, no community chautauquas or lyceums are listed below. 
The pamphlet files of the American Association for Adult Education con- 
tain programs of a number of such organizations, and information about 
these will be sent on request. It should be understood, however, that the As- 
sociation does not officially endorse any of these organizations. 



See the following organization listed 
under National Organizations. 

CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION 

Also the following article: 
OPEN FORUMS, p. 63. 

READING LIST 

Hayes, Cecil B. The American Lyceum 
Its History and Contribution to 
Education. U. S. Office of Education 
Bulletin 1932, No. 12. Washington, 
D. C., Government Printing Office. 

Hurlbut, J. L. The Story of Chautau- 
qua. Putnam, 1921. 429 p. 

A history of the founders, organi- 
zation and development of one of the 



earliest adult education movements in 
America a "people's college" idea 
promoted through reading courses and 
lectures. 

NofFsinger, J. S. Correspondence 
Schools, Lyceums, Chautauquas, Mac- 
millan, 1926. 145 p. 

A summary of an investigation into 
the type of instruction offered by the 
widely advertised correspondence 
schools, and of the mass education 
given in lyceum halls and chautauqua 
circuit tents. 

Vincent, John H. The Chautauqua 
Movement, Boston, Chautauqua Press, 
1886. 308 p. 

The story of the movement writ- 
ten by one of the founders. 



MEN'S AND WOMEN'S CLUBS 

It has been estimated that there are three million women belonging 
to women's clubs in the United States. There is scarcely a hamlet that 
does not have a club of some sort, either men's or women's, and fre- 
quently both. Some of them are frankly "social" organizations, whose 
members meet solely for recreational purposes 5 others are conducting 
educational programs, the effectuality of which varies to a wide degree. 
Parent education and child study, art, music, education, civics and gov- 
ernment, rural problems, economic questions are the subjects most fre- 
quently studied. Each club is a law unto itself, despite the fact that 
thousands of community clubs have united to form various national 
organizations and are guided to a great extent by policies formulated 
by national headquarters. 

In the case of most of the nationally-organized women's clubs, the 
national and state headquarters offices, with the help of program com- 
mittees, select subjects for study and prepare study outlines which are 
distributed at regular intervals to community clubs. These outlines are 
carefully planned and include reading lists, instructions to club leaders, 
and detailed suggestions as to how best to obtain a thorough under- 
standing of the subject under discussion. 

Recently women's clubs have been actively cooperating with univer- 
sity extension departments in planning special courses and institutes for 
members. One such institute was given at the University of Michigan 
during the summer of 1933. New York University is offering an exten- 
sive program for club members in and around New York City during 
the winter of 1933-34. 

The educational programs of national associations of men's clubs 
and fraternal organizations vary considerably. A number of the large 
fraternal organizations, notably the Masonic order, prefer to restrict 
their efforts to the dissemination of information about their own ritual 
among their members. There are half a dozen national luncheon clubs 
whose educational programs are limited to the addresses of visiting 
speakers. On the other hand, there are such organizations as business 
men's art clubs whose members meet largely for the purpose of study. 

P. R, 

101 



IO2 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



No community clubs or fraternal organizations that are constituents of or 
affiliated with national organizations are included in the list below, since the 
programs of all clubs belonging to one national organization are more or less 
alike. General statements of the educational activities of these clubs prepared 
with the assistance of the national officers appear in the list of National 
Organizations on p. 309. A few representative autonomous clubs are in- 
cluded in the following notes. 



CITY CLUB OF CHICAGO, 3 1 5 Plymouth 
Court, Chicago, 111. 

Weekly luncheon forums for discus- 
sion and study of local, national, and 
world problems; committees of mem- 
bers investigate and act upon civic prob- 
lems; weekly bulletin of announce- 
ments and reports; women eligible to 
attend forums. 

WOMAN'S CITY CLUB, 6 No. Michigan 
Ave., Chicago, 111., Jean C. Weis, 
civic dir. 

Carries on study of governmental af- 
fairs, social welfare and legislation, 
through committees and club programs; 
forums on governmental questions open 
to public; monthly bulletin, branches 
in number of wards meet monthly for 
study of city-wide and neighborhood 
affairs and send delegates to civic com- 
mittee meetings of downtown club. 

THE TWENTIETH CENTURY CLUB, 
Adult Education Center, 3 Joy St., 
Boston, Mass., Dorothy Hewett, 
adult ed. exec. 

Offers courses under expert leader- 
ship four nights a week on Understand- 
ing our Present Economic Situation, 
Psychology in Everyday Life, Keeping 
Up with Science, Understanding Ger- 
many, Modern Poetry, Pleasing Speech, 
Conversational Italian and French, etc.; 
all classes limited to 25 people; nom- 
inal fee of $4 charged for each course; 
all classes conducted informally; lead- 
ers contribute services; students repre- 
sent cross section of community; enroll- 
ment, 350. 



INSTITUTE OF ADULT EDUCATION, Ann 
Arbor, Mich., W. D. Henderson, 
dir. 

Sponsored by University of Michigan 
Extension Division and Michigan State 
Federation of Women's Clubs for mem- 
bers of Federation; five-day institute 
held annually for discussion of modern 
economic, social, and educational sub- 
jects and for study of art, literature, 
and drama; attendance, 1933, 165. 

CITY CLUB OF ALBANY, INC., 257 State 
St., Albany, N. Y., Berta S. Bendell, 
ex. sec. 

Meetings on current events, questions 
of municipal, county and state govern- 
ment, problems created by drift of pop- 
ulation to suburbs, political parties and 
justice, American foreign policy, His- 
toric Albany and Its Architecture, etc.; 
open to members, and to others for 
nominal fee; certain meetings free to 
general public; plans to offer courses in 
one or more subjects which survey of 
Adult Education Council of Albany 
shows to be unavailable to students of 
city; recommends study group con- 
ducted by Department of Child Wel- 
fare and Parent Education and other ac- 
tivities sponsored by educational groups 
of city; membership, 500. 

THE AMERICAN WOMAN'S ASSOCIATION, 
353 W. 57th St., New York, N. Y., 
Catherine S. FitzGibbon, 'program 
dir. 

Sunday evening and mid-week pro- 
grams for members and guests include 
concerts, plays, lectures, dance recitals, 



MEN'S AND WOMEN'S CLUBS 



103 



etc.; group meetings of those interested 
in little theater, choral work, books, 
travel, poetry, etc.; sustained program 
carried on by music, drama, literature, 
and other committees; publications in- 
clude The First Year of Verse (anthol- 
ogy of members' verse) and The 
Trained Woman and the Economic 
Crisis; membership, 4,000. 

WOMEN'S CITY CLUB, 22 Park Ave., 
New York, N. Y., Mrs. H. Edward 
Dreier, $res. 

Active educational committee keeps 
in touch with educational trends in New 
York City, including adult education, 
and reports to members. 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, Extension De- 
partment, Washington Square East, 
New York, N, Y. 

Offers women's clubs and other or- 
ganizations in and around New York 
City non-credit lecture and discussion 
courses; primary consideration given 
contemporary field in each subject; 
courses offered on The New Orient, 
Psychology Today, Modern Poets, Prob- 
lems of World Government, etc.; 
courses arranged to meet needs of indi- 
vidual groups. 

UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI, School of 
Applied Arts, Cincinnati, Ohio, Her- 
man Schneider, dean. 

Offers Saturday morning courses to 
women's clubs in interior decoration, 
landscape gardening, furniture, fabrics, 
domestic architecture, appreciation of 
painting, literary backgrounds, etc., with 
members of school faculty in charge. 

COMMITTEE ON ADULT EDUCATION AND 
RECREATION, Columbus Chamber of 
Commerce, Columbus, Ohio, Fred D. 
Connolly, churn. 

Committee set up to supervise, coor- 
dinate, and initiate projects for year 



1932-33; cooperates with parent-teacher 
organizations in collecting art and hand- 
icraft objects made by adults for exhi- 
bition in schools; maintains special rec- 
reation center in poor community, with 
assistance of local church; membership 
represents about 20 organizations. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY 
WOMEN 

AMERICAN LEGION 

ASSOCIATION OF THE JUNIOR LEAGUES 
OF AMERICA, INC. 

DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVO- 
LUTION, THE NATIONAL SOCIETY OF 

KIWANIS INTERNATIONAL 

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS 

LIONS INTERNATIONAL 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

THE NATIONAL EXCHANGE CLUB 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF BUSINESS 
AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S CLUBS, 
INC. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS 

ROTARY INTERNATIONAL 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIA- 
TION 

Also the following articles: 
THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 

33* 

PARENT EDUCATION, p. 131. 

POLITICAL EDUCATION, p. 14.6. 

PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL EDUCATION CON- 
DUCTED BY RELIGIOUS GROUPS, p. 
195. 

ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS^ 
p. 203. 

READING LIST 

Breckinridge, S. P. Women in the 
Twentieth Century. McGraw-Hill, 
1933- 364 P* 



IO4 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Deals with the political, social and 
economic activities of women. One of 
the series of Monographs prepared 
under the direction of the Presi- 
dent's Research Committee on Social 
Trends. 

Herring, Elizabeth B. A Program Book 
for Women's Groups. The Woman's 
Press, 1932. 45 p. 

Program resources for women 
members of the Y. W. C. A. 

Nelson, Thomas H. Ventures in Infor- 
mal Adult Education. Association 
Press, 1933. 1 20 p. 

Actual account of fifty-three pro- 
grams which were successfully car- 
ried on in different Young Men's 



Christian Associations in the United 
States, together with a description of 
the methods employed. A case history 
of this phase of adult education. 
Talbot, Marion, and L. K. M. Rosen- 
berry. The History of the American 
Association of University Women. 
Boston, Houghton, 1931. 479 p. 

A fifty years' record of an organi- 
zation founded when "higher edu- 
cation" meant formal instruction for 
men only. One chapter, "the program 
of adult education" discusses uni- 
versity extension, institutes, coopera- 
tion with other agencies, group 
studies and other means whereby 
learning may be continuous. 



MUSEUMS IN ADULT EDUCATION 

Museums have assumed importance in education only within the 
last three decades. During that time they have exchanged a passive for 
an active role, and they have developed specific methods that now char- 
acterize their work. At present they enjoy wide influence, as suggested 
by the fact that more than thirty million people are recorded annually 
as visitors to one hundred and seventy of the larger museums. 

The first educational exhibits date from about 1870. The earliest 
dramatic science museum exhibit was shown in New York in 1879, and 
mammal and bird habitat groups were developed in the eighties. At 
about the same time, lectures and active educational use of exhibits 
began in science museums. 

Art museum exhibits have undergone a somewhat similar trans- 
formation, chiefly in the last two decades. The break from formal dis- 
play came from Germany j in this country the first period rooms 
carrying the idea of composite display to its logical conclusion were 
introduced by the Essex Institute, a history museum at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1907, and the plan was later borrowed for art exhibits. 
Earlier than that, however, and apace with like developments in science 
museums, were the beginnings of lectures and other active educational 
efforts of art museums. This work had its first decisive advance when 
the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, introduced guides called "docents," 
in 1896. 

During the last twenty-five years, efforts of museums to teach adults 
have developed constantly in magnitude and variety. Lectures, confer- 
ences, study groups, clubs, courses of instruction, and lectures by guides 
have emerged as the principal methods, supplemented by the lending 
of objects, pictures, slides, and even projecting apparatus for specific 
group use outside the museum. 

Study groups have been developed by museums in most of the 
larger cities and in some smaller places. For the art museums indus- 
trial art has proved an especially fertile field because of the practical 
interest inspiring groups of designers, salespeople, and other workers. 
Unfortunately, only a few museums have taken advantage of this op- 
portunity. However, many museums of art and science have organized 

105 



IO6 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

study groups with general cultural interests, and some have had ama- 
teur classes in drawing as preparation for appreciation or knowledge of 
technique. The best future for group work seems to lie in joining library 
reading courses with museum study groups, using museum material for 
illustration. 

Recently other means of instruction have been supplemented by 
broadcasting short talks over national radio networks. The most original 
method has been developed at Buffalo, New York, where the museums 
o science, art, and history now cooperate with a newspaper and a broad- 
casting station in a plan called "Roto-radio." A further description of 
this experiment appears on p. no. 

During the last ten years efforts have been made to study and to 
evaluate museum methods, but such studies are still in the exploratory 
stage. Community efforts to coordinate institutional work have been 
made, most notably at Cleveland, Ohio. 

In their extramural work, science museums recently have sought to 
find new and more effective ways of using and interpreting nature itself 
as museum material: nature walks under museum guidance have been 
encouraged 5 nature trails have been created by labeling natural objects 
in parks, and trailside museums small informal museums each devoted 
to its immediate locality have been established. Some trailsides are in 
city parks and are conducted as branch museums, but the pioneer and 
most important developments of this kind have been in several national 
parks. 

Recent studies point to the growing importance of historic house 
museums, of which there are several hundred in different parts of the, 
country. These special museums have been made possible by the increase 
in motor touring. 

Museums are increasing rapidly in number. There are now two 
hundred museums that are large and have permanent buildings, and one 
hundred and twenty-five others of intermediate size with temporary 
homes 5 there are over four hundred historic house museums, and three 
hundred and fifty small museums with rooms in public buildings 5 
finally, there are five hundred small teaching museums in colleges. All 
but a few of these museums do some work with adults, and some make 
adult education their first interest. 

LAURENCE VAIL COLEMAN, Directory 

The American Association of Museums. 



MUSEUMS IN ADULT EDUCATION 

The following list is by no means complete but is representative of the 
various types of programs being conducted by museums. It is arranged alpha- 
betically by state and city. 



SOUTHWEST MUSEUM, Marmion Way 
and Museum Drive, Highland Park, 
Los Angeles, Calif., Frederick Webb 
Hodge, dir* 

Popular lectures, usually on Indian 
subjects, Sunday afternoons from Oc- 
tober to April; exhibitions daily with 
guidance for organizations; reference 
library of 30,000 boob on Arizoniana, 
Californiana, western Americana, Span- 
ish Americana; 1,500 slides, directs 
"Casa de Adobe," replica of California 
Spanish ranch-house with complete fur- 
nishings; publishes The Masterkey (six 
times a year), and Southwest Museum 
Pafers occasionally. 

NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM, Balboa 
Park, San Diego, Calif., Clinton G. 
Abbott, Mr. 

Gallery lectures; guide service on 
request; talks to public, clubs, etc.; ref- 
erence library of about 125,000 books 
and pamphlets with emphasis on zool- 
ogy, botany, and geology; lending col- 
lection of 10,000 specimens, 1,500 pho- 
tographic negatives, 2,500 lantern slides; 
publishes Bulletin; Transactions; and 
Memoirs. 



CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, 
Calif., Barton Warren Evennann, dir. 

Free monthly lectures on the natural 
sciences; courses on beauties of natural 
aquarium and museum of habitat 
groups of California wild life free to 
public; library of 6o,OOO volumes, 
mainly in the biological and physical 
sciences, open to members; lending col- 
lection of 2,000 lantern slides. 



SANTA BARBARA MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY, Mission Canyon, Santa Bar- 
bara, Calif., Harold Sidebotham, dir. 

Courses in natural history; field ex- 
cursions; guidance on request; gallery 
lectures; public lectures; library of 
i,OOO volumes; some slides and photo- 
graphs; news of activities in local news- 
papers; publishes The Museum Leaf- 
let and annual report. 

COLORADO MUSEUM OF NATURAL HIS- 
TORY, City Park, Denver, Colo., Jesse 
D. Figgins, Mr. 

Lectures to organizations on request; 
motion pictures on bird life; guide ser- 
vice for groups. 

DENVER ART MUSEUM, Chappell 
House, 1300 Logan St., Denver, 
Colo., Cyril Kay-Scott, Mr. 

Lectures by members of staff and in- 
vited speakers; talks on art appreciation 
to local clubs; sponsors artists' groups, 
such as business men's art clubs; guide 
service on request; broadcasts over local 
station once a month; does not main- 
tain own library and slide collection, 
but cooperates with Denver Public Li- 
brary which offers these services; art 
column and calendar in Sunday edition 
Rocky Mountain News. 

ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO, Michigan 
Ave., Chicago, 111., Robert B. Harshe, 
Mr. 

Daily lectures free to members of 
Institute; Department of Museum In- 
struction and Membership Lecturer give 
courses in appreciation of art and sketch- 
ing for amateurs; School of Art Insti- 
tute offers day, evening, and Saturday 
morning courses for adults; School of 



io8 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Drama in Kenneth Sawyer Goodman 
Memorial Theatre produces seven plays 
(42 performances) for adults yearly 5 
gallery talks to organizations by ap- 
pointment; guide service on request; 
occasional radio talks; Ryerson Library 
of Art and Burnham Library of Archi- 
tecture (34,204 volumes) open to pub- 
lic; lending collection of 28,500 lan- 
tern slides, 53>50O photographs; 7,000 
color prints; 25,000 post cards; pub- 
lishes handbooks of paintings and sculp- 
ture, catalogs of exhibitions and special 
collections; Bulletin (seven times a 
year) ; and weekly news letter. 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY, 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Michigan, 
Chicago, 111., Stephen C. Simms, dir. 

Lectures on science and travel for 
public and special lectures for mem- 
bers; two lecture courses of general 
scientific interest given each year; five 
guide lecture tours a week; lending col- 
lection of natural history exhibits for 
use by community centers and other 
adult education organizations; library 
of 93,000 scientific books and pam- 
phlets open to public; 1 2,000 lantern 
slides for use in museum in connection 
with lectures; radio broadcasting by 
members of staff or of museum's expe- 
ditions, Division of Public Relations 
distributes news about museum locally, 
nationally, and internationally; pub- 
lishes general and special guidebooks, 
leaflets on scientific subjects. 

THE JOHN HERRON ART INSTITUTE, 
Pennsylvania and i6th Sts., Indian- 
apolis, Ind., Wilbur D. Peat, Mr. 

Courses on history of art and art ap- 
preciation; talks on exhibits; musical 
recitals; talks on special topics by visit- 
ing lecturers; gallery guides provided 
on request; Business People's Sketch 
Class sponsored; reference library 4,000 
volumes; large lending collection of 



photographs and slides; publishes bulle- 
tin periodically; local newspapers give 
space to museum items. 

BALTIMORE MUSEUM OF ART, Wyman 
Park at 3ist St., Baltimore, Md., Ro- 
land J. McKmney, dir. 

Gallery talks and lectures by staff 
members and invited speakers; courses 
of lectures on appreciation of sculpture, 
painting, and crafts; special courses for 
clubwomen in home decoration and ap- 
preciation of arts; lectures and loan ex- 
hibitions to clubs on request, lending 
collection of 3,000 lantern slides, li- 
brary open to all visitors ; publishes News 
Record (monthly) ; articles on museum 
activities sent to local newspapers twice 
weekly. 

MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, Huntington 
Ave. and the Fenway, Boston, Mass., 
Edward Jackson Holmes, dir. 

Lectures by staff members and in- 
vited speakers; several courses each year 
open to public, two especially arranged 
for teachers; classes for salespeople; 
courses for private groups on request; 
lectures by guides every week day; Sun- 
day talks and motion picture showings; 
advice and assistance to local industries; 
library of nearly 60,000 books and 
pamphlets open to public; lending col- 
lection of photographs lent free within 
radius of 1,500 miles; news letter an- 
nouncing accessions, exhibitions, and ed- 
ucational activities sent regularly to 
press, posters displayed in street cars, 
subway stations, and public bulletin 
boards; publishes bi-monthly bulletin, 
general handbook and gallery books de- 
scribing collections, and special publi- 
cations of scholarly content. 

WORCESTER ART MUSEUM, 5 5 Salisbury 
St., Worcester, Mass., Francis Henry 
Taylor, dir. 

Lectures and gallery talks for groups 
on request; guide service on request; 



MUSEUMS IN ADULT EDUCATION 



lending collection of 13,000 slides and 
23,000 photographs; library of 10,000 
books and pamphlets; publishes accounts 
of museum activity in local newspapers 
and other publications. 

DETROIT INSTITUTE OF ARTS, Wood- 
ward Ave., Detroit, Mich., Clyde H. 
Burroughs, ex. sec. 

Gallery tours twice a week, talks on 
temporary exhibitions to groups on re- 
quest; guides furnished groups of five 
or more on request; evening classes for 
teacher training, free public lectures 
and concerts; lending collection of 
18,000 slides; small reference library, 
branch of Detroit Public Library; 
monthly bulletin for members of 
Founders Society; three daily newspa- 
pers publish weekly schedule of events. 

THE MINNEAPOLIS INSTITUTE OF ARTS, 
20 1 E. 24th St., Minneapolis, Minn., 
Russell A. Plimpton, dir. 

Course of public lectures on history 
of art, prints, and travel; free Sunday 
lectures from October to April; 16 cir- 
culating lectures with lantern slides; 
special lectures and concerts for mem- 
bers; special lectures for groups such as 
business and professional women; 
weekly free gallery tours; special tours 
for groups; occasional addresses by staff 
members to technical groups meeting at 
museum; sponsors art class for business 
men; weekly broadcast over local sta- 
tion on current exhibitions, biographies 
of artists, etc.; library of 2,000 vol- 
umes; collection of 10,000 slides; 1,200 
color reproductions, 10,000 photographs 
available to public; member of staff 
writes articles for two local newspapers 
weekly; publishes general handbook, 
handbook of paintings, and other guides 
and catalogs; weekly bulletin from Oc- 
tober to June. 



CITY ART MUSEUM, Forest Park, St. 
Louis, Mo., Meyric R. Rogers, dir. 

Maintains museum hours for adults; 
guidance service on request; staff avail- 
able for lectures to clubs and societies; 
lending collection of 1,860 slides, 850 
photographs; reference library of 6,OOO 
volumes; publishes quarterly bulletin 
and annual report. 

SOCIETY OF LIBERAL ARTS, Joslyn 
Memorial, Omaha, Nebr., Paul H. 
Grummann, dir. 

Society has taken over Art Institute of 
Omaha; courses in dramatic art and in- 
terior decorating; demonstrations of 
various forms of art; lectures by promi- 
nent speakers on variety of subjects; 
special lectures on graphic arts, music, 
and drama arranged for groups and 
clubs, library of 1,232 volumes; post 
card file of art subjects; biographical file 
of contemporary artists; 4,497 lantern 
slides, 2,000 mounted photographs, and 
658 color prints, mounted and cata- 
loged; available for circulation. 

MONTCLAIR ART MUSEUM, Bloomfield 
and So. Mountain Aves., Montclair, 
N. J., Mary Cooke Swarthout, dir. 

Free lectures for adults and children 
on permanent collection, current exhi- 
bitions, and on various aspects of art; 
weekly classes in painting, drawing, and 
modeling; Sunday afternoon musicales; 
art supervisors of Montclair and sur- 
rounding towns meet at Museum four 
times a year; reference library and pho- 
tograph collection; lending collection 
of pictures, clippings, and Indian ma- 
terial; articles in local newspapers (at 
least twice weekly) and in metropoli- 
tan papers; some paid publicity in local 
newspaper once a week; publishes cata- 
logs of monthly exhibitions. 



no 



HANDBOOK. OF ADULT EDUCATION 



NEWARK MUSEUM ASSOCIATION, 49 
Washington St., Newark, N. J., Be- 
atrice Winser, Mr. 

Staff members and outside speakers 
give guidance, extramural and gallery 
lectures to groups on request; museum 
training class; weekly radio talks; lend- 
ing collection of 9,000 objects relating 
to geography, history, science, literature, 
industry; study collections of paintings, 
lace, textiles, minerals, shells, birds' eggs, 
insects; herbarium; news releases weekly 
to local and other newspapers. 

SCHOOL OF AMERICAN RESEARCH, Santa 
Fe, N. M., Edgar L. Hewett, far. 

Conducts Museum of New Mexico 
which is developing local museums in 
important towns in state in cooperation 
with local authorities, and establishing 
field museums at sites of its excavations; 
gallery lectures; guide service on re- 
quest, library of 2,000 volumes, 2,000 
lantern slides, 1,000 photographs; pub- 
lishes El Palacio (weekly) , and Digs. 

BROOKLYN BOTANIC GARDEN, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., C. Stuart Gager, far. 

Department of Brooklyn Institute of 
Arts and Sciences; adult education pro- 
gram consists of dissemination of a 
knowledge of plants, classes and lectures 
at Garden, lectures at schools, garden 
clubs, etc.; broadcasts regularly; lends 
lantern slides accompanied by lecture 
texts to schools and other groups; pro- 
vides docentry service, maintains Bureau 
of Public Information; issues many pub- 
lications (list on request). 

BROOKLYN MUSEUM, BROOKLYN INSTI- 
TUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, East- 
ern Parkway, Brooklyn, N. Y. ? Wil- 
liam Henry Fox, far. 

Lectures on art and science by staff 
members and invited speakers; museum 



courses for teachers and museum mem- 
bers; classes in blockprinting (for Mu- 
seum members) and weaving; gallery 
talks and guidance on request; special 
weekly gallery tours for United States 
service men; talks on textiles, design, 
etc., for store workers on request; ref- 
erence library of 24,000 volumes, lend- 
ing collection of 12,000 lantern slides, 
publishes Museum Quarterly and an- 
nouncement bulletins. 

ALBRIGHT ART GALLERY, Delaware 
Park, Buffalo, N. Y., Gordon B. 
Washburn, far. 

Courses on sculpture, painting, prints, 
and architecture; copperates with twen- 
ty-five women's clubs in Buffalo and 
many other clubs on Niagara frontier 
by offering lectures in gallery or club 
rooms; broadcasts over local radio sta- 
tions, synchronizing talks with publicity 
in rotogravure section of local news- 
paper; traveling exhibitions throughout 
the year; publishes catalogs of transient 
exhibitions and leaflets describing perma- 
nent exhibitions. 

BUFFALO SOCIETY OF NATURAL SCI- 
ENCES, Buffalo Museum of Science, 
Humboldt Park, Buffalo, N. Y., 
Charles J. Fish, far., Chauncey J. 
Hamlm, pres. 

Public lectures on science, travel, 
gardening, and music, fall, winter, and 
spring evening courses in science for 
adults, in cooperation with board of 
education and State Teachers College; 
museum training course; scientific sym- 
posia; hobby clubs for groups wishing 
to study special subjects; motion pic- 
tures, garden center; three model gar- 
dens, service for handicapped, radio 
talks, mostly over remote control sta- 
tions; two libraries (research library, 
regular library and reading room) open 
to public; lending collection of over 



MUSEUMS IN ADULT EDUCATION 



I II 



I ,OOO microscopic slides, 70,000 lan- 
tern slides, and 10,000 mounted pic- 
tures; in cooperation with New York 
State Museum and affiliated with Uni- 
versity of Buffalo, conducts Allegany 
School of Natural History, and summer 
camp in Allegany State Park for mem- 
bers, extensive publicity program, in- 
cluding preparation of material for local 
newspapers, distribution of material to 
national publications, preparation of 
posters, etc.; publishes magazine, The 
Evening Sky, Hobbies, scientific bulle- 
tin, annual report, pamphlet series, mis- 
cellaneous leaflets, and catalogs. 

AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HIS- 
TORY, yyth St. and Central Park 
West, New York, N. Y., George H. 
Sherwood, dir. 

Popular lectures for the public and 
for special groups; classes for the blind; 
guide service; courses for teachers in 
cooperation with New York University, 
College of the City of New York, and 
Teachers College, Columbia University; 
two series of radio broadcasts, lending 
library of 75,000 films; motion picture 
collection of 900 reels, library of 103,- 
OOO volumes open to public; lending 
collection of specimens and habitat 
groups; local, state, and nation-wide 
publicity; general guide to museum, 
guide for collections; publishes leaflets 
on special subjects such as nature study, 
anthropology, natural history, etc. 

THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, 
Fifth Ave. and 82nd St., New York, 
N. Y., Herbert Eustis Winlock, Ivr. 

Free lectures and gallery talks; spe- 
cial courses of lectures for deaf, public 
school teachers, employees of stores, and 
manufacturers; special lectures arranged 
when visiting lecturers of note avail- 
able; study rooms for accommodation 
of students wishing to make study of 



special subjects under direction of 
members of departmental staff; active 
cooperation with manufacturers, dealers, 
designers, etc., through Department of 
Industrial Relations; radio broadcasts; 
motion pictures; reference library of 
72,400 volumes, 122,500 photographs 
on art and related subjects; lending col- 
lection of paintings, motion picture 
films, color reproductions, Japanese 
prints, facsimiles of famous etchings, 
textiles, casts, maps, charts, electrotype 
reproductions of ancient coins; 58,000 
lantern slides, and 15,000 photographs; 
monthly meetings with representatives 
of press; special notices distributed be- 
tween meetings, publishes handbooks, 
catalogs, and leaflets. 

MUSEUM OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK, 
Fifth Ave. at I03rd and I04th Sts., 
New York, N. Y., Hardinge Scholle, 
dir. 

Gallery talks; free Sunday lectures; 
course on museum methods in social 
studies; trips to points of historic and 
civic interest; auditorium open to or- 
ganizations interested in historical de- 
velopment of City of New York; guide 
service on request; library of 600 vol- 
umes; publishes news of activities in 
newspapers, art magazines. 

CINCINNATI ART MUSEUM, Eden Park, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Walter H. Siple, 
dir. 

Gallery talks 5 special lectures ar- 
ranged for clubs on request; courses of 
lectures on art appreciation, principles 
of design, development of furniture, 
interior decoration, history of prints, 
history of paintings; weekly radio broad- 
casts; lending collection of 7,000 slides, 
13,000 photographs and reproductions; 
weekly articles in local newspapers by 
local critics; notices and articles by staff 
frequently published. 



112 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



THE CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF ART, 
East Boulevard, Wade Park, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, William M. Milliken, 
Mr. 

Lectures by staff members and in- 
vited speakers; courses and gallery talks 
by staff members, some for university 
credit; organ recitals, concerts and lec- 
tures conducted by Department of Mus- 
ical Arts; cooperates with schools, li- 
braries, women's clubs, men's clubs, etc. j 
guide service; broadcasts weekly radio 
talk; lending collection of 28,200 slides, 
17,600 photographs and many originals 
and reproductions of works of art; ref- 
erence library of 11,600 volumes; pub- 
licity in local newspapers; publishes an- 
nual reports and bulletin. 

CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY, 2717 Euclid Ave., Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Harold L. Madison, far. 

Loan exhibits at main and branch li- 
braries; fall and winter program of 
Sunday afternoon lectures; staff mem- 
bers available as speakers for organiza- 
tions; lending collection of 3,000 slides; 
reference library of 13,000 books and 
pamphlets; publishes popular leaflets on 
natural history; notices of activities in 
local newspapers. 

TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART, Monroe St. 
at Scottwood Ave., Toledo, Ohio, 
Blake-More Godwin, Mr. 

Lectures on art history, art and music 
appreciation; Sunday concerts; gallery 
talks; guidance on request; library of 
8,000 volumes, 9,000 lantern slides; 
large file of clippings; staff members 
available for talb at parent-teacher 
meetings, clubs, schools, etc.; classes in 
art; publicity in local newspapers; pub- 
lishes Museum News and Children's 
Museum News, 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF 
PHILADELPHIA, Logan Square, Phila- 
delphia, Pa , Charles M. B. Cadwal- 
ader, man. Mr. 

Course of free illustrated lectures; 
reference library of 120,000 volumes; 
news of activities in local newspapers; 
publishes yearbook and proceedings. 

THE COMMERCIAL MUSEUM, 34-th St. 
below Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa., 
F. M. Huntington-Wilson, Mr. 

Popular lectures on Saturday after- 
noons; guidance on request; gallery lec- 
tures to groups on request; special in- 
formation on commerce, products, and 
industries especially for business men; 
courses of instruction for teachers in 
service; lending collections of 50,000 
slides, 70,000 photographs, several hun- 
dred samples of commercial products 
and raw materials; library of 56,000 
books, 126,500 pamphlets; maintains 
Foreign Trade Bureau. 

THE PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM OF ART, 
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pa , 
Fiske Kimball, Mr. 

Lectures by members of staff and in- 
vited speakers; guide service on request; 
School of Industrial Art offers day and 
evening classes; study classes; staff mem- 
bers occasionally available for lectures 
to local clubs; lending collection of 
24,000 photographs and 2,300 slides; 
reference library of 12,000 volumes and 
3,000 pamphlets; news of activities in 
local newspapers; publishes bulletin and 
annual reports, catalogs of special ex- 
hibitions. 

THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUM, University 
of Pennsylvania, 33d and Spruce 
Sts., Philadelphia, Pa., Horace H. F. 
Jayne, Mr. 

Public lectures on archaeological and 
ethnological exploration on Saturday 



MUSEUMS IN ADULT EDUCATION 



afternoons; special instruction for 
classes by arrangement with educational 
department; lending collection of 2,400 
lantern slides; reference library of 
14,000 volumes on archaeology, anthro- 
pology and art; publishes The Museum 
Journal (quarterly), and The Univer- 
sity Museum Bulletin (semi-monthly). 

CARNEGIE INSTITUTE, Department of 
Fine Arts, 4400 Forbes St., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Homer Samt-Gaudens, 
Mr. 

Public lectures; gallery talks during 
international exhibition of paintings; 
gallery talks on request; guidance on 
request; lending collection of 8,000 
slides, 3,000 photographs; reference li- 
brary of 12,000 volumes in fine arts di- 
vision of Carnegie Library; news of ac- 
tivities in local newspapers; publishes 
annual report. 

CARNEGIE MUSEUM, 4400 Forbes St., 
Pittsburgh, Pa., Andrey Avinoff, far. 

Courses of lectures on natural history, 
explorations, expeditions, occasionally 
on ethnography, astronomy, and history; 
guidance on request; radio talks; lec- 
tures to clubs, school teachers, and civic 
groups; extends facilities for meetings 
of Botanical Society, Isaak Walton 
League, Naturalists Club, etc.; library 
of 14,000 volumes and 46,000 pam- 
phlets open to public, 

MILWAUKEE ART INSTITUTE, 772 No. 
Jefferson St., Milwaukee, Wise., Al- 
fred G. Pelikan, Mr. 

Weekly lectures for adults; gallery 
tours, with exhibitions explained by 
local and visiting artists; courses for 
members of Institute and special groups 
such as teachers and members of parent- 
teacher association; sponsors women's 
sketch and painting class and men's 
sketch class; radio broadcasts; lending 
library of slides and prints. 



MILWAUKEE PUBLIC MUSEUM, Wis- 
consin Ave., Milwaukee, Wise., Sam- 
uel Alfred Barrett, dir. 

Annual course of 21 lectures (travel, 
exploration, science, etc.) ; annual 
course of mid-week lectures of popular 
interest by Museum staff; annual series 
of seminar courses in anthropology, 
natural sciences, and industry by Mu- 
seum staff; field excursions for direct 
nature study; lectures by staff members 
to societies, schools, clubs, lodges, etc., 
anywhere in county; general guidance 
service to visitors; special guidance to 
groups on request; lending collection of 
140,000 lantern slides, 376 reels of 
films, natural history, and anthropo- 
logical specimens; special meeting hall 
assigned as headquarters for numerous 
veteran and patriotic societies; meeting 
room assigned for meetings of societies 
of public nature, such as teacher asso- 
ciations, archaeological, astronomical, 
horticultural, philatelic societies, ama- 
teur radio clubs, etc.; use of lecture hall 
granted for annual courses in first aid, 
fire prevention, school for foremen, etc. 

See also the following organization 
listed under National Organizations: 

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF MU- 
SEUMS 

Also the following related articles: 

THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 

33- 
Music IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 115. 

READING LIST 

Coleman, L. V. Recent Progress and 
Condition of Museums. Chap. XXII, 
Biennial Survey of Education in the 
United States 1928-1930. United 
States Office of Education, Bulletin 
1931, No. 20. 34 p. 
Part I contains statistics of public 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



museums; part II, statistics of uni- 
versity, college and school museums; 
part III, the number of museums; 
part IV, comparison of state and re- 
gional development, part V, trends 
in museum work; outdoor museums; 
branch museums; museums in small 
communities; progress in exhibition; 
museum instruction; public relations; 
national and international work. 

Handbook of American Museums. 
Washington, D. C. The American 
Association of Museums. 1932. 779 p. 

Memorandum on the Possibility of In- 
creased Cooperation between Public 
Museums and Public Educational 



Institutions. London, Board of Edu- 
cation, Educational Pamphlets, No. 
87. 1931. 46 p. 

Present and past conditions in Eng- 
land, examples of cooperation from 
the United States and other coun- 
tries; discusses museum's part in the 
adult education movement. 
Rea, P. M. The Museum and the Com- 
munity. Lancaster, Pa., Science Press, 
1932. 259 p. 

Describes fundamental laws that 
govern the relations between museums 
and their communities. Analyzes the 
history, facilities, and attainments of 
many individual museums. 



MUSIC IN ADULT EDUCATION 

In every art, any activity through which a person comes to an appre- 
ciation of excellence and beauty is educative. I all the adult activities 
in the field of music meeting this definition of "educative" could be 
represented here, the larger proportion of them would be found outside 
the purely educational institutions, in the increasing number of good 
amateur choral, orchestral, and chamber music groups and bands, as 
well as among thoughtful listeners and readers in homes, churches, 
concert halls, clubs, and community centers. Throughout the country 
there is an increasing though still small number of groups of amateurs 
meeting in homes and clubs to perform fine music intelligently, without 
thought of giving a concert. The number of amateur orchestras in 
churches, clubs, recreation centers, evening schools, and communities 
playing excellent music is also increasing. National music associations 
are publishing inexpensive bulletins, handbooks, and study courses for 
the use of interested clubs and other groups. In Buffalo and other cities, 
large numbers of people have been attracted to free "evenings of 
music" in public school buildings, at which the time is divided between 
brief musical, dance, and dramatic performances by special groups, and 
general singing by the audience. These occasions, while designed for 
immediate pleasure, are intended also to arouse the desire for further 
expression or growth in music or in other educative kinds of activity 
that the school does or might offer. In New York's "Little Italy," for 
example, such an evening of music attracted to a public school building 
a great many people who had hitherto shown no interest whatever in 
the other educational activities being offered there for adults. 

Talks on the music of forthcoming concerts, offered as a part of 
university or school courses, of the education work of an art museum, 
or by private individuals or societies, to prepare for intelligent listening, 
are especially helpful because of their early application. In this field the 
work of graduates of the Juilliard Graduate School of Music, described 
below, is especially noteworthy. The explanatory talks being broadcast 
during the intermission of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and 
as a part of several other programs on national "chains" and local radio 
stations are also helping to cultivate an appreciation of good music in 
America. 

115 



I 1 6 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

University extension departments have included music in their cur- 
ricula since 1915, but A. L. Hall-Quest reports in The University 
Afield, that of 3,427 courses in extension classes given by 47 colleges 
and universities in 1923-24 only 88 two per cent were music courses. 
Of 4,154 correspondence courses only 63 one per cent were in music. 
The largest number of university music classes for adults is in music 
appreciation, with courses in the history of music, harmony, and voice 
production also appearing frequently in the curricula. The average 
number reported enrolled in university extension classes in music in 
1932-33 was 27, a smaller number than in previous years. Columbia 
University, the University of Oregon, and the Massachusetts Depart- 
ment of Education foster adult extension choruses. Only 4 colleges and 
universities have correspondence courses in music appreciation 5 15, in 
addition, teach harmony, and 1 1 offer courses in the history of music. 

It has been commonly assumed that the learning of skills in instru- 
mental music is not for adults, but the results obtained in many schools 
have disproved this theory. Twenty-six music school settlements and 
similar schools in 1932-33 were giving piano instruction to 546 adults, 
of whom by far the largest proportion, 409, were between the ages of 
eighteen and twenty-five, and 120 were nearer the age of forty. The 
fees per lesson ranged from twenty-five cents to two dollars. Eighteen 
schools offered instruction to 274 adults in violin, viola, and violon- 
cello. In one school 6 men over sixty were receiving instruction in 
either orchestra or band instruments, but in the n schools offering 
lessons in those instruments the total number of adult pupils was only 
8 1. Eighteen music school settlements have adult orchestras of from 4 
to 50 members, 23 schools offer vocal instruction to adults, and 6 
schools offer courses in music appreciation. 

In several states modest but often avidly pursued projects of music 
study have been instituted in rural women's clubs and in some granges. 
These projects are often determined upon and presented to the clubs by 
the state and county home demonstration agents, under the leadership 
of an instructor in the state college music department or, in some states, 
of a representative of the National Recreation Association. In some 
instances the club members chosen as music leaders are responsible for 
presenting the music projects for each month and an annual institute is 
held for these leaders in several states during the farm and home con- 
vention or at another convenient meeting. Club music projects usually 
call for familiarity with certain songs and instrumental compositions 
and for information about them and their composers. In a number of 
the Middle Western and Far Western states broadcasting stations are 



MUSIC IN ADULT EDUCATION II J 

used for the presentation of the music with which the club members 
are becoming familiar. The most outstanding choral development in 
rural communities is being conducted in centers of the Delaware State 
Division of Adult Education (see note following this article). Farm 
bureaus and clubs of farm women in several states have been respon- 
sible for the formation of county choruses and small vocal groups, some 
of the leaders of which have had some guidance from a college music 
instructor or other expert at an institute held in connection with the 
state or county farmers' meeting. Rural districts have not overlooked 
the furthering of instrumental music. In Iowa, for example, the State 
College Extension Service, the Farm Bureau Federation, and the Des 
Moines Register and Tribune have cooperated in encouraging and help- 
ing adults to form family and community orchestras. 

Provision for continuing into adult life the orchestral playing that is 
being cultivated so effectively in many high schools is one of the greatest 
musical needs and opportunities confronting adult education agencies. 
The organization of adult amateur orchestras and bands is the most 
obvious means of making that provision, but another way that has some 
virtues lacking in the more formal, concert-giving organizations is the 
development of chamber music societies. Cleveland College and the 
University of Minnesota each invites townspeople to a course, necessa- 
rily quite informal, in "ensemble playing." The Westchester County 
(New York) Recreation Commission has established a County Chamber 
Music Society of about one hundred amateurs. The program is described 
below. 

Most of the innumerable bands in cities, towns, and hamlets 
throughout the country can not now be regarded as musically educa- 
tional, though they are potentially so. Many are connected with clubs, 
industrial establishments, or municipal police or fire departments, and 
others belong to the community or neighborhood. But the degree of 
skill being developed in an increasing number of high school bands, and 
the efforts of the American Bandmasters' Association to raise the stand- 
ards for adult bands, are together likely to produce educational results 
among band players. 

It is impossible in this brief statement to do justice to the hundreds 
of choruses and choirs in churches, women's clubs, music clubs, Young 
Men's apd Women's Christian and Hebrew Associations, parent-teacher 
associations, recreation centers, industrial establishments, and elsewhere. 
While many of them, it is true, are by the character o their choice and 
performance of music not to be regarded as educational, forces now at 



Il8 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

work give promise of higher standards. Among these are the excellent 
choruses that have been heard in many of our cities and over the radio 
which are likely to be emulated 5 the conventions of national organiza- 
tions of musicians and persons interested in music, which attract mem- 
bers from all parts of the country and give opportunity to present excel- 
lent choruses as models ; the remarkable choruses of high school stu- 
dents heard at conventions of the school music teachers which set stand- 
ards not only for those teachers but also for adult choruses in their own 
and nearby communities 5 the college glee clubs singing excellent music 
with fine skill that is not only influencing those who hear them, but that 
is also preparing their own members to seek equally good singing in 
their respective communities after graduation. 

A complete report of music in adult education should take into 
account the training of leaders in such courses in choral and orchestral 
conducting as are given by the extension divisions of Columbia and the 
Universities of Minnesota and Oregon, by some of the music schools, 
and by the better of the brief "leader-training institutes" given by uni- 
versity extension divisions and the National Recreation Association. 
Further realization of the full human value of adult musical resources 
in our homes, churches, and communities, still only rarely achieved, 
depends mainly on the provision of more good music leaders and 
teachers of adults. 

AUGUSTUS D. ZANZIG, Music Service, 
National Recreation Association. 



Programs of some of the institutions and organizations offering instruc- 
tion to adults in music are listed below. The list is arranged alphabetically 
by state and city. 

DIVISION OF Music EDUCATION, Dover, Music DEPARTMENT, South End House, 

Del., Glenn Gildersleeve, dtr. 20 Union Park, Boston, Mass., Amy 

T - i Marcy Eaton, far* of social music. 

In 1932-33, 1,200 of the 3,500 men / J 

and women participating in rural adult Senior chorus of from 15 to 20 

education in Delaware were in music adults, ranging in age from 18 to 

groups meeting in 29 different commu- 70, meeting weekly under supervision 

nities, studying simple choral music 5 of director to sing folk songs, classical 

classes composed of ministers, lawyers, music, etc.; Music Lovers' Club meets 

teachers, farmers, housewives, clerks, regularly to listen to music played by 

mechanics, barbers, and laborers from members of club, by the director or a 

1 8 to 25 years old, ranging from illiter- visiting musician and to read books on 

ates to college graduates; annual festival music; formal Sunday afternoon musi- 

given in each county at close of school cales held once a month; attempting 

year. through annual Music Week Festival 



MUSIC IN ADULT EDUCATION 



to make neighborhood music conscious, 
to raise standard of music sung, and to 
perfect productions. 

BUXTON COUNTRY DAY SCHOOL, Short 
Hills, N. J., Theodora Perrine, dir. 

Formation of children's orchestra 
stimulated formation of orchestra of 
thirty parents, few of whom had ever 
played an instrument; parents' orchestra 
depends almost entirely on class instruc- 
tion given chiefly at orchestra rehearsals, 
usually play simple dances of Bach and 
Handel. 

JUILLIARD MUSICAL FOUNDATION, 60 

Liberty St., New York, N. Y., Eugene 
A. Noble, sec. 

Commissions annually a number of 
graduates of Juilliard Graduate School 
of Music to establish music centers in 
various communities in cooperation with 
local persons; graduates give lectures or 
courses in music appreciation, and as- 
sist in supporting already existing series 
of concerts or operas; for further in- 
formation see Toledo Museum of Art, 
below. 

NEW SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, 
66 W. 1 2th St., New York, N. Y., 
Henry Howell, in charge, music 
courses. 

Evening courses on the place of music 
in society, philosophy and music, ap- 
preciation of modern music, comparison 
of musical systems of the world; for 
further information about program of 
School, see p. 220. 

THE PEOPLE'S CHORUS OF NEW YORK, 
INC., 41 E. 42nd St., New York, 
N. Y., L. Camilieri, conductor. 

Aims to give people opportunity to 
learn to read music more fluently, to 
enable them to sing more artistically, 
and to present best choral works; holds 
three choral meetings weekly which in- 



elude instruction In sight-reading, prac- 
tice in reading and singing music flu- 
ently, voice culture, study of part songs, 
and selections of best vocal compositions 5 
conductor composes sight-singing lessons 
to meet practical needs of each meeting 
and distributes copies free of charge 5 
members give concerts and festivals 
during each season, featuring results of 
their work. 

WEST-CHESTER COUNTY RECREATION 
COMMISSION, County Chamber Music 
Society, White Plains, N. Y. 

County Chamber Music Society of 
about fifty amateurs, all competent 
players, meets monthly to hear an espe- 
cially coached and practiced string quar- 
tet of members play one or more works, 
in which all join immediately after- 
wards; holds annual choir festival en- 
listing 21 secular choruses, a symphony 
orchestra, and soloists; for further in- 
formation about program of Commis- 
sion, see p. 192. 

PUBLIC RECREATION COMMITTEE OF 
CINCINNATI, Cincinnati, Ohio, Harry 
F. Glore, sufv. of music. 

Instruction given in vocal and instru- 
mental ensemble music; seven commu- 
nity orchestras, one non-professional 
symphonic orchestra (Cincinnati Civic 
Orchestral Society), adult choruses, 
both white and Negro; 1,252 students 
participating in program. 

TOLEDO MUSEUM OF ART, Toledo, 
Ohio, Mary Van Doren, head of m&- 
sic deft. 

For two years museum has included 
in educational program musical activi- 
ties sponsored by Juilliard Musical 
Foundation, and directed by Juilliard 
representative; offers courses in music 
appreciation (attended in 1931-32 by 
2,427 adults) where representative com- 
positions are performed and discussed, 



120 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



the object being to learn to listen; gives 
special evening recitals, presenting se- 
lected musical literature prefaced by ex- 
planatory remarks; annual series of con- 
certs by internationally known musi- 
cians each preceded by a talk on the 
program; Sunday afternoon concerts by 
Toledo musicians also given; weekly re- 
cital-lecture broadcast from museum's 
studio by head of music department; for 
further information about Museum, see 
article, Museums in Adult Education. 



PITTSBURGH PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., Coit R. Hoechst, dw. ex- 
tension education, 

Class instruction in singing given for 
adults in three high school buildings 
and two elementary schools, classes in 
orchestra m three evening high schools, 
total enrollment, 90 ; classes meet weekly 
for 24 sessions during fall and winter; 
total enrollment 134.; for further in- 
formation see p. 172. 



The following colleges are among those offering extension courses in 
music. This list is arranged alphabetically by name of institution. For in- 
formation concerning the general extension programs of these institutions, 
see University Extension, p. 254. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Depart- 
ment of Music, Extension Division, 
301 California Hall, Berkeley, Calif., 
Leon J. Richardson, dir. 

Courses offered since 1920 in ap- 
preciation and history of music, har- 
mony, composition, voice production, 
piano, organ, violin, choral singing, or- 
chestra playing, public school music, and 
courses in presenting musicales in 
schools, holds classes in extension cen- 
ters throughout state; total enrollment, 
all classes since 1920, approximately 
3,6oo. 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, Department 
of Music, Chicago, 111., Carl Bricken, 
chmn. 

Extension work in history and ap- 
preciation of music begun in spring, 
1933; plans to add more extension 
courses in history, appreciation, and 
other subjects. 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, Department of 
Music, Extension Division, New 
York, N. Y., Bassett W. Hough, dir. 

Courses in music appreciation, his- 
tory, harmony, instruction in organ, 



violin and piano, elementary theory, 
choral singing, and in orchestra con- 
ducting (since 1931); total enrollment 
of over 250 students participates m ex- 
tension program in music annually; 
courses offered in New York City, New- 
ark, Brooklyn. 

UNIVERSITY OF DENVER, Music De- 
partment, Extension Division, Den- 
ver, Colo., Horace W. Tureman, dir. 

Courses in appreciation, history, ele- 
mentary theory, and orchestra playing; 
approximately sixty students enrolled in 
courses each year. 

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, Department 
of Music, Extension Division, Gaines- 
ville, Fla., Marguerite Porter, dir. 

Courses in elementary theory and 
public school music in extension centers 
throughout state. 

INDIANA UNIVERSITY, School of Music, 
Extension Classes, Bloomington, Ind., 
B. Winfred Merrill, dean. 

Correspondence courses in music since 
1912 with total enrollment of 252; , 



MUSIC IN ADULT EDUCATION 



121 



courses in methods of teaching offered 
since 1912 (enrollment 140); extension 
class work given since 1915; holds 
classes in Indianapolis and Fort Wayne 
in history, harmony, appreciation (uti- 
lizing radio and other concerts), history 
of opera, public school music, short 
courses in music club leadership, and 
in nineteenth century opera; cooperates 
in publishing Music Bulletin of the 
Federation of Music Clubs. 



IOWA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICUL- 
TURE, Extension Service, Ames, Iowa, 
W. H. Stacy, ext. sociologist. 

Farm women participating in state- 
wide music projects which include per- 
formance of folk songs and folk danc- 
ing j Iowa Farm Bureau chorus, started 
in I93i> now in fourth year with 77 
township groups in 20 counties having 
township choruses during 1 93 2-3 3 ; 
plans announced for first quartette con- 
test for mixed voices, third farm 
women's quartet contest, and seventh 
Iowa farmers' male quartet contest, to 
be conducted during annual convention 
of Iowa Farm Bureau Federation, Jan- 
uary, 1934; according to 1932 annual 
report of state county agriculture agents, 
township community meetings through- 
out state giving attention to the devel- 
opment of music; yearly contest for 
small rural orchestras, in cooperation 
with Iowa Farm Bureau Federation and 
Des Moines Register and Tribune, for 
purpose of encouraging small new com- 
munity orchestras, emphasizing other 
possibilities of music in family groups 
by recognizing best family orchestras, 
and stimulating participation in music 
as demonstrated by rural community 
orchestras; contest limited to orchestras 
having not more than 20 players, 90 
percent of whom must be Farm Bureau 
members and living on farms. 



THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHU- 
SETTS, Music Department, Division 
of University Extension, Department 
of Education, State House, Boston, 
Mass., James A. Moyer, Mr. 

Courses in field of music since 1922; 
during 1932-33 gave courses through- 
out state in extension centers in appre- 
ciation of music, piano playing, use of 
the singing voice, narration in music; 
correspondence course in appreciation of 
music; 169 students in Boston enrolled 
in course on the appreciation of sym- 
phonies based on programs of concerts 
by the Boston Symphony Orchestra; 
total of over 16,000 students have par- 
ticipated in extension program in 
music. 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, Depart- 
ment of Music, Division of Univer- 
sity Extension, Ann Arbor, Mich., 
W. D. Henderson, Mr. 

Offered in 1932-33 in Pontkc, 
Michigan, extension course in contra- 
puntal and chromatic dictation in which 
students wrote from dictation through 
pianoforte two or three part counter- 
point and four part chromatic har- 
mony; also practiced sight singing. 

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, Depart- 
ment of Music, General Extension 
Division, Minneapolis, Minn., Rich- 
ard R. Price, dir* 

Courses since 1925 in appreciation, 
harmony, counterpoint, choral and 
orchestral conducting, and ensemble 
playing; total annual enrollment over 
75- 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, Department 
of Music, University Extension Divi- 
sion, Washington Square East, New 
York, K Y., Paul A. McGhee, ex. 
sec. 

Courses in music appreciation and 
history since 1928; annual enrollment, 



122 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



50; courses offered in New York City 
only. 

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, Music De- 
partment, Extension Division, Nor- 
man, Okla., Louis B. Fritts, Mr. 

Courses in history and appreciation 
of music, harmony, and composition; 
approximately 50 students enrolled in 
courses annually; all classes held in 
Oklahoma City. 

OREGON STATE SYSTEM OP HIGHER 
EDUCATION, Department of Music, 
Portland Extension Center, Eugene, 
Ore., Frederick W. Goodrich, Mr. 

Since 1917 Portland Extension Cen- 
ter has offered from time to time 
courses in appreciation of music, history, 
harmony, composition, sight singing, 
elementary theory, form and analysis, 
choral singing, choral and orchestral 
directing, pianoforte literature, and 
public school music methods. 

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, Department 
of Music, Extension Division, St. 
Louis, Mo., Ernest R. Kroeger, Mr. 

Classes held in St. Louis and East St. 
Louis in appreciation, history, harmony, 
and aesthetics; approximately 30 stu- 
dents enrolled annually. 

CLEVELAND COLLEGE OF WESTERN 
RESERVE UNIVERSITY, Department 
of Music, Extension Division, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, A. Caswell Ellis, Mr. 

Courses in music appreciation, con- 
ducting and score-reading, orchestral 
playing, choral singing, fundamental 
music technique, and chamber music; 
informal course in ensemble playing 
with registration of 17, 1932-33; total 
registration, 1932-33, 1,286. 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, Department 
of Music, University Extension Divi- 
sion, Madison, Wise., Chester D. 
Snell, dean. 

Courses in introduction to music, har- 
mony, theory and practice of grade 
school music, history of music, com- 
munity music, and counterpoint. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF TEACHERS OF 
SINGING 

AMERICAN GUILD OF ORGANISTS, INC. 

CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION 

GENERAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S 
CLUBS 

Music SUPERVISORS NATIONAL CONFER- 
ENCE 

NATIONAL BUREAU FOR THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF Music 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF Music CLUBS 

NATIONAL Music LEAGUE 

NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION 

See also the following notes: 

BROOKLYN MUSEUM, p. HO. 
CLEVELAND MUSEUM OF ART, p. 112. 
DETROIT INSTITUTE OF ARTS, p. 109. 
METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, p. 
in. 

Also the following articles: 

ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS, 

p. 203. 
THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT 

EDUCATION, p. 185. 
UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, p. 254. 

READING LIST 

Clark, Kenneth S. Municipal Aid to 
Music in America. National Bureau 
for the Advancement of Music, 1925. 
297 p. 



MUSIC IN ADULT EDUCATION 



123 



An exposition and analysis of the 
findings in a national survey. Geo- 
graphic listings from local reports 
included. 

Clark, Kenneth S. Music in Industry. 
National Bureau for the Advance- 
ment of Music, 1929. 383 p. 

A presentation of facts brought 
forth by a national survey on musical 
activities among industrial and com- 
mercial workers. Includes geographic 
listing of excerpts from reports. 



Zanzig, A. D. Music in American Life, 
Present and Future. Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1932. 560 p. 

The result of two years' intensive 
survey of musical activities in all parts 
of the United States, undertaken for 
the National Recreation Association. 
The book contains a seven-page chap- 
ter devoted to music in adult educa- 
tion in which are restated the 
opportunities for adults to engage in 
music-making. 



ADULT EDUCATION FOR NEGROES 

Adult education for Negroes, even in the days of prosperity, did 
not keep pace with adult education for whites and during the present 
economic crisis many of the projects initiated within the last decade 
have ceased to function altogether. The budgets for tax-supported eve- 
ning schools for Negroes have been drastically cut, and many of the 
schools have been forced to curtail their work and in some instances to 
close. Appropriations for Negro libraries and for social service organiza- 
tions have been very small. 

It is fortunate that the Agricultural Extension System, which 
reaches the large Negro population in rural districts in the South, has 
been able to continue its work. In fifteen states, most of them in the 
South, agricultural and home demonstration agents are at work helping 
hundreds of thousands of Negroes to increase their crops, to raise better 
cattle, to improve their homes and generally to raise their standard of 
living. The farmer receives instruction in agronomy, animal husbandry, 
poultry raising, dairying, animal diseases, horticulture, plant pathology, 
agricultural engineering, farm management, and marketing 5 his wife is 
taught the principles of health and sanitation, the best methods of food 
preparation and preservation, child care, and household arts. 

According to a recent report of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, "the Negro farm family delights in a practical application 
of subject matter, whether it is mixing fertilizer, adjusting a plow, 
pruning trees, making rugs, or framing pictures." The movable school, 
a truck equipped for demonstration purposes, has proved a very suc- 
cessful means of stimulating interest among groups of farmers. 

Another instrument for the education of colored adults in the rural 
South is the church. According to the Social Work Year Book "the 
agency used chiefly and most effectively by the Negro of the masses to 
solve his own problems has been the Negro church. The church was 
the Negro's first social settlement or community center. Even today, 
where it does not boast a formal settlement program, it supplies much 
of the recreational and leisure-time service of the Negro community.' 7 
In many of the smaller churches the ministers frequently do not have 
the equivalent of even a high school education, and ill-equipped though 

124 



ADULT EDUCATION FOR NEGROES 125 

they may be these men are expected to serve as teachers and community 
leaders, as well as spiritual advisers, to their people. Many of the Negro 
normal schools and colleges, seeing the necessity for offering these min- 
isters an opportunity for more thorough training, have provided sum- 
mer institutes, where members of the regular staff give courses in 
religious and secular subjects and where those with little formal educa- 
tion may benefit by coming in contact with their better-prepared 
brothers. 

Experiments in adult education for the urban Negro are being car- 
ried on in two urban centers the Harlem district in New York City, 
and Atlanta, in the South. Both experiments are under the auspices of 
the American Association for Adult Education and both are being con- 
ducted from a public library base, with the cooperation of national 
and local organizations and institutions interested in adult education. 
Readers' advisory service and bibliographical service are given, and 
adult education classes for the study of social, economic, educational 
and racial subjects are formed. Details of the organization and program 
of the experiments are given below. Alain Locke, Professor of Philos- 
ophy at Howard University, appraising the Harlem experiment, says, 
"The experience thus far seems to show that there is a specially strong 
motivation in the racial appeal and interest, and that profitable advan- 
tage should be taken of it. It is planned in Harlem to emphasize boldly 
and without apology the racial and local themes and interests. Instead 
of being, as might be expected, an isolating and limiting influence, the 
racial sides of the program have proved to be of considerable inter-racial 
appeal, and have brought larger numbers of both races into helpful and 
natural contact with each other than was possible in any other way." 

During the summer of 1931 an Opportunity School for colored 
students was held at Seneca Junior College, Seneca, South Carolina, for 
adults of limited education. The fifty-five students who attended the 
four weeks' school came chiefly from rural communities where illiteracy 
predominated. The average age of the group was 38, and the average 
amount of schooling was seven months. On entering, the group was 
given intelligence and literacy tests and the students were then divided 
into five classes^ according to ability, ranging from illiterates to those 
whose average formal schooling covered a period of nine months. Class 
work for all students included a study of reading, spelling, writing, and 
arithmetic. At the close of the term, when the intelligence and literacy 
tests given the students on entering were repeated, it was found that in 
four weeks' time the group had an average gain equivalent to 3.4 
months of public school progress in silent reading, writing, arithmetic, 



126 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



and spelling. Unfortunately, this school has been unable to continue 
because of financial conditions. -pv -n 



There are many national, state and community organizations conducting 
adult education programs for Negroes. The following list has been compiled 
from information in the files of the American Association for Adult Educa- 
tion and from suggestions made by a number of Negro educators. It is by no 
means complete, but an effort has been made to include representative 
organizations. The list is arranged alphabetically by state and city. 



FEDERATION OF PARENT-TEACHER ASSO- 
CIATIONS, Douglass School, First and 
Pierce Sts., N.W., Washington, D. C., 
Edyth A. Lyons, sec., 1833 S St., 
N.W. 

Conducted during past year training 
class for study and discussion group 
leaders, attended by about 40 members 
of Federation; program included lec- 
tures and discussion of organization of 
individual groups and technique of 
leadership, together with practice by in- 
dividual members in leading group dis- 
cussion. 

ATLANTA ADULT EDUCATION EXPERI- 
MENT AMONG NEGROES, Auburn 
Branch Carnegie Library, Atlanta, 
Ga., Mae C. Hawes, dir. 

Director works with sponsoring com- 
mittee of college presidents, librarians 
and business men, both white and col- 
ored, making contacts with individuals 
and groups in effort to promote adult 
education among Negroes; Auburn 
Branch Carnegie Library, physical base 
for experiment, cooperates in offering 
information service and readers' ad- 
visory service, program helps, compiling 
bibliographies; library also has prepared 
traveling exhibit of over 150 books by 
or about the Negro 5 in addition to 
working with established groups, such as 
the Parent-Teacher Association, the 
Federated Women's Clubs, etc., com- 
mittee has organized and sponsored 



following groups: 103 church women 
who are studying modern problems as 
they concern women; 200 public school 
and college teachers, studying interna- 
tional, educational, and social problems; 
ministers' group; group studying eco- 
nomics; family relations group; citizen- 
ship group in cooperation with League 
for Industrial Democracy attended by 
over 400 persons of different races; 
Citizenship School, in cooperation with 
the National Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Colored People; combats 
illiteracy through cooperation with night 
schools; in connection with Education 
Department of Atlanta University en- 
deavors to create suitable elementary 
literature for adults, assists literary clubs 
of city by giving program suggestions 
and by supplying books and other ma- 
terial from library collection; financed 
by Rosenwald Fund and by Carnegie 
Corporation of New York upon recom- 
mendation of American Association for 
Adult Education. 

STATE OF NEW JERSEY, Manual Train- 
ing School, Bordentown, N. J., 
W. K. Valentine, pin. 

Adult education program has been 
planned to help Negro population of 
New Jersey (200,000) adjust itself to 
social and industrial plan of state; en- 
courages local interest in drama and 
music through the sponsorship of 
dramatic and choral clubs; encourages 
community organization for adult edu- 



ADULT EDUCATION FOR NEGROES 



127 



cation by holding annual conferences of 
ministers, parents, fanners, church mis- 
sionaries, industrial workers, Y.M.C.A. 
secretaries, etc., for discussion of educa- 
tional problems, and by taking active 
part in programs of state organizations 
affecting Negro welfare; organizes and 
conducts meetings throughout state for 
discussion of vocational planning among 
adults, emphasizing need for improved 
training of Negro workers. 

HARLEM ADULT EDUCATION EXPERI- 
MENT AMONG NEGROES, Harlem 
Adult Education Committee, New 
York Public Library 1 3 5th St. 
Branch, New York, N. Y., Ernestine 
Rose, dir. 

Adult education experiment for 
Negroes being conducted under direc- 
tion of committee made up of both 
races, representing institutions and or- 
ganizations interested in "stimulating 
adult minds to a greater desire for 
knowledge and the preparation for a 
fuller life"; maintains special readers' 
advisory service where outlines for study 
of any subject and systematic courses of 
reading are compiled on request for 
groups and individuals; attempts to 
supplement programs of other organ- 
izations with adult education programs; 
makes available information about edu- 
cational opportunities in city open to 
adults from file of courses and schools; 
sponsors program of lectures, discussion 
groups, forums, including: Forum on 
World Affairs, attendance, 9,780; 
Family Relations Institute, attendance, 
250; Health Rally, attendance, 60; 
Training Courses for Lay Leaders in 
Child Study, attendance, 150; Lecture 
Courses on Parent Education, attend- 
ance, 500; Negro History, attendance, 
700; Industrial Efficiency; sponsors 
concerts by Manhattan Negro Chorus; 
promotes Negro art by exhibiting work 
of Negro artists; financed by Rosenwald 



Fund, and by Carnegie Corporation of 
New York on recommendation of Amer- 
ican Association for Adult Education. 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS, 
Department of Colored Work, 347 
Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Y.M.C.A.'s for colored men and 
boys carrying on religious, recreational 
program similar to those for white men 
and boys in all cities with large Negro 
population in United States; 140 asso- 
ciations organized in Negro normal 
schools and colleges; national associa- 
tion has made survey of unemployment 
among colored men; for further in- 
formation concerning program of 
Y.M.C.A. see p. 346. 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIA- 
TIONS, 600 Lexington Ave., New 
York, N. Y. 

Local Y.W.C.A.'s for colored girls 
and women conducting programs similar 
to those for white girls and women in 
over 200 communities, for further in- 
formation concerning program of 
Y.W.C.A. see p. 346. 

INSTITUTE OF RACE RELATIONS, Swarth- 
more College, Swarthmore, Pa., 
Clarence E. Pickett, dir. y 20 So. I2th 
St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Held under the auspices of the Com- 
mittee on Race Relations of the Society 
of Friends for one month during sum- 
mer 1933; object, scientific and 
realistic understanding of social factors 
involved in race relations and, particu- 
larly, Negro-white relations in Amer- 
ica; courses offered in Races and Cul- 
tures, The American Negro and Race 
Relations; admissions committee selects 
educators, secular and religious, social 
workers, labor leaders, employers, jour- 
nalists, etc.; total cost, including board, 
room, tuition, $75, 



128 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



The following normal schools and colleges for colored people are among 
those offering extension courses. The list is arranged alphabetically by name 
of institution. 



STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, Mont- 
gomery, Ala., H. Councill Trenholm, 
$res. 

Extension courses in English, educa- 
tion, social studies, mathematics, enroll- 
ment, 1933, 200 (1,600 in 42 counties 
in 1928-29); conducts ten weeks' sum- 
mer quarter, annual two-day institutes 
in every county, and frequent short 
conferences for teachers; parent educa- 
tion classes; sponsors night school for 
adults who pursue regular courses lead- 
ing to high school or college graduation; 
in 1932 offered course in adult educa- 
tion to supervisors planning to teach 
adults; cooperates in promoting state- 
wide movement for eradication of 
illiteracy. 

ARKANSAS STATE COLLEGE, Pine Bluff, 
Ark., J. B. Watson, fres. 

In addition to regular four year 
courses in agriculture, home economics, 
arts and sciences, etc., sponsors series of 
conferences for farmers and for benefit 
of those who are unable to attend 
courses during the day; evening exten- 
sion courses offered and opportunity 
school maintained. 

ATLANTA UNIVERSITY, 215 Chestnut 
St., S.W., Atlanta, Ga., John Hope, 
$res. 

College courses open to qualified part- 
time students, offered by Morehouse 
College and Spelman College, institu- 
tions affiliated with Atlanta University; 
sponsors conference of Negro secondary 
school principals and teachers; course 
for Boy Scout leaders; citizenship 
course, with average attendance of 85 at 
each of ten lectures; Interdenomina- 
tional Ministers' Institute held in con- 
nection with Summer School; special 



six-weeks' course in art appreciation 
given during fall of 1933 by means of 
grant from Carnegie Corporation of 
New York, for juniors and seniors, some 
of lectures being open to general public; 
carries on parent education program in 
connection with University's nursery 
school. 

BETHXJNE-COOKMAN COLLEGE, Daytona 
Beach, Fla., Mary McLeod Bethune, 
pres* 

Night courses in academic subjects 
and industrial and home making courses 
offered through Neighborhood Club; 
average enrollment per course, 150-200; 
conducts ten-day institute for under- 
privileged ministers from rural districts 
with attendance of 75-100; cooperates 
with county authorities in attempt to 
banish illiteracy from Volusia County, 
by seeking out illiterates and providing 
night classes for them; conducts lecture- 
forum during three winter months; 
sponsors conferences for business and 
professional men for promotion of civic 
welfare; department of music assists 
church choirs to develop better musical 
program; Neighborhood Club of Col- 
lege brings to women of community 
opportunity for studying arts and crafts, 
home economics; sponsors community 
garden clubs, county midwives' insti- 
tutes, and county health programs. 

STATE COLLEGE FOR COLORED STU- 
DENTS, Dover, Del., R. S. Grossley, 
fres. 

Extension courses in art and music, 

FISK UNIVERSITY, Nashville, Term., 
Thomas E. Jones, fres. 

Annual ministers' school of one week's 
duration for tHose who have not had 



ADULT EDUCATION FOR NEGROES 



129 



college, or often high school, training; 
lectures given by faculty members and 
visiting lecturers; attendance, approxi- 
mately 50; conducts reading program 
for alumni and lends books from college 
library; by means of grant from Car- 
negie Corporation of New York music 
extension work program of training for 
local choirs and choruses being carried 
on in towns in Tennessee and Kentucky. 

FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANI- 
CAL COLLEGE, Tallahassee, Fla., 
J. R. E. Lee, fret. 

Extension courses in selected subjects 
from regular high school, teacher train- 
ing, and college curricula; registration, 
extension courses, 732; sponsors follow- 
ing annual conferences: Vocational 
Agricultural Conference, two weeks, 
during summer session; Home Eco- 
nomics Teachers' Conference, three and 
one-half days prior to summer session; 
Midwives' Conference, ten days during 
August; Principals' Conference, two 
days during February; Ministers' School, 
five days. 

HAMPTON INSTITUTE, Hampton, Va., 
Arthur Howe, 



Extension courses in United States 
history, English literature, educational 
sociology, etc.; enrollment 100, coop- 
erates with State Teachers' Association 
in annual meeting; sponsors interracial 
conferences; offers child care courses for 
mothers, 

KENTUCKY STATE INDUSTRIAL. COLT 
LEGS, Frankfort, Ky., R. B. Atwood, 
fres. 

Extension work offered in all subjects 
given to students in residence, except 
natural science; enrollment 137, 

MOREHOUSE COLLEGE, Atlanta, Ga., 
S. H. Archer, fres. 

Courses in theology at annual minis- 
ters' institutes; conducting, with teachers 



of rural sociology and of rural educa- 
tion, community project in nearby rural 
district to help residents live creative 
and productive lives (see Atlanta Uni- 
versity above). 

PAINE COLLEGE, 1235 I5th St., 
Augusta, Ga., E. C. Peters, frer. 

Extension courses in chemistry, educa- 
tion, English, history, psychology, soci- 
ology; 45 city public school teachers 
registered for courses; conducts annual 
ten-day summer school for pastors and 
lay workers; through Bethlehem Cen- 
ter, community center for colored peo- 
ple, sponsors clubs in parent education, 
handicrafts, music, etc. 

TENNESSEE AGRICULTURAL AND INDUS- 
TRIAL STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, 
Nashville, Tenn., W. J. Hale, fres. 

Extension courses in education, 
health, mathematics, physical education, 
and history; enrollment, 95; state meet- 
ings and summer teachers' seminar. 

TUSKEGEE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL 
INSTITUTE, Tuskegee Institute, Ala., 
R. R. Moton, fres. 

Extension courses in education, bi- 
ology, history, literature, geography, and 
home management; sponsors annual 
fanners' conferences, teachers* insti- 
tutes, ministers' conference, welfare 
workers' conference; sponsors child 
study clubs and parent education clubs 
throughout state; in cooperation with 
Federal government operates Booker T. 
Washington Agricultural School on 
Wheels, truck fully equipped for 
demonstration purposes, that carries 
home and agricultural demonstration 
agents to individual farms and demon- 
stration centers throughout state. 

WEST VIRGINIA STATE COLLEGE, Insti- 
tute, West Va., John W. Davis, fres. 

Extension courses in agriculture, home 
economics, education, English, eco- 



130 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



nomics, and history; conducts non- 
denominational school for religious 
workers for one week following summer 
session. 

WlLBERFORCE UNIVERSITY, Wilber- 

force, Ohio, Richard R. Wright, Jr., 
fres. 

Extension courses in home making 
and home economics; enrollment, 280; 
sponsors annual institute for ministers 
and summer school for teachers; during 
regular session gives evening classes in 
liberal arts subjects. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF 
NEGRO LIFE AND HISTORY 

THE CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION OF 
AMERICA 

COMMISSION ON INTER-RACIAL COOPERA- 
TION 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE 
WOMEN 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLORED 
WOMEN 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF TEACHERS IN 
COLORED SCHOOLS 

NATIONAL CONGRESS OF COLORED PAR- 
ENTS AND TEACHERS 

NATIONAL INTER - DENOMINATIONAL 
MINISTERIAL ALLIANCE 

NATIONAL URBAN LEAGUE 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIA- 
TION 



Also the following articles: 

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, p. i. 
LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION, p. 

70. 
THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT 

EDUCATIOK, p. 185. 
ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS, 

p. 203. 
THE LITTLE THEATER, p. 225. 

READING LIST 

Gray, W. S., Wil Lou Gray and J. W. 
Tilton. The Opportunity Schools of 
South Carolina. American Association 
for Adult Education, 1932. 141 p. 

An experimental study conducted 
by the State Department of Educa- 
tion of South Carolina to determine 
the progress of adults of limited edu- 
cation when favorable conditions are 
provided; and the limitations of in- 
struction for students of different 
levels of capacity. 

Johnson, Charles S. The Negro in 
American Civilization. Holt, 1930. 
538 p. 

Gives a picture, based upon facts, 
of Negro education in colleges and 
universities, in the common schools of 
the South and of the North, and 
reviews critically literature concern- 
ing the educability of the Negro, 
stating conclusions warranted by these 
data. 

Locke, Alain. The Negro in America. 
Chicago, American Library Associa- 
tion, 1933. Reading with a Purpose 
series, no. 68. 64 p. 
A study outline and a bibliography. 



PARENT EDUCATION 

Parent education is a relatively new movement. Its beginnings in 
the United States coincide with the rapid rise of the feminist movement, 
on the one hand, and with the awakening of interest in the social sci- 
ences on the other j its growth has paralleled that of the movements 
for the scientific study of child development and for progressive educa- 
tion. Today it is an expression of various forces social, educational, and 
scientific. 

It is obvious that the interests and felt needs of parents themselves 
are fundamental to an organized movement for parent education. In 
many sections of the country parents initiate, organize, and conduct, as 
well as participate in, parent education activities. In some sections, organ- 
izing ability, enthusiasm, and persistence have welded parent education 
programs into folk movements. 

Thirty years ago there existed a few scattered study groups 5 today 
parent education groups number ten thousand or more. Parent groups 
are affiliated with public school systems in a number of cities, with 
branches of the American Association of University Women, with the 
Child Study Association of America, with the National Congress of 
Parents and Teachers, with county extension services and other agencies 
interested in rural family life, and with churches and such religious- 
social organizations as the Young Men's and Young Women's Chris- 
tian Associations, and the Jewish Sisterhoods. In soqie neighborhoods 
mothers' clubs and child study groups flourish, independent of any 
community, state, or national organization. 

It is not surprising that such widespread educational activity has 
made claims upon the interests and resources of public education. The 
Federal Department of Agriculture, through its Cooperative Extension 
Service in Home Economics, and the Office of Education, through its 
Vocational Division, supplement state and local funds to supply trained 
adult education workers on staffs of state departments of education, of 
state universities and colleges, and of county extension services and 
public schools. In some states parent education projects in local schools 
are carried on with the assistance of members of the staff of the state 
university. Public schools, long vaguely concerned with school-home re- 
lationships, began in the early twenties to offer to parents explicit and 

131 



132 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

concrete opportunities for studying educational theory and practice, 
community life and organization, and the functions of parenthood. 
Today there is an increasing, though still a small, number of adminis- 
trators of public schools and universities who cooperate enthusiastically 
and with educational purport in the activities of parent-teacher associa- 
tions and of parent education groups. 

Not only public schools, but other agencies concerned with public 
and social welfare, have been modifying their professional services to 
include parent education. Directors of mental hygiene and social wel- 
fare programs tend increasingly to act as if social guidance were also 
education. In some agencies relief-giving, and in others treatment for 
delinquency, is being supplemented by the education of parents in such 
items as physical growth, nutrition, habit formation, or the psychology 
of adolescence. In still others, routine case work supervision of foster 
parents and pensioned mothers is supplemented by opportunities for 
groups to discuss problems in child care and guidance. Most social agen- 
cies use the individual interview exclusively, though some, as indicated, 
have also developed programs of group conference or discussion. 

Thus it is that educational activities organized by parents for them- 
selves, parent study classes and guidance services within public educa- 
tional institutions, and counseling services and study groups within social 
agencies (and to a lesser degree within medical, especially public health 
and mental hygiene, and within religious education agencies) taken 
altogether constitute a parent education movement. 

The subject matter of parent education today consists, on the one 
hand, of material containing mostly opinions and advice from the pens 
of professionals who believe themselves qualified to address parents, 
and, on the other, of material derived from reports of research in child 
development, home economics, education, mental hygiene, and allied 
disciplines. The latter is considerably less in volume, but, parent educa- 
tion workers claim, considerably greater in influence. Study of child 
growth and development is not new, but it was not until after the 
World War that clinics and research centers began to systematize their 
investigations and to report results that were both trustworthy and 
timely. The demands of parent education workers, once roused to the 
value of such materials, plus demands from workers in nursery schools, 
child guidance clinics, and, more recently, family consultation bureaus, 
have elicited more thorough research upon various aspects of child de- 
velopment and family life. The labors of research workers have in turn 
stimulated educators, welfare workers, and clinicians to observe children 
more objectively and to offer more systematic guidance. All these di 



PARENT EDUCATION 133 

ferent types of study and research are sources of parent education subject 
matter today. 

Thirty years ago the total number of titles in the bibliography of 
parent education consisted of a few dozen books and a score of articles. 
Today it includes several hundred books and many times that number 
of articles. A recent study, completed in 1932, reveals that during the 
previous two years seventy different popular periodicals listed one or 
more articles for parents and that many of these carried regular features 
for parents. Six national periodicals are addressed to parents and deal 
primarily with home life, family relationships, and parenthood. Two of 
these are known to have enlarged their circulation during the last three 
years. Federal and state health and education agencies and many private 
organizations have also made contributions to parent education literature 
in the form of study outlines and of pamphlets about specific problems. 

The lines of communication between the professional worker and 
the parent are no longer limited to publication. Parent education radio 
talks, first tried about ten years ago, are now used extensively, both for 
reaching individual parents in their homes and for the guidance of study 
group meetings. Some stations supply, ahead of time to members of 
groups, copies of broadcasts, together with suggestions for discussion. 

Reports from agencies conducting programs reveal that today par- 
ents are receiving education and guidance in the functions of parenthood 
through such different kinds of experiences as reading and radio listen- 
ing, attending lectures, observing children, participating in group study 
or discussion, studying exhibits, and talking individually with consult- 
ants. Most common among parent education procedures is the discussion 
group or study class. It is also generally considered most effective and 
economical. Formerly programs for group study focused attention ex- 
clusively upon the child and included for discussion such topics as obedi- 
ence, punishment, rewards, curiosity, imagination, habit formation, play, 
etc. More recently, especially with leaders trained in mental hygiene, 
interest has focused upon the life of the family group and upon such 
items as personality development in family relationships, emotional 
honesty in dealing with children, etc. In attending such study groups 
parents are able to learn not only important facts about child growth 
and the family in a changing world, but also more satisfactory self- 
direction in their daily relationships with children. 

The increase in the number of these parent groups during the past 
decade has far exceeded the increase in the number of trained persons 
available to lead them. A significant proportion of the total, therefore, 
are led by "lay leaders" who are chosen generally by members of 



134 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

groups from among their own numbers. Many o these lay leaders 
receive some training in subject matter and in discussion procedures 
with professional parent educators 5 sometimes, also, they are supplied 
with outlines and subject matter materials. Often they are responsible 
for the operation of a traveling library or for a parents 3 bookshelf in 
a local library. An increasing number of these groups set their meeting 
times in order to listen to radio talks given by professional parent 
educators. 

Basic to this elaboration of programs, research, institutions, profes- 
sionalization, publication, and organization lie the needs of parents. 
Few apparently are those parents to whom previous formal education 
and present unguided reading and study have given knowledge and 
self-confidence sufficient to enable them to function satisfactorily in to- 
day's world of conflicting and confusing social standards. Many seem to 
find themselves able neither to follow tradition nor to establish satisfy- 
ing new patterns of family life. On the other hand, parents are not 
merely influenced by the social order 5 they also function as one of the 
chief instruments of its reconstruction. Patterns of human relationship 
in the family exert constant pressure upon the developing patterns of 
human relations in vocational, civic, and social groups. Intelligent and 
inquiring parenthood, seeking through self-education fuller understand- 
ing of its problems, may therefore play a strategic role in the drama of 
an emerging culture. It is with this complex of potentiality that the 
parent educator works, and in which he must learn to function along 
lines that are both educationally sound and socially constructive. 

1 RALPH P. BRIDGMAN, Directory 

National Council of Parent Education. 
(Based on material gathered by 
FLORA M. THURSTON.) 



Because of the many different types of work being carried on in the field 
of parent education, the notes that follow have been divided, for the con- 
venience of the reader, into five groups as indicated below. 

The following are among the programs of parent education within 
state programs of education. This list is arranged alphabetically by state. 



.e- 



DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, State of by home economics and home study d< 
Alabama, Montgomery, Ala., Ivol partments of Alabama College as part 
Spafford, sufv., home economics efa- of general state program of vocational 
^tlon. education, supported by state and Fed- 
Parent education groups carried on eral funds j fifty groups, twelve meetings 

cooperatively by state department and each during 1932-33; one group 



PARENT EDUCATION 



135 



trained leaders; some classes continue 
under supervised lay leaders after 
periods of formal instruction; weekly 
radio lectures and occasional promo- 
tional talks given; study material dis- 
tributed. 

DEPARTMENT OF VOCATIONAL EDUCA- 
TION, State of Arizona, Arizona State 
Bldg., Phoenix, Ariz., Eva M. Wal- 
ler, sup?., home economics education^ 
Mildred W. Wood, Phoenix Union 
High School. 

Parent education classes one phase of 
general program of adult education; in 
Phoenix led by trained workers; a few 
organized In other places taught by day 
school home economics teachers, county 
home demonstration agents, and local 
lay leaders; classes financed by state de- 
partment and communities jointly. 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, Division 
of Vocational Education, State of 
Arkansas, Little Rock, Ark., Druzilla 
C. Kent, supv*, home economics edu- 
cation. 

Parent education groups supported by 
Federal, state, and local funds; state 
department offers guidance in organiza- 
tion of groups, publishes study outlines, 
and conducts supervisory conferences for 
leaders; two nursery school units con- 
ducted as observation centers for parents 
and high school students; parent educa- 
tion classes also organized in rural con- 
solidated schools as units in more com- 
prehensive programs of adult education. 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, Division 
of Adult and Continuation Educa- 
tion, Sacramento, Calif., John F. 
Dale, Library and Courts Bldg., 
Gertrude Laws, 311 State Bldg., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

Parent education a phase of adult 
education program of public school sys- 



tem; under guidance of State Bureau 
of Child Study and Parent Education, 
classes organized by parent-teacher asso- 
ciations and led by lay leaders who have 
certificates from State Department of 
Education and are paid small fees from 
state and local school funds; approxi- 
mately 1 0,000 persons enrolled in classes 
each year; professional staff responsible 
for organization and training and super- 
vising lay leaders. 



BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, 
State of Kansas, Topeka, Kan., Hazel 
E. Thompson, sufo.^ vocational home 
making* 

Parent education part of state adult 
education program in home making; 
state workers give intensive four weeks' 
courses to classes organized through local 
boards of education and special talks to 
local groups not attending regular 
classes; state board also sponsors parent 
education classes in local schools taught 
by qualified local teachers. 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 
Vocational Division, State of Mis- 
souri, Jefferson, Mo., Ella Moore, 
sup?., home economics education. 

Work in parent education phase of 
program in home economics for adults; 
local and itinerant teachers of home eco- 
nomics teach short units in child de- 
velopment and family relationships, 
which are followed by courses in parent 
education often organized with help of 
State Library Commission, and taught 
by specialist; work supported by Federal 
funds, matched by state and local funds; 
instruction is supplemented by visits of 
supervisors, follow-up letters, news notes 
in monthly bulletins, group conferences, 
and meeting at annual state adult educa- 
tion conference. 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



DEPARTMENT OP VOCATIONAL EDUCA- 
TION, State of Nebraska, Lincoln, 
Nebr., Birdie Vorliies, sufv. y home 
education. 



Parent education work one phase of 
state program of vocational education; 
cooperation of parent-teacher associa- 
tions solicited in organizing classes ad- 
ministered by local superintendents of 
schools through specialists (in Omaha 
and Lincoln) or through local super- 
visors of adult home making education, 
work financed jointly by state depart- 
ment and local boards of education. 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 
State of New York, Albany, N. Y., 
Ruth Andrus, dir., division of child 
developnent and parental education. 

Division responsible for consulting 
and coordinating service functions 
within state education department, with 
and between state departments, with 
state lay and professional organizations, 
and with local organizations, schools and 
colleges; prepares material for parent 
groups; organizes and leads courses for 
teachers, nurses, social workers, and 
parents, conducts state and local confer- 
ences in cooperation with other parent 
education workers; develops local parent 
education committees and councils to 
coordinate local interest and efforts. 

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, State of 
New York, Albany, N. Y., Elisabeth 
M. Gardiner, dir.> division of ma- 
ternity > infancy and child hygiene. 

Examination of children by units of 
department includes discussion of indi- 
vidual problems, of home care and 
hygiene with parents; letters and con- 
sultations on prenatal care, lecture- 
demonstrations by nutritionists for pro- 
fessional workers and parents, family 
health conference groups, and distribu- 



tion of literature on other aspects of 
department's work in parent education. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, Division of 
Vocational Education, State of Okla- 
homa, Oklahoma City, Okla., Kate S. 
North, sufv., home economics educa- 
tion. 

Parent education, major phase of 
vocational program in adult home mak- 
ing, supported by Federal, state, and 
local funds; eight specialists lead parents* 
classes and leaders' groups, home mak- 
ing teachers with supplementary summer 
training also lead classes; state colleges 
provide staff members for institutes and 
"Schools for Parents"; state office pro- 
motes and supervises these various activ- 
ities; publishes outlines and supple- 
mentary material for use by teachers' 
and parents' groups. 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, 
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
Harrisburg, Pa., Anna G. Green, asst. 
dir.) vocational education. 

Parent education carried on by 
teachers of home making and by county 
supervisors through part-time and eve- 
ning classes with cooperation of parent- 
teacher groups and relief organizations; 
reports, bibliographies, bulletins, and 
news letters issued by department. 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, State of 
Texas, Austin, Texas, Lillian Peek, 
v.y home economics education. 



Parent education part of state pro- 
gram in home making education for 
adults; financed by Federal, state, and 
local funds; specialists work in centers 
under local boards directed by super- 
visor of home economics education; 
classes usually recruited from member- 
ship of parent-teacher associations; 
other agencies cooperate in some com- 
munities. 



PARENT EDUCATION 



137 



DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, Common- 
wealth of Virginia, Richmond, Va., 
B. B. Bagby, dtr., bureau of Mid 
health. 

Parent education work by physicians, 
public health nurses, midwives, home 
demonstration agents, and teachers or- 
ganized and supervised by department 5 
conducts classes for midwives and 
mothers; institutes for doctors' helpers 



to instruct women in care of the sick; 
cooperates with Negro Organization 
Society and Rosenwald Fund in conduct- 
ing classes for Negro mothers and mid- 
wives, and in home nursing; carries on 
organization work among women in 
counties without health workers and 
gives service to independent local groups 
interested in health programs; prepares 
and disseminates literature. 



The following, arranged alphabetically by state and city, are represen- 
tative programs of parent education within city public school systems: 



DETROIT PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Detroit, 
Mich., Marie I. Rasey, sufv. y farental 
advisory deft. 

Department administered by Board 
of Education and supported by a 
foundation grant; conducts child study 
classes for parents and other adults, ap- 
proximately half of which meet in pub- 
lic schools and for other groups, includ- 
ing several composed of colored men 
and women, connected with church or- 
ganizations, hospitals, women's clubs, 
etc., assists other organizations to plan 
programs of parental education. 

OMAHA BOARD OF EDUCATION, Depart- 
ment of Vocational Education, 
Omaha, Nebr., Elizabeth Riner, act. 
suptr., adult home making education. 

Parent education carried on as part of 
adult vocational education program of 
Omaha school system; classes meet in 
public school buildings; enrollment, 
1932-33, 3,000 mothers and fathers; 
supported by Federal, state, and city 
funds; director carries on extensive pro- 
gram of leadership training. 

ALBANY CITY BOARD OF EDUCATION, 
Albany, N. Y., Elinor Lee Beebe, 
dir.y child development and parent 
education. 

Organizes and carries on parent study 
groups and leadership training classes in 



public schools and other community 
agencies under professional and lay lead- 
ership; maintains close cooperation with 
various local professional groups, 
teachers, public library, social agencies, 
public health nursing association, child 
care institutions, and hospitals; nursery 
school in Albany State Teachers' College 
serves as laboratory in which parents, 
teachers, students, social workers, and 
others may observe, work with, and learn 
about children under supervision of ex- 
perienced teachers. 

ROCHESTER BOARD OF EDUCATION, 
Rochester, N. Y., Hazel M. Gushing, 
admin, farent education. 

Program conducted jointly by Board 
of Education and University of Roches- 
ter; financed by foundation grant; work 
includes training for lay leaders and 
supervision for their study groups; 
courses for parents* students, and teachers 
and other professionals; radio talks, con- 
sultation service, and library primarily 
for parents; two nursery schools main- 
tained as laboratories for students and 
parents; materials issued for study 
groups of parents. 

TULSA PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Tulsa, Okla., 
Launa D. Rice, dir^ farent education 
deft. 

Classes promoted by representatives 
of parent-teacher associations and con- 



i 3 8 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



ducted in. schools by director and pro- 
fessional and lay assistants (former 
works also among Negroes) ; department 
publishes outlines for parent groups; 
weekly radio talks; conducts conferences 
with parents. 

DALLAS PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Dallas, Texas, 
Evelyn Eastman, spec, in parent edu- 
cation* 

Parent education administered locally 
by health department of Dallas Public 
Schools and supported by Federal, state, 
and local funds, under Smith-Hughes 
Act as part of vocational education pro- 
gram for adults under general direction 
of state supervisor of home economics; 
study groups, organized through parent- 



teacher associations for white and col- 
ored fathers and mothers, led by pro- 
fessional workers and supervised by lay 
leaders. 

HOUSTON INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DIS- 
TRICT, Houston, Texas, Marion E. 
Dunshee, in charge^ child develop- 
ment classes for parents. 

Parent education part of state and 
local program of home economics educa- 
tion and financed by Federal, state, and 
Houston public school funds; two spec- 
ialists work in cooperation with school 
principals, parent-teacher associations, 
church groups, libraries, child guidance 
clinics, etc., and organize and conduct 
classes of mothers and train local leaders. 



The following are representative local unaffiliated parent education 
organizations arranged alphabetically by state and city: 



THE DENVER TUBERCULOSIS SOCIETY, 
531 i^th St., Denver, Colo., Jessie I. 
Lummis, ex. sec. 

Assists parent-teacher associations in 
organizing parent education activities; 
trains and supervises lay leaders; fur- 
nishes study outlines and reading ma- 
terial; supported by Community Chest. 



CHICAGO ASSOCIATION FOR CHILD STUDY 
AND PARENT EDUCATION, 537 So. 
Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., Mrs. S. 
T. Lawton, chmn. 

Supervises parent study groups in 
schools, clubs, and social agencies; con- 
ducts annual conference; maintains 
library; supplies lectures and courses of 
study to local groups; issues study out- 
lines, bibliographies, proceedings of 
conferences, and occasional news letters; 
supported by contributions, member- 
ships, and by sale of service, admissions, 
and publications. 



ELIZABETH McCoRMicK MEMORIAL 
FUND, 8418 No. Dearborn St., Chi- 
cago, 111., Mary E. Murphy, dir* 

Conducts groups for parents of chil- 
dren served by health and nutrition 
work; health education demonstrations 
in public schools, and physical care pro- 
grams in nursery schools; child study 
classes for parent-teacher associations, 
churches, and other community agencies; 
child study classes, individual confer- 
ences and activity groups in nursery 
school part of community housing 
project among Negroes and in experi- 
mental public school; classes for clients 
of relief agencies; reference and lend- 
ing library for parents and group leaders. 

EAST HARLEM NURSING AND HEALTH 
SERVICE, INC., 354 E. n6th St., 
New York, N. Y Grace L. Ander- 
son, dir. 

Supplements program of intensive 
house visiting by group meetings, indi- 



PARENT EDUCATION 



139 



vidual conferences, and guided observa- 
tion of children in headquarters play 
groups; assists public health nurses and 
other family workers to use educational 
procedures with parents in their health 
work. 

UNITED PARENTS ASSOCIATIONS OF NEW 
YORK CITY, INC., 152 W. 42nd St., 
New York, N. Y., Margaret Lighty, 
ex. sec. 

Services offered 157 local constituent 
parents' associations include: assistance 
in studying public school system; train- 
ing in parent discussion group leadership 
for selected number of lay leaders; 
training in leadership for officers and 
committee chairmen; assistance in build- 
ing programs for local meetings on such 
subjects as mental hygiene, vocational 
guidance, sex education, progressive 
education, and family relations; the 



privilege of using parent education li- 
brary; and assistance in establishing local 
school book shelves for parents; support 
comes from contributions and founda- 
tion grants; annual reports and several 
bulletins published. 

PARENTS' COUNCIL OF PHILADELPHIA, 
in No. 49th St., Philadelphia, Pa., 
Meta L. Douglas, su$v+, study grouf 
deft. 

Organizes and conducts study groups 
of parents through schools, social 
agencies, local neighborhood groups, and 
churches; trains leaders to carry on 
groups in educational or social work or- 
ganizations; conducts lecture courses, 
maintains library; in 1933 became 
group work department of Mental Hy- 
giene Institute of Pennsylvania Hospi- 
tal; supported by individual contribu- 
tions and by membership. 



The following, arranged alphabetically by name of institution, are rep- 
resentative programs of parent education conducted by universities and 
training centers, including university extension: 



DEPARTMENT OF CHILD CARE AND 
TRAINING, University of Cincinnati, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, Ada Hart Arlitt, 
frof. child care and trowing, and 
head of deft. 

Classes for parents within community 
agencies; leadership training course for 
semi-professional study group leaders; 
demonstrations in child care and train- 
ing and in nutrition at health centers; 
classes for trained nurses, nurses in 
training, teachers in service and in 
training; radio courses for parents; 
demonstration work in day nurseries; 
two demonstration nursery groups in 
which parents from study classes may 
observe; publishes articles, books, and 
pamphlets on child development and 
parent education. 



CLEVELAND COLLEGE, see Western Re- 
serve University. 

CHILD DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE, 
Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity, New York, N. Y., Lois Hayden 
Meek, dlr. 

Prepares graduate students for work 
with parents by means of courses, super- 
vised field work in nursery schools, 
guidance nursery, city parent education 
programs, family consultation bureau, 
and by research; maintains cooperative 
arrangements with parent education 
agencies in metropolitan area and con- 
sultative relations with many projects 
in parent education; conducts program 
of parent education for parents of In- 
stitute nursery school and guidance 



140 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



nursery; operates parents' library; pub- 
lishes Chill Development Monograph 
Series, pamphlets, and other material. 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, COOPERATIVE 

EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE 

AND HOME ECONOMICS, Urbana, 111., 

Edna E. Walls, specialist in child de- 

' velopment and parent education. 

Parent education groups organized 
and conducted in local communities as 
part of State Home Economics Exten- 
sion Service 5 in six counties selected 
individuals given preliminary training 
for leadership in child development and 
parent education. 

IOWA STATE COLLEGE, COOPERATIVE 
EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE 
AND HOME ECONOMICS, Ames, Iowa, 
Alma H. Jones, ext. specialist in child 
care and training. 

Parent education wort phase of home 
economics extension service; specialist 
conducts field meetings, correspondence, 
conferences and interviews, prepares 
study materials, radio talks, publicity 
and periodical material; work organ- 
ized in counties with groups made up 
largely of farm women, some of whom 
receive training in leading parent 
groups; other organized groups served 
by distribution or loan of illustrated 
booklets, exhibits, slides, films, boob, 
music records, charts, posters, etc. 

IOWA CHILD WELFARE RESEARCH STA- 
TION, Division of Child Study and 
Parent Education, State University of 
Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, May Pardee 
Youtz, head. 

Parent education, one of five divi- 
sions of work of station, carried on 
jointly with Extension Division of 
University; staff of leaders conduct 
study groups, train local leaders, con- 
duct circulating library and readers' ad- 



visory service, give regular radio courses, 
conduct annual conference for State 
Council on child study and parent edu- 
cation. 

KANSAS CITY TEACHERS COLLEGE, 1 840 
E. 8th St., Kansas City, Mo., Louise 
Beth Wilson, dir. y parent education. 

College credit courses for pre-par- 
ents, parents, lay leaders, and teachers 
in service; assists local parent groups to 
organize and secure leaders; provides 
opportunity for parents to observe and 
study nursery school children; supplies 
lectures to local meetings. 

KANSAS STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICUL- 
TURE AND APPLIED SCIENCE, Divi- 
sion of Home Economics, Manhattan, 
Kansas, Margaret Justin, dean. 

Sponsors parental education classes 
and radio programs in cooperation with 
State Board for Vocational Education 
and Kansas Congress of Parents and 
Teachers; conducts annual parent edu- 
cation institute; distributes bulletins; 
provides single lectures and conferences 
on parent education; pre-parental course 
in child care and training conducted at 
College, with nursery school as labora- 
tory. 

MASSACHUSETTS STATE COLLEGE, Coop- 
erative Extension Work in Agricul- 
ture and Home Economics, Amherst, 
Mass., Ruth D. Morley, spec, in child 
development. 

Conducts community groups; trains 
lay leaders who in turn conduct groups 
organized largely by county home dem- 
onstration agents in their communities; 
prepares subject matter outlines and 
teaching materials; gives radio broad- 
casts; direct assistance through mothers' 
service letters, conferences, home visits; 
publicity material and exhibits at fairs. 



PARENT EDUCATION 



MERRILL-PALMER SCHOOL, 71 East 
Ferry Ave., Detroit, Mich., Edna 
Noble White, Mr. 

Resident programs for parents of in- 
fants, nursery school children, former 
nursery school children attending rec- 
reational groups 5 individual consulta- 
tion, lectures, small study groups, 
library, and observation in the nursery 
school; community program in coopera- 
tion with other agencies m Detroit and 
environs, includes furnishing teachers, 
leaders, and speakers to parent groups 
or meetings organized by outside agen- 
cies; publications (many of the School's) 
primarily for parent education; also 
gives graduate training to professionals 
training for parent education work, and 
carries on extensive program of research 
in child development and family life. 

MICHIGAN STATE COLLEGE, Coopera- 
tive Extension Work in Agriculture 
and Home Economics, East Lansing, 
Mich., Lydia Ann Lynde, ext. spec, 
in child care and training. 

Carries on program of parent educa- 
tion through study groups of fathers and 
mothers in thirty-two counties in rural 
Michigan; child training work given 
directly to large groups and indirectly 
to small local groups through their own 
local leaders trained at selected centers 
in the counties; mimeographed study 
outlines issued. 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, School of 
Education, Ann Arbor, Mich., C. A. 
Fisher, University Extension Division, 
Marguerite Wilker, Mr. of nursery 
school^ university elementary school. 

Members of elementary school staff 
directly responsible for work with par- 
ents of children in school; also give pro- 
fessional assistance to Extension Divi- 
sion in state program; methods employed 
include annual parent education insti- 



tutes, study clubs, radio study clubs, 
annual series of broadcasts for parents 
and teachers, lecture courses, occasional 
lectures, printed study club outlines, 
supervised observation of children in 
school by parents, provision of library 
and reading room, individual confer- 
ences, investigations into the methods 
and materials of parent education, and 
a university course in parent education. 

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, Institute 
of Child Welfare, Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

Parent education program of Institute 
aims to make available throughout state 
information accumulated in its own and 
other research centers, activities consist 
of extension courses under General Ex- 
tension Division carrying university 
credit; study groups led by specialists 
in cities and towns in cooperation with 
parent-teacher associations, churches, set- 
tlements, and other groups; local leader 
projects developed by specialists in rural 
regions through the Home Demonstra- 
tion Service; radio talks given weekly 
over two stations; assists other state or- 
ganizations to develop and carry on 
parent education work; distributes 
weekly articles to 89 newspapers in 
rural towns throughout the state; cor- 
respondence courses for parents, both 
free and non-credit carrying, and tui- 
tion courses carrying university credit; 
during 1931-32, 3,290 parents attended 
126 study groups in large cities and 
smaller centers; 17834 persons enrolled 
in training and local leader groups in 
rural sections; parent education worker 
in Home Economics Extension, financed 
by Institute, teaches groups of local 
leaders representing organized groups 
of mothers in counties and supplies rural 
teachers and club leaders with informa- 
tion; lesson sheets with discussion guides 
prepared and distributed to all mem- 
bers of leader training groups. 



142 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



UNIVERSITY or MISSOURI, Cooperative 
Extension Work in Agriculture and 
Home Economics, Columbia, Mo., 
Essie M. Heyle, state home demon- 
stration agent. 

Agent works with child development 
chairmen of 1,100 rural women's clubs; 
chairmen take responsibility for sending 
child development literature prepared by 
agent to mothers in their neighborhoods. 

MONTANA STATE COLLEGE, Coopera- 
tive Extension Work in Agriculture 
and Home Economics, Bozeman, 
Montana, Blanche L. Lee, state home 
demonstration leader* 
Offers county groups two courses in 
child development by state specialist and 
state home demonstration agents; ex- 
hibits play materials and children's 
clothing, and gives suggestions for guid- 
ance of play and for making clothing 
and for preparing food; special empha- 
sis on community and home recreation 
programs. 

NATIONAL CHILD RESEARCH CENTER, 
3209 Highland Place, Washington, 
D. C, M. Adelis Boynton, dtr. 

Series of individual conferences with 
parents of nursery school and kinder- 
garten children; monthly parent meet- 
ings for parents and other adults inter- 
ested in child development; staff, in- 
cluding psychologist, dietician, physi- 
cian, cooperates with Community Chest, 
local child study groups, and parent- 
teacher associations; operates shop which 
exhibits and sells approved children's 
clothing, toys, play equipment, and books. 

NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 
COLLEGE, Cooperative Extension 
Work in Agriculture and Home Eco- 
nomics, New Brunswick, N. J., Ma- 
rion F. McDowell, ext. sfec. in child 
training and parent education. 

Prepares study group materials; helps 
local organizations and individuals plan 



programs and organize groups; training 
for local discussion group leaders, for 
directors of play schools for pre-school 
children, and for leaders of 4-H clubs; 
radio talks supplemented by questions, 
references, and summaries; assists pub- 
lic libraries and other interested agen- 
cies to develop parent education services; 
monthly letters for young mothers. 

NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE OF HOME 
ECONOMICS, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y., Margaret Wylie, prof., 
child development and parent educa- 
tion. 

Resident program of parent education 
includes supervised observation in two 
nursery school laboratories, extension 
program includes conference series; 
lecture-discussions and exhibits before 
county-wide groups sponsored by home 
bureaus or other local agencies; training 
for study club officers and county lead- 
ers; issues study materials; publishes 
news letters and bulletins. 



NURSERY TRAINING SCHOOL OF BOSTON, 
147 Ruggles St., Boston, Mass., Abi- 
gail A. Eliot, dir t 

Conducts at school and in homes in- 
dividual conferences with parents; helps 
parents learn approved child care 
methods through observation and par- 
ticipation in the nursery school and 
through supervised record-keeping and 
reading; monthly parents' meetings; in 
addition, faculty members conduct par- 
ent groups in community, and give talks. 

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, Department 
of Adult Education, College of Edu- 
cation, Columbus, Ohio, Jessie A. 
Charters, chmn. of deft. 

Courses in parental education, based 
on home problems and home projects; 



PARENT EDUCATION 



courses in the relation of parental educa- 
tion to adult education movement, theory 
and problems of organization, and 
methods of teaching parents* study 
groups; in leadership training, empha- 
sizing methods of teaching parental edu- 
cation, with lectures, project supervision, 
and field laboratory work with parents' 
study groups; course on advanced leader- 
ship training, intended for persons in 
organizations and institutions engaged in 
directing work in adult education 
throughout state, particularly in parent 
education. 

OKLAHOMA AGRICULTURAL AND ME- 
CHANICAL COLLEGE, Cooperative Ex- 
tension Work in Agriculture and 
Home Economics, Stillwater, Okla., 
E. Faith Strayer, ext. spec., chill de- 
velopment and parent education. 

Parent education part of home dem- 
onstration work; specialist in child 
development and parent education trains 
home demonstration agents and leaders 
of parent groups; libraries made avail- 
able to local leaders by Oklahoma Li- 
brary Commission; issues outlines and 
bulletins. 

OREGON STATE COLLEGE, School of 
Home Economics, Corvallis, Ore., 
Ava B. Milam, dean and dir. 

Parent education program under 
School of Home Economics and Exten- 
sion Service includes schools for parents; 
training of local leaders of study 
groups; annual State Conference for 
the Study of Home Interests; radio 
clubs which meet bi-weekly; weekly 
radio series on family life; correspon- 
dence course on child development for 
which college credit is given; home- 
study non-credit courses; outlines and 
other materials prepared and distributed 
to radio clubs, groups under local lead- 
ers, schools for parents, and individuals. 



TEMPLE UNIVERSITY, Teachers Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, Pa,, Emma John- 
son, head of deft, of early childhood 
education. 

For parents of children in nursery 
school and in early grades of demon- 
stration school, individual conferences, 
home visits, guided observations of 
children, group discussions and occa- 
sional lectures; individual conferences 
and exhibits of clothing, play materials, 
and books for parents of babies brought 
to University Medical School clinics. 

UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, School of 
Home Economics, Knoxville, Tenn., 
Ella J. Day, in charge^ parent educa- 
tion; UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE 
JUNIOR COLLEGE, Martin, Tenn., 
Neta McFee, in charge^ farent edu- 
cation. 

Centers for parent education work 
maintained at Junior College in west- 
ern part of state where adult classes, 
organized and promoted by county 
parent-teacher association and by col- 
lege, are led by specialist at college; 
centers at University in eastern part of 
state where classes of parents, organized 
in cooperation with parent-teacher asso- 
ciations (supported by Smith-Hughes 
funds as part of the program of adult 
education conducted by State Depart- 
ment of Education) are led by staff 
members. 

VASSAR COLLEGE, Department of Child 
Study, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., Martha 
May Reynolds, prof., chUd study and 
dir., nursery school. 

Work in parent education part of 
program of Department of Child Study 
and Institute of Euthenics; consists of 
organization and leadership of study 
groups for lay leaders, parents, and 
teachers, supported partly by the Col- 
lege and partly by community organiza- 
tions; members of Department conduct 



144 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



groups for parents interested in the 
nursery school and individual confer- 
ences with parents of children in the 
school. 

WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY, Cleve- 
land College, Cleveland, Ohio, Garry 
C, Myers, head, dept. parent educa- 
tion) Caroline Clark Myers, specialist 
in parent education. 
Leaders provided for community 



study groups and speakers for local 
educational meetings; conducts college 
credit classes for parents as a part of 
the adult education program of the 
College's Extension Division, offers 
community lecture courses and institutes 
for parents, conducts institutes on study 
group methods for leaders-in-training; 
manages exhibits of clothing, food, toys, 
books; publishes booklets and other ma- 
terials. 



The following are representative programs of parent education within 
national organizations, arranged alphabetically by name of institution. An 
account of the other activities of these agencies may be found under Na- 
tional Organizations: 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY 
WOMEN, 1634 Eye Street, N.W., 
Washington, D. C, 

Gives encouragement and counsel to 
parent education study groups in its 
60 1 branches, conducts an information 
service; lending library of approxi- 
mately 1,000 volumes in parent educa- 
tion and child development; study out- 
lines for parent education groups. 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIA- 
TION, 620 Mills Building, Washing- 
ton, D. C., Lemo T. Dennis 3 -field 
worker in child development and 
parent education. 

Worker assists state and local profes- 
sional groups interested in home making, 
child development, and other phases of 
family relationships and parental edu- 
cation; bibliographies and bulletins pre- 
pared and distributed. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES 
OF CHRIST IN AMERICA, 105 E. 22 
St., New York, N. Y., Leland Foster 
Wood, ex. sec., committee on marriage 
and the home. 

Cooperates with constituent denomi- 
national agencies; collects material and 



disseminates information by means of 
denominational papers; conducts con- 
ferences of religious leaders; publishes 
bibliographies for religious workers and 
parents, monographs on education for 
marriage, a manual dealing with the 
problems of young married people (in 
preparation) . 

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF RELIGIOUS 
EDUCATION, 203 No. Wabash Ave., 
Chicago, 111., Harry C. Munro, in 
charge, parent education. 

Guidance and counsel to cooperating 
religious education agencies of Protest- 
ant churches in developing parent edu- 
cation programs and materials; Joint 
Committee, representing age-groups, 
leadership training, and administrative 
committees of Council and several par- 
ent education agencies, preparing parent 
education section of International Cur- 
riculum Guide. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN CHILD HEALTH ASSOCIATION 
AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIA- 
TION 

ASSOCIATION FOR CHILDHOOD EDUCA- 
TION 



PARENT EDUCATION 



145 



CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 

JEWISH WELFARE BOARD 

NATIONAL CATHOLIC WELFARE CON- 
FERENCE 

NATIONAL CONGRESS OF COLORED PAR- 
ENTS AND TEACHERS 

NATIONAL CONGRESS OF PARENTS AND 
TEACHERS 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 

NATIONAL KINDERGARTEN ASSOCIATION 



Also the following articles: 

COURSES IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 54. 

ADULT EDUCATION UNDER PUBLIC 
SCHOOL AUSPICES, p. 158. 

PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL EDUCATION CON- 
DUCTED BY RELIGIOUS GROUPS, p. 

195- 

ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS, p. 
203. 



READING LIST 

Bott, Helen, and others. Aims and 
Methods in Parent Education. Na- 
tional Council of Parent Education, 
1930. 53 p. 

A presentation and discussion of 
an experiment in the use of group 
discussion as an instrument with 
which to teach parents. 

Lindeman, E. C., and F. M. Thurston, 
editors. Problems for Parent Edu- 
cators, National Council of Parent 
Education. 2 v. 



Proceedings of the first and second 
biennial conferences of the National 
Council of Parent Education in the 
form of outlines of major problems 
confronting leaders in parent educa- 
tion (v. I) and outlines of problems 
growing out of the relationship of 
parent education with public schools, 
programs of pre-parental education, 
and social work (v. II). Papers on 
Parent Education presented at the 
second biennial conference of the 
National Council of Parent Education 
is a companion volume to v. II. 
Parent Education: Report of the Sub- 
committee on Types of Parent Edu- 
cation, Content and Method, Sidonie 
M. Gruenberg, Chairman. White 
House Conference on Child Health 
and Protection. Century, 1932. 354 p. 

A summary of contemporary the- 
ories of parent education, and of 
types of method and organization 
which also lists agencies and institu- 
tions conducting programs of parent 
education. 

Preschool and Parental Education. The 
Twenty-eighth Yearbook of the Na- 
tional Society for the Study of Edu- 
cation. Bloomington, 111., Public 
School Publishing Co., 1929. 871 p. 

A comprehensive survey of the 
status of the parental education move- 
ment up to the spring of 1928. Part 

I deals with the organization and 
development of the movement; Part 

II includes a discussion of research 
and method. 



POLITICAL EDUCATION 

The responsibility for the renewed interest in the study of govern- 
ment and politics can be traced directly to the economic situation. The 
past two or three years have seen the formation of hundreds of local 
and state taxpayers' associations and leagues and other groups whose 
purpose is to study the many aspects of local, state, and national gov- 
ernments toward the end that taxes be kept as low as is consistent with 
good government. 

The potentialities of these groups as agencies for the education of 
adults in political problems may best be realized by examining the pro- 
grams of the much older "bureaus of governmental research." These 
bureaus are "taxpayers' associations," citizen agencies which collect and 
interpret facts about city business, furnish citizens with accurate informa- 
tion and cooperate with officials in promoting effective government. 
They work on the theory that citizens can control municipal affairs only 
through prompt, accurate, and pertinent information with regard to 
municipal business. Many of these agencies publish leaflets weekly and 
all of them supply their local newspapers with facts and interpretations 
of municipal events. 

Agencies which are properly described as "governmental research 
bureaus" exist in thirty-five or forty of the larger cities of the country. 
In addition to the independent bureaus, some chambers of commerce 
have established departments of governmental research. Although these 
bureaus are primarily interested in the actual installation of administra- 
tive reforms and in the official adoption of measures and methods which 
look toward a more economical and efficient government, they also 
serve as sources for accurate information, and they are essential if citi- 
zens are to be well informed about the operation of the local govern- 
ments under which they live. The governmental research of independ- 
ent governmental research bureaus, chambers of commerce, and tax- 
payers' associations is usually conducted by men who have specialized 
in this work and who devote their full time to it as one would to any 
other profession. In many cities, however, there are city clubs, citizen 
unions, citizen leagues, and civic associations that study governmental 
problems, organize committees to draft reports, and conduct a regular 
series of lectures and discussions. 

146 



POLITICAL EDUCATION 147 

The genesis of a new group of agencies, the Citizens' Councils for 
Constructive Economy, can be traced directly to the depression. The 
stated objective of these councils is "to promote interest in local and 
state governmental problems to the end that the present widespread 
demands for reduction of public expenditures may produce actual and 
permanent improvements in the governmental organization, the tax 
system, and the services rendered by public and semi-public agencies." 
The program of the councils includes such activities as the appraisal of 
the benefits derived from all public and semi-public services such as fire 
protection, hospitals, schools, colleges, libraries, playgrounds, museums, 
etc., the consideration of where expenditures may be reduced by cutting 
out waste in public or semi-public services 5 giving publicity to services 
offered by public and semi-public agencies 5 calling to the attention of 
the community the social consequences which would result if certain 
services were discontinued, etc. Over one hundred citizens 5 councils have 
been formed to date. In a few states, notably Alabama,- nearly all the 
counties have organized county-wide councils. There are also a number 
of state councils. The National Municipal League serves as a national 
clearing house for all types of councils. 

Political education is carried on largely by discussion groups and 
the printed word. During the past two years, however, the radio has 
been enlisted for the work by the National Advisory Council on Radio 
in Education, the American Political Science Association, and the 
National Municipal League. Under the auspices of these organizations, 
a series of lectures and discussions on "You and Your Government" has 
been broadcast weekly by outstanding authorities on the subject. All of 
the broadcasts have been published and have had a wide distribution. 

Thus far this article has dealt with the political education of private 
citizens. There are two other classes of individuals studying govern- 
mental problems public officials $ and professional students, political 
scientists, professors of public finance and taxation, directors and staff 
members of bureaus of governmental research, and the like. 

The professional students of government meet frequently at con- 
ferences of the American Political Science Association, the Academy of 
Political Science, etc., and at such regional gatherings as the Institute 
of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. These organizations 
provide for lectures and round table discussions, and issue monthly 
journals and publications based on research in the field of government. 

The training of public officials is an important development of the 



148 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

last few years. In addition to the publication of printed matter for 
public officials, formal training is provided by the various short courses 
organized by state leagues of municipalities and state universities. More 
than twenty-five thousand clerks, inspectors, firemen, etc., have attended 
over two hundred such schools in the last five years. Recently over one 
thousand policemen were attending fifteen regional schools in the State 
of Virginia. An experiment in this field conducted by the University of 
Southern California is described below. 

Since government so pervades our lives, there can hardly be a 
chamber of commerce, trade or commercial association, service or 
luncheon club which will not many times a year find itself discussing 
some government problem or some program involving government 
action for its achievement. 

It is impossible to list below all the organizations carrying on a 
serious study of government. Some of the more outstanding national 
and local organizations with such programs are given. 

CHARLES ASCHER, Assistant Directory 

Public Administration Clearing House. 

The following list is arranged alphabetically by state and city. 

SCHOOL OF GOVERNMENT, University KANSAS CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 506 
of Southern California, University National Reserve Bldg., Topeka, 

Park, Los Angeles, Calif., Emery E. Kan., Samuel Wilson, mgr. 

Olson, dean. ~ . -. . . 

Committee on public information or- 

Civic Center Division of School of ganized by Kansas Chamber of Corn- 
Government established for men and merce in 1931, for purpose of advis- 
women engaged in public service and ing Chamber of ways of bringing 
for those preparing for careers in civic about better understanding of important 
administration, in research, and in per- public questions by people of state; 
formance of official functions in public committee composed of representatives 
agencies of national, state, and local of farm organizations, chambers of 
character, who desire an organized plan commerce, and educators from Univer- 
of study, bringing together for their sity of Kansas and Kansas State College 
benefit resources of University and and recommended organization of tax- 
practical knowledge of persons in public study clubs throughout state 5 clubs or- 
positionsj university credit given for ganized by farm bureaus, chambers of 
all courses 5 Institute of Government commerce, and individual industries, 
held annually for adults already en- with business men, school teachers, 
gaged in public service where technical county farm agents, and housewives 
experts, publicists, and teachers lecture serving as leaders, between 5,000 and 
in special fields of public administra- 6,OOO citizens of Kansas are believed 
tion; registration, each quarter, 200- to have participated in study clubs 5 pub- 
300. lished Tax Study in Thirteen Lessors 



POLITICAL EDUCATION 



149 



by Jens P. Jensen and Harold Howe, 
series of thirteen lessons, for purpose 
of helping tax study club members gain 
knowledge of fundamentals of taxa- 
tion, in hope that a constructive pro- 
gram of economy and tax reform would 
be adopted by state and local govern- 
ments. 



MASSACHUSETTS Civic LEAGUE, 3 Joy 
St., Boston, Mass., K. Lyford, ex. 



Clearing house for information rela- 
tive to social or socio-economic meas- 
ures and activities and legislative meas- 
ures; conducts research in civic prob- 
lems suck as child welfare, government, 
family, health and sanitation, employ- 
ment and unemployment, education, 
delinquency and crime, town and re- 
gional planning; makes results avail- 
able through publications to organiza- 
tions and individuals throughout state; 
publishes The Lens (quarterly), Cur- 
rent Social Research in Massachusetts , 
a bulletin classifying investigations car- 
ried on by people of Massachusetts dur- 
ing past year, and pamphlets on specific 
bills and memoranda and informative 
statements to members of Legislature; 
membership, 1,774. 



DETROIT BUREAU OF GOVERNMENTAL 
RESEARCH, INC., 936 First National 
Bank Bldg., Detroit, Mich., Lent D. 
Upson, dir. 

Non-political and unofficial organiza- 
tion to promote efficiency and economy 
in government; publishes folder pre- 
senting popular discussion of political 
questions, especially those relating to 
Detroit; recent publications include 
The Growth of a City Government^ by 
Lent D. Upson, An Analysis of the 
Debt of the City of Detroit (1933), 
and reports of State Commission of In- 



quiry into County, Township and School 
District Government. 

TAXPAYERS ASSOCIATION, 642 McKnight 
Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn., H. J. 
Miller, mgr. 

Association invited representatives of 
civic organizations to join in forming 
Council of Civic Clubs and to partici- 
pate in work of securing information on 
past expenditures, of going over budget 
requests, and of perfecting recommen- 
dations for next year's tax rate; aims 
to encourage contact between city hall 
and other civic groups; membership, 
2,800. 

Civic RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 114 W. 
loth St., Kansas City, Mo., Walter 
Matscheck, dir* 

Governmental research organization 
which aims to inform people of Kansas 
City about organization, operation, 
progress, and results of local govern- 
ment; distributes information relating 
principally to local government of 
Kansas City, based upon research work 
of organization; publishes weekly bul- 
letin, $1 per yr.; mimeographed report, 
distributed to limited list free. 

CONFERENCE OF MAYORS AND OTHER 
MUNICIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE STATE 
OF NEW YORK, Bureau of Training 
and Research, City Hall, Albany, 
N. Y., Albert H. Hall, JSr. 

Makes extensive reports under joint 
auspices of New York State Conference 
of Mayors and other municipal officers 
on civic problems, such as communicable 
diseases, fire fighting, handling traffic 
violations of New York State cities, de- 
linquent tax problems, street lighting, 
etc.; operates training schools for over 
12,000 municipal officials in state, of- 
fering courses covering 43 subjects for 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



police and fire instructors, patrolmen, 
assessors, park officials, building in- 
spectors, milk and dairy inspectors, recre- 
ation officials; gives series of 25 weekly 
radio programs each year on municipal 
problems, list of publications on request. 

THE LEAGUE FOR POLITICAL EDUCA- 
TION, The Town Hall, 123 W. 43rd 
St., New York, N. Y., Robert 
Erskine Ely, dir. 

Established "to make the Suffrage 
worthy of its responsibility"; presents 
yearly program of lectures by outstand- 
ing world statesmen, scholars, poets, 
journalists, and men of letters for pur- 
pose of "developing a finer citizenship 
on the part of all who follow it ear- 
nestly"; courses of lectures every week- 
day morning at eleven; Friday evening 
lectures open to members and to public 
on payment of admission fee; issues the 
Town Crier monthly in association with 
the Town Hall Club, the Economic 
Club, and the Civic Forum. 

BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH, 
311 So. Juniper St., Philadelphia, 
Pa., William C. Beyer, dir. 

Agency of scientific inquiry organ- 
ized to increase effectiveness of Phila- 
delphia's government by cooperating 
with officials and giving citizens un- 
biased information about public affairs; 
members of professional staff deliver 
public addresses before civic and busi- 
ness organizations in city; publishes 
Citizen? Business, weekly, devoted to 
problems of city government for pur- 
pose of creating better understanding 
of government on part of citizens, and 
numerous printed and mimeographed 
reports dealing with specific aspects of 
local government of Philadelphia, in- 
cluding Philadelphia* Government, a 
report describing all units of local gov- 
ernment; membership, 25 organizations. 



LEAGUE OF VIRGINIA MUNICIPALITIES, 
Travelers Bldg., Richmond, Va., 
Morton L. Wallerstein, ex. sec. 

Training program of intensive and 
practical nature devoted to immediate 
needs of municipal officials; during past 
year held annual convention for city and 
town officials with separate institutes for 
police chiefs and building inspectors, a 
one-day welfare conference for welfare 
officials and municipal executives, two 
round tables on municipal administra- 
tion m connection with Institute of 
Public Affairs at University of Virginia, 
police training schools conducted on a 
zone basis for 1,048 police officers; 
conducted fire training schools on simi- 
lar basis, summer, 1933, and series of 
eight weekly radio broadcasts on prob- 
lems of local government; membership, 
1 02 cities and towns; list of publica- 
tions on request. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

THE ACADEMY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE 
THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL 

AND SOCIAL SCIENCE 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY 

WOMEN 

AMERICAN Civic ASSOCIATION 
AMERICAN LEGION 
AMERICAN MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION 
AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIA- 
TION 

THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION 
FOREIGN POLICY ASSOCIATION 
GENERAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S 

CLUBS 

GOVERNMENTAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATION 
AMERICAN COUNCIL, INSTITUTE OF 

PACIFIC RELATIONS 

INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 
NATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL ON RADIO 

IN EDUCATION 
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF BUSINESS 

AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S CLUBS 



POLITICAL EDUCATION 



NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR AMERICAN CITI- 
ZENSHIP 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS 
NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGUE 
THE UNITED STATES SOCIETY 

See also INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC AF- 
FAIRS* p. 223. 

Also the following articles. 

MEN'S AND WOMEN'S CLUBS, p. 101. 
ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS, 
p. 203. 



READING LIST 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. Ex- 
ploring the Times. Chicago, 1933. 

Series of pamphlets designed to 
point the way to good reading and in- 
telligent thinking on current prob- 



lems; each contains reading list. Fol- 
lowing studies have been published to 
date: World Depression World Re- 
covery; Collapse or Cycle? ; Living 
with Machines; Meeting the Farm 
Crisis; Less Government or More? 

Eldridge, Seba. The New Citizenship. 
Crowell, 1929. 349 p. 

Community organization, adult 
education, and social work consid- 
ered as forces for the new citizen- 
ship. 

White, Leonard D. Trends in Public 
Administration. McGraw-Hill, 1933. 
365 p. 

A survey of the manner in which 
government local, municipal, state 
and Federal is adapting itself to the 
demands of a new civilization. One 
of the series of Monographs prepared 
under the direction of the President's 
Research Committee on Social 
Trends. 



THE EDUCATION OF ADULT PRISONERS 

The education of adult prisoners in American penal and correctional 
institutions is not a new project. From the first, reformatories for men 
and for women, designed for the younger and less hardened adult 
offenders, have made education the key-stone of their programs. Even 
the prisons and penitentiaries, in a majority of the states, have carried 
on educational work of some sort for many years. Only in jails, where 
the short terms and the rapid turnover in population make all construc- 
tive effort difficult, has there been practically no educational work 5 the 
jails of some of the larger cities and counties, however, have supplied 
exceptions to the general rule. 

In the last five years a tendency toward expansion and improvement 
of educational work in the prisons and reformatories has been evident. 
This is in part due to large increases in inmate populations without 
commensurate industrial expansion: the problem of increasing idleness 
has focused attention on education as a means of keeping prisoners 
occupied, if nothing else. Other forces behind the tendency are the 
steady emphasis' of leading penologists on education as an effective 
agency of rehabilitation, the influence and example of some of the more 
progressive prison systems, and the cooperation of state educational and 
library authorities. 

Today all reformatories for men, twenty-two in number, and all 
reformatories for women, nineteen in number, have educational pro- 
grams. Of the seventy-five state and Federal prisons and penitentiaries, 
all but ten carry on educational work of some sort. Of those having no 
organized and continuous program, six are Southern prisons 5 in these 
there has been some effort during the past year to eradicate illiteracy. 

-Reformatories for men stress vocational education, but usually also 
compel attendance through the eighth grade in a school patterned 
closely after the public schools. Their chief weakness lies in over- 
emphasis on stereotyped academic education and unselective vocational 
training on a mass-treatment basis. There has been in recent years a 
movement toward more effective methods. 

Reformatories for women have a socialized viewpoint not yet 
characteristic of the institutions for men. Academic and vocational train- 

152 



THE EDUCATION OF ADULT PRISONERS 153 

ing are individualized and are based on the actual needs and interests of 
the prisoners. Purely cultural activities have an accepted place in the 
program: music, art, and the drama are encouraged and form a part of 
the daily life. 

In the prisons educational work ranges from the bare eradication 
of illiteracy to fairly well-rounded programs that include courses of 
university as well as elementary grade. In the majority of prisons 
organized instruction is confined to the lower grades; the classes are 
usually taught by untrained and unsupervised prisoners, using texts 
that are juvenile in tone and content. The more advanced students and 
those who are interested in cultural subjects must ordinarily rely on 
correspondence courses, for which they pay the fees and in pursuance of 
which they receive no local assistance. 

In a few prisons, however, the program of organized instruction 
reaches the advanced student as well as the beginner. The so-called 
"cell-study 57 system, which makes increasing use of university extension 
courses under local as well as extra-mural supervision, is an effective 
supplement to class room instruction, particularly for those of advanced 
or cultural interests. 

In contrast to the reformatories, no prison in the country has an 
organized program of vocational training worthy of the name: educa- 
tion of this type is limited to incidental training in industries and main- 
tenance details, and to the unsupervised selection and study of 'Voca- 
tional" correspondence courses. 

Of the larger prisons which have risen above the general level in 
recent years and are now doing educational work of sufficient import- 
ance to command attention, the most noteworthy are the Federal peni- 
tentiaries, the California State Prison at San Quentin, the Michigan 
Prison at Jackson, the Illinois Prison at Joliet, the Wisconsin Prison 
at Waupun, and Sing Sing (New York) Prison. Of the smaller prisons, 
that of Utah is probably most worth noting. 

When the Federal prison system was reorganized in 1929, education 
was made a major project. Trained staffs were installed, physical facili- 
ties improved, and funds provided. A varied program reaching all 
types of prisoners was established. Approximately thirty per cent of the 
prisoners are enrolled on a voluntary basis in each of the larger peni- 
tentiaries, Atlanta and Leavenworth, and seventy per cent in the thou- 
sand-man penitentiary at McNeil Island, Washington. Extensive use 
is made of Massachusetts Department of Education extension courses 
in all Federal institutions. 

A significant feature common to practically all the most noteworthy 



154 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

state prison programs is the utilization of outside resources. San Quentin, 
which appears to have the most extensive program of all the prisons 
in the country, has for several years had the effective cooperation of 
the State Department of Education, the University of California, and 
the State Library. The Wisconsin Prison similarly relies on the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin and the State Library. Jackson (Michigan) has 
developed its program primarily through the efforts of its educational 
staff, but is now drawing also on the University and other outside 
resources- Sing Sing has turned to Columbia University for assistance. 
The Utah Prison owes its educational program largely to the help of 
the State University Extension Division. It appears probable that the 
future of education for adult prisoners lies in the development of 
cooperative relationships with state educational and library authorities. 
The latter are of paramount importance; prison libraries can be power- 
ful agencies of education and were for decades the only source of 
cultural material in prisons. 

Some of the chief needs of educational organizations in penal insti- 
tutions are obvious: trained staffs, improved facilities and teaching 
material, and adequate funds. Going beyond these, there is need of a 
new aim and a new concept of education. Prison education is still pat- 
terned on juvenile education. Except in a few institutions, the methods 
employed hardly justify use of the term, "the education of adults," 
while the term "adult education" is applicable to only a negligible part 
of the educational work. The techniques devised for educating adults, 
however, are coming steadily into more general use, and even adult 
education as most rigidly defined is slowly finding its place in our prisons 
and reformatories. 

AUSTIN H. MACCORMICK, Assistant Director, 
United States Bureau of Prisons. 

Among the Federal and state institutions carrying on programs for the 
education of adult prisoners are those appearing below. This list is in no 
sense complete. It is designed to present various types of programs, and to 
depict the manner in which these programs are executed. The list is arranged 
alphabetically by state. The following are Federal institutions: 

UNITED STATES PENITENTIARY, McNeil seventy per cent of whom take class 

Island, Washington, D. C., J. Her- room instruction or <c cell-study" courses; 

bert Geohegan, sufv. of education. " courses of cultural content offered, sup- 
plemented by lectures; library circula- 

Greater percentage of prisoners en- tion unusually high; educational staff of 

rolled voluntarily for educational work supervisor and vocational instructor- 

than in any other prison; 1,000 inmates, foreman. 



THE EDUCATION OF ADULT PRISONERS 



155 



UNITED STATES PENITENTIARY, Atlanta, 
Ga., Earle M. Stigers, sufo. educa- 
tion. 

About thirty per cent of 2,500 pris- 
oners voluntarily enrolled for educa- 
tional work, civilian staff of supervisor, 
two assistant supervisors, librarian 5 large 
part of work consists in giving native- 
born illiterates and other beginners in- 
struction in fundamentals; class room 
instruction and "cell-study" courses pro- 
vided for advanced students; Massa- 
chusetts Extension Division courses and 
Pennsylvania State College courses ex- 
tensively used; cultural courses and 
practical courses provided; radio and 
visual aids utilized; educational depart- 
ment and library closely coordinated; 
large, well-equipped library, spending 
about $4,000 for new books over three- 
year period (special emphasis on non- 
fiction) and using standard library 
methods of stimulating and guiding 
reader interest. 

UNITED STATES PENITENTIARY, Leaven- 
worth, Kan., F. J. Taylor, ed. 



See United States Penitentiary, At- 
lanta, Ga., above problem, staff, pro- 
gram and educational enrollment of 
these Federal penitentiaries practically 
identical; Leavenworth has fewer class 
rooms than Atlanta; makes more use of 
"cell-study" courses, enrolling about 
500 men for these courses. 

UNITED STATES NORTHEASTERN PENI- 
TENTIARY, Lewisburg, Pa., Richard 
A. McGee, supv. of education* 

Recently opened institution, includ- 
ing complete educational plant consist- 
ing of administrative offices, ten class 
rooms, shops for vocational training, 
gymnasium, auditorium, library and 
reading room, all accessible from living 
quarters; 1,200 inmates; staff of super- 
visor of education, assistant supervisor, 



two instructors, librarian; see U. S. 
Penitentiary, Atlanta, for general pro- 
gram for Federal penitentiaries which 
this institution is following, expect that 
size of institution and superior facilities 
will make possible highly diversified 
program. 

The following are state institutions: 

CALIFORNIA STATE PRISON, San Quen- 
tin, Calif., H. A. Shuder, dir. of 
education. 

Largest prison in United States, hav- 
ing more extensive and diversified edu- 
cational program than any other in 
country, fifty per cent of the 5,000 
prisoners enrolled for work ranging 
from instruction of illiterates to courses 
of high school and university grade; 
class room and vocational instruction in 
shops supplemented by University of 
California extension courses, corrected 
and graded at University, and by local 
or "letter-box" correspondence courses, 
corrected at prison; state educational and 
library authorities cooperate to unusual 
extent; State Department of Public In- 
struction examines inmate teachers and 
issues limited certificates which enable 
students to earn public school credits; 
University of California supplies exten- 
sion courses gratis; State Library lends 
several thousand books annually; educa- 
tional staff of director of education, 
assistant director, and about one hun- 
dred inmate teachers including number 
with advanced education who receive 
organized teacher training. 

MICHIGAN STATE PRISON, Jackson, 
Mich., Floyd C. Wilbur, dir. of td**- 
cation. 

Striking progress made since 1930; 
education largely on compulsory basis, 
but instruction offered is diversified and 
extends into- work of university grade; 
incoming prisoners examined and 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



graded; during last six months of 1932, 
about ninety per cent of the 1,019 in- 
mates received at prison placed in 
classes; staff of director, two assistant 
directors (academic), two assistant di- 
rectors (vocational), librarian, civilian 
clerk; cooperative relationships devel- 
oped with University of Michigan, 
State Library, State Department of Agri- 
culture and other agencies, University 
service includes direct instruction by 
visiting faculty members. 

SING SING PRISON, Ossining, N. Y., 
Harry Masson, head teacher. 

School attendance compulsory for 
those who can not meet fifth grade 
requirements; more advanced courses 
offered on voluntary basis; about 1,000 
men enrolled for educational work; 
Columbia University and Massachusetts 
Department of Education extension 
courses used; instruction by both class 
room and cell-study method; staff of 
head-teacher and two assistants. 

UTAH STATE PRISON, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, Owen Nebeker, prison 'parole, 
officer. 

Program illustrates amount accom- 
plished on limited budget when local 
and state agencies cooperate; Governor 
appointed committee headed by mem- 
ber of staff of University of Utah to 
organize volunteer teaching staff for 
prison, from University, county, and 
Salt Lake City schools; educational 
work at prison extended; instruction of- 
fered now given by competent profes- 
sional teachers on part-time, visiting 
basis. 

WISCONSIN STATE PRISON, Waupun, 
Wise., John Faville, Jr. 

Educational enrollment comparatively 
small, but significant because of close- 
working relationships with the Univer- 



sity of Wisconsin and State Free Li- 
brary Commission; director of field or- 
ganization of University Extension 
Division and assistant visit prison peri- 
odically to interview new prisoners, 
make enrollments in extension courses, 
and assist students already enrolled; 
prisoner students pay for courses and 
are of same status as other extension 
students; Library Commission lends 
books on request, book circulation large, 
covers all fields, full-time educational 
director appointed in 1932, but Uni- 
versity service will continue. 

REFORMATORIES FOR MEN: 

These institutions stress standard 
grade school instruction and vocational 
training in trade school shops, usually 
on a compulsory basis. Instruction of 
high school grade is sometimes given. 
In these branches of education their 
programs are much more extensive than 
those of the prisons. Little instruction 
is given, however, in courses possessing 
purely cultural value. Some cultural op- 
portunity is offered through the musical 
activities, but this is incidental and is 
not of a high order. Reformatory edu- 
cation bears the definite stamp of prac- 
ticality. 

A list of the reformatories for men 
follows: U. S. Industrial Reformatory, 
Chillicothe, Ohio; Colorado State Re- 
formatory, Buena Vista; Connecticut 
Reformatory, Cheshire; Illinois State 
Reformatory, Pontiac; Indiana Reform- 
atory, Pendleton; Men's Reformatory, 
Anamosa, Iowa; Kansas State Industrial 
Reformatory, Hutchinson; Kentucky 
State Reformatory, Frankfort; State Re- 
formatory for Men, South Windham, 
Maine; Massachusetts Reformatory, 
West Concord; Michigan Reformatory, 
Ionia; Minnesota State Reformatory, St. 
Cloud; Missouri Intermediate Reform- 
atory, Booneville; State Reformatory 
for Men, Lincoln, Nebraska; New Jer- 



THE EDUCATION OF ADULT PRISONERS 



157 



sey Reformatory, Rahway; New Jersey 
Reformatory, Annandale; New York 
State Reformatory, Elmira; Ohio State 
Reformatory, Mansfield; Oklahoma 
State Reformatory, Granite; Pennsyl- 
vania Industrial School, Huntingdon; 
Washington State Reformatory, Mon- 
roe; and Wisconsin State Reformatory, 
Green Bay. In each case inquiries should 
be addressed to the Superintendent. 

REFORMATORIES FOR WOMEN 

These institutions resemble reforma- 
tories for men in that their educational 
programs provide academic and voca- 
tional training having immediate prac- 
tical value. They differ, however, in 
that the women's institutions have a so- 
cialized viewpoint and give cultural 
values their proper place. The daily 
routine includes organized activities in 
such fields as music and art. Aesthetic 
taste is encouraged and the development 
of leisure enjoyment on a relatively 
high level is promoted. Handicraft, 
pageants and other dramatic activities, 
instrumental music, chorus singing, 
sketching, and interior decorating are 
among the pursuits followed by women 
prisoners under the direction of staff 
members. In many respects the best of 
these reformatories resemble fine schools 
rather than prisons. 

The programs of the following insti- 
tutions for women are especially note- 
worthy: Federal Industrial Institution 
for Women, Alderson, West Virginia; 
Connecticut State Farm for Women, 
East Lyme; State Reformatory for 
Women, Dwight, Illinois; Massachusetts 
Reformatory for Women, Frammgham; 
New Jersey State Reformatory for 
Women, Clinton; New York State Re- 
formatory for Women, Bedford Hills; 
Pennsylvania State Industrial Home for 
Women, Muncy; and Vermont House 



of Correction, Rutland. Inquiries should 
be addressed in each case to the Super- 
intendent. 

Bee also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION 
NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON PRISONS AND 

PRISON LABOR 
THE OSBORNE ASSOCIATION 
UNITED STATES BUREAU OF PRISONS 

READING LIST 

Jones, Edith K., ed. The Prison Library 
Handbook. Chicago, American Li- 
brary Association, 1932. 181 p. 

Prepared for the Committee on 
Libraries in Correctional Institutions 
of the A. L. A. and the Committee 
on Education of the American Prison 
Association. A guide to the untrained 
librarian in organizing an Institution 
library. 

MacCormick, Austin H. The Education 
of Adult Prisoners, a Survey and a 
Program. National Society of Penal 
Information, 1931. 456 p. 

A survey of, and a program for, 
the educational system of American 
prisons and reformatories. Includes 
a series of appendices prepared by 
John Chancellor, Supervising Libra- 
rian of the U. S. Bureau of Prisons, 
and others. 

New York State Commission to Investi- 
gate Prison Administration and Con- 
struction: An Educational Program 
for New York State's Penal System. 
1932. 38 p. 

Special report, Sam A. Lewisohn, 
Chairman, presented to the Legisla- 
ture of the State of New York, Janu- 
ary 1932. Copies may be obtained 
from The Prison Association of New 
York, 135 East 15th Street, New 
York, N. Y, 



ADULT EDUCATION UNDER PUBLIC SCHOOL 

AUSPICES 

Participation of the public schools in the education of adults came 
about in large measure as a result of the Americanization movement 
which started in the years immediately preceding the World War. While 
there had been schools for teaching foreign-born and native-born adults 
prior to that time, such schools for the most part had been conducted 
with the permission of school authorities rather than by them. 

The Americanization movement arose as a result of the recognition 
by public officials and educators of the error of adopting a laissez-faire 
policy in the matter of teaching immigrants the processes of American 
government and the manners and customs of the American people. 
Shortly before the World War an investigation revealed that there 
were in this country hundreds of thousands of persons, some of them 
naturalized citizens, living in segregated groups where little or no 
English was spoken and where the manner of living was that of a 
foreign land. 

It naturally followed, in view of the intense nationalism then rife, 
that an organized movement to "Americanize" the foreign born should 
be initiated. A desire on the part of many aliens to become naturalized 
gave impetus to the movement. Everywhere Americanization classes 
were formed. The subjects usually taught included English and United 
States history and government, although in some instances courses in 
such subjects as household arts and child care were added to the cur- 
riculum. 

The public schools led the movement. Classes were usually held 
in school buildings and teachers were paid from school funds. State 
laws were passed which, in some cases, permitted the state to reimburse 
the city for at least a part of the cost of the classes. In some states laws 
provided for the addition of one or more persons to the staffs of the 
state departments of education to organize and supervise Americaniza- 
tion classes. The Bureau of Naturalization of the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor cooperated with state and city officials in the organization 
of classes, and in many cases furnished text books for students and 
teachers. 

158 



ADULT EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 1 59 

The public schools were aided in the Americanization program by 
thousands of private agencies, Americanization committees were 
formed j women's clubs studied the movement 5 ministers preached 
about itj a vast amount of literature appeared on the subject. 

With the decline of ardent nationalism at the end of the War, 
interest in Americanization programs waned. The decrease in the number 
of immigrants and the subsidence of wartime hysteria were chiefly 
responsible 5 moreover, teachers of Americanization classes came gradu- 
ally to believe that true Americanization must be a give-and-take proc- 
ess, A change took pkce in the attitude of both teachers and students. 
Classes were formed to keep alive old world handcrafts, folk festivals 
were held, foreign languages were taught, and students were en- 
couraged to take pride in the culture of their native lands. Such changes 
in curricula, coupled with the fact that Americanization classes were 
being attended by more and more native-born citizens, made it evident 
that the term "Americanization" did not fit the situation, and gradually 
a great deal of the work came to be called by the more inclusive term, 
"adult education." 

The Americanization teachers and supervisors affiliated themselves 
with the National Education Association as the Department of Adult 
Education of that Association. (A description of the work of the De- 
partment will be found on p. 334). This body, the National University 
Extension Association, and the American Association for Adult Educa- 
tion have been the leaders in advancing the adult education movement 
in the United States. 

Nineteen states and the District of Columbia now provide funds 
for the education of adults. The District of Columbia and the states of 
Delaware, Nebraska, and South Carolina, expend this money directly 
as administrative agencies. In other states the funds are used to reim- 
burse local school districts which provide education for adults in accord- 
ance with state kws or rules of the board of education. In some states 
the funds allocated for adult education are used largely for the educa- 
tion of the foreign-born and for illiterates and near-illiterate native- 
born citizens. Other states provide education for adults in the same 
academic and vocational subjects as are taught in elementary and second- 
ary public day schools, Twenty-nine states report that no state funds 
may be used for adult education except those which are provided to 
match Federal funds distributed by the United States Department of 
Agriculture and the Federal Board for Vocational Education, now a 
part of the United States Department of the Interior. The basis of 
distribution of state funds to districts for adult education is usually 



l6o HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

on what is commonly known as the "fifty-fifty" basis or the "matched 
funds" basis. 

Up to 1930 there was scarcely a city in the United States with a 
population of 10,000 or more that did not have tax-supported evening 
schools. In most of the large cities there were also part-time and con- 
tinuation schools established for the purpose of prolonging the education 
of boys and girls who had left school to enter employment. Although 
reports indicate that some of the evening schools are now closed because 
of the economic depression, and that many part-time classes have been 
discontinued because of the discontinuance of part-time work and the 
return of students to full-time classes, partial reports show that as a 
result of much larger attendance in some centers, the evening school 
attendance for the whole country will not show a material decrease. Some 
schools have been forced to charge a nominal tuition fee during the past 
year, but in many cases the unemployed are allowed to attend classes 
without payment of the fee. 

As yet, except in a few states, no special requirements are set up for 
teachers of adult classes, and the great majority of teachers in afternoon, 
evening, and Saturday schools are regularly employed in the day schools. 
A number of institutions of higher learning are giving courses for 
teachers of adult classes (see p. 54). 

The National Teacher-Training Survey, made under the direction 
of the United States Office of Education, reports that the average eve- 
ning school teacher has had ten years 7 experience, is about 38 years of 
age, and receives a salary of about $1,600 a year. In the elementary 
schools 69 per cent of these teachers are women, while only 37 per cent 
of the secondary school teachers and 62 per cent of the commercial 
evening school teachers are women. Practically all of these teachers 
have had some college work, and almost all of the secondary evening 
school teachers are college graduates. 

The increase in the amount of leisure has increased greatly the 
demand for educational opportunities for adults. At the present time 
there is an unusual demand on the part of the unemployed for educa- 
tional opportunities, that they may better fit themselves for employ- 
ment 5 on the part of those who are employed, that they may make 
their employment more secure j and on the part of an increasing number 
of others who desire to find solutions to some of the perplexing prob- 
lems which confront them and the country in these unsettled times. 
L. R. ALDERMAN, Principal Specialist in Adult 
Education and Chief of Service Division, 
Office of Education, Washington, D. C. 



ADULT EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



161 



Following are the adult education programs conducted under public 
school auspices in the various states. The list is arranged alphabetically by 
state. It should be noted that statistics on classes for which provision is made 
under the Smith-Hughes Law and State Vocational Education Acts, and on 
programs conducted with Federal Emergency Relief Funds (see p. 24.0) are 
not included. The editor is indebted to L. R. Alderman of the Office of 
Education for a great deal of the data given. 



STATE OF ALABAMA, Department of 
Education, School and Community 
Organization, Montgomery, Ala., 
Mary England, dir., school and com>- 
munity organization. 

Financial support for adult educa- 
tion provided by state and community 
on fifty-fifty basis; 491 communities 
have adult classes; 5,178 students, 205 
teachers, in classes in English, mathe- 
matics, handicraft, vocational subjects, 
etc.; total cost of instruction, $26,620 
during 1931-32. 

STATE OF ARIZONA, Department of Pub- 
lic Instruction, Phoenix, Ariz., C. O. 
Case, suft. 9 public instruction and ex- 
ecutive officer for vocational educa- 
tion. 

State bears 50 per cent of cost of 
adult classes in local communities under 
certain conditions; 27 communities pro- 
viding adult classes; 1,278 students at- 
tending public night schools; 56 teach- 
ers; total cost of instruction paid by 
communities, $6,491 (data for 1931- 

3*). 

STATE OF ARKANSAS, Department of 
Public Instruction, Little Rock, Ark., 
Pearle Davis, defuty state suft., in 
charge adult education. 

State gives no financial aid to com- 
munities for adult classes; 2,255 stu " 
dents attending community-supported 
night schools, taught by 68 teachers 
(data for 1929-30). 



STATE OF CALIFORNIA, Department of 
Education, Division of Adult and 
Continuation Education, 311 Cali- 
fornia State Bldg., Los Angeles, 
Calif., and Library Courts Bldg., Sac- 
ramento, Calif., L. B. Travers, chief, 
division of adult and continuation 
education* 

State funds may be used for evening 
schools as for day schools; classes con- 
ducted under supervision of Division in 
all parts of state in virtually any sub- 
ject group wishes to study; total enroll- 
ment, all classes, 1932-33, 316,603; 
three full-time state supervisors of adult 
classes; during summer 1933 conducted 
Adult Summer School in cooperation 
with University of California and Cali- 
fornia Association for Adult Education, 
offering courses in philosophy of adult 
education, parent education, technique 
of group discussion, methods of teach- 
ing social science to adults, etc.; Divi- 
sion helps determine policies for con- 
ducting California Association for Adult 
Education; recognizes child study and 
parent education as integral part of Cal- 
ifornia public school system program of 
adult education; publishes 1 6 state 
pamphlets designed for use among il- 
literates and foreign born ; pamphlet for 
use of leaders of classes in parent edu- 
cation; Handbook on Continuation Ed- 
ucation; two annual reports on progress 
of continuation education. 

STATE OF COLORADO, Department of 
Public Instruction, Inez J. Lewis, 
suft. y fublic instruction, 
State provides no direct financial aid 

for adult classes, but school boards in 



l62 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



districts of first class have power to es- 
tablish and maintain out of school funds 
part-time schools, evening, and voca- 
tional schools, schools for aliens, or other 
opportunity schools which are open to 
all persons; in 1931-32, 3,964 students 
in public night schools taught by 118 
teachers; total cost of instruction, $62,- 
896. 

STATE OF CONNECTICUT, Office of 
Adult Education, State Board of Ed- 
ucation, Hartford, Conn., Robert C, 
Deming, sufv. y adult education. 

State pays $4 for each pupil in av- 
erage attendance for 75 sessions of two 
hours each, and also 50 per cent of sal- 
aries of 23 local directors of adult edu- 
cation, in 1932-33, 42 towns had eve- 
ning schools with registration of 16,440 
(non-English speaking registration, 
8,675); sta # stresses work among aliens 
as state has greater percentage of unnat- 
uralized aliens than any other state; 
staff members study problems relating 
to leisure-time activities and unemploy- 
ment 

STATE OF DELAWARE, Division of Adult 
Education, Department of Public In- 
struction, nth and Washington Sts., 
Wilmington, Del., Marguerite H. 
Burnett, dir^ adult education. 

One per cent of entire state appro- 
priation for public education allowed for 
support of non-vocational public school 
adult education; amount appropriated 
covers cost of administrative and in- 
structional service in all school districts 
of state, except in city of Wilmington 
where additional funds are made avail- 
able; form of service rendered varies 
with needs and interests of community 
at time at which it is provided; during 
1932-33 program included: leadership 
for classes organized to meet interest 
of rural and urban groups in public af- 
fairs, art, music, drama, child study, 



psychology, home making, crafts, mod- 
ern trends in education, the elimination 
of illiteracy and naturalization; direc- 
tion for community projects in health, 
sanitation, architecture, home safety, 
school furnishing and decoration, recon- 
ditioning of homes, recreation, pag- 
eantry, city, county and state-wide mu- 
sic festivals, lectures, exhibits; program- 
making for parent-teacher associations, 
women's clubs, service clubs, the grange, 
rural churches, and other civic and edu- 
cational agencies, 5,959 adults enrolled 
in regularly organized class groups, and 
30,000 participated in community proj- 
ects conducted in Wilmington and in 
83 rural schools of state, representing 
20 per cent of adult population of 
state; City and County Advisory Coun- 
cils with membership representing all 
those participating in program meet 
regularly to assist in planning for de- 
velopment in adult education activi- 
ties; annual institutes bring all adult 
educators of state together to plan bet- 
ter coordination of activities and to 
meet outstanding leaders in field of 
adult education. 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Washington, 
D. C., 1 3 th and K Sts. N.W., Frank 
W. Ballou, suft. 

Night school free to all residents of 
District; during 1932-33, 1,000 en- 
rolled in Americanization Night School 
(see p. 169); 13,026 in other night 
schools; total cost, all expenses in night 
schools, 1931-32, $93,872. 

STATE OF FLORIDA, Department of Pub- 
lic Instruction, Tallahassee, Fla., W. 
S. Cawthon, supt., public instruction. 

State gives financial aid to counties 
which may in turn use funds for pay- 
ment of teachers of part-time and eve- 
ning schools attended by both minors 
and adults; 115 teachers, 4,401 students 



ADULT EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



i6 3 



enrolled in public night schools and 
Americanization classes during 1931-32. 

STATE OF GEORGIA, Department of Ed- 
ucation, Division of Adult Education, 
Atlanta, Ga., Inez Parker, sec. 

State gives no financial aid to com- 
munities for adult education; in 1931- 
32, 138 teachers, 8,141 students enrolled 
in night schools; total cost of instruc- 
tion, $73*664., paid by communities. 

STATE OF IDAHO, Department of Educa- 
tion, Boise, Idaho, W. D. Vincent, 
comm. of education'. 

No state financial aid provided com- 
munities for adult classes; in 1931-32, 
176 students, 10 teachers in public 
night schools; total cost of instruction, 
$1,114. 

STATE OF ILLINOIS, Department of Pub- 
lic Instruction, Springfield, 111., Fran- 
cis G. Blair, supt., public instruction. 

No financial support given by state 
to communities for adult classes; 67,074 
students, 1,499 teachers in public eve- 
ning schools, 1931-32; total cost of in- 
struction, $668,957. 

STATE OF INDIANA, Department of Pub- 
lic Instruction, Indianapolis, Ind., 
George C. Cole, supt. y public instruc- 
tion. 

State gives no financial aid to com- 
munities for adult classes except in 
vocational instruction; approximately 
21,952 students, 499 teachers in com- 
munity-supported public night schools; 
total cost instruction, $140,988. 

STATE OF IOWA, Department of Public 
Instruction, Des Moines, la., Agnes 
Samuelson, supt. y public instruction. 

State gives no financial aid to com- 
munities for adult classes except in field 



of vocational education; during 1931- 
32, 2,854 students, 86 teachers in com- 
munity-supported public night schools 
at cost of $14,305; 76 centers in gen- 
eral field offer agricultural subjects 
(farm management, cooperative market- 
ing, sanitation and disease) with total 
enrollment of 5,708; 8 centers give 
evening school courses in trades and in- 
dustries (foremanship, shop mathematics 
and science, cabinet making, welding, 
window display, industrial chemistry) 
with enrollment of 1,770; adult home 
making courses (nutrition, clothing, 
family relationships, child development) 
offered in 19 centers; enrollment, 
1,050. 

STATE OF KANSAS, Department of Pub- 
lic Instruction, Topeka, Kan., W. T. 
Markham, supt., public instruction. 

State gives no financial aid to com- 
munities for adult classes; in 1931-32, 
5,720 students, 185 teachers in public 
night schools and Americanization 
classes; total cost to communities, $40,- 
618. 

COMMONWEALTH OF KENTUCKY, De- 
partment of Public Instruction, 
Frankfort, Ky,, James H. Richmond, 
M f*'> public instruction. 

State provides no financial aid to 
communities for adult classes, but 
through its agencies renders any pos- 
sible assistance in administrative and ad- 
visory capacity to help private organiza- 
tions engaged in adult education; dur- 
ing 1932-33, more than 100 communi- 
ties provided classes for approximately 
100,000 adults. 

STATE OF LOUISIANA, Department of 
Education, Baton Rouge, La., T. H. 
Harris, supt. 

State conducts classes for adult illit- 
erates, including several for inmates of 



164 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



penitentiary, offers evening classes for 
fanners and housewives, taught by high 
school teachers of agriculture and home 
economics; state pays nominal amount 
necessary to provide for instruction of 
adult illiterates out of special state fund, 
11,014 students, 222 teachers, in public 
night schools and Americanization 
classes, 1931-32, at total cost of $58,- 
193- 

STATE OF MAINE, Department of Edu- 
cation, Augusta, Me , Bertram E 
Packard, state comm. of education* 

State provides 66% per cent of cost 
of adult classes, under certain conditions ; 
in 1931-32, II communities provided 
adult classes for 3,598 students, taught 
by 149 teachers; total cost, $32,637. 

STATE OF MARYLAND, Department of 
Education, Baltimore, Md., Albert S. 
Cook, supt. 

State makes no financial provision for 
adult evening schools; one community 
provided adult classes 1931-32; 391 
teachers, 14,586 students in public night 
schools and Americanization classes, op- 
erating at cost of $115,237. 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, 
Department of Education, Boston, 
Mass., Payson Smith, comm. of edu- 
cation, James A. Moyer. di/r., division 
extension education; E. Everett Clark, 
sufv* adult alien education; Mary 
L. Guyton, sufv. adult alien educa- 
tion. 

State provides 50 per cent of cost of 
supervision and instruction in adult 
alien education classes; in 1931-32, 
2,163 teachers, 23,698 students in 
classes in adult alien education, 82,708 
enrolled in public evening schools (in- 
cluding evening elementary, high, voca- 
tional, and Americanization) ; total ex- 
penditures, $700,420 ; Department 



maintains close cooperation with Massa- 
chusetts State Commission on the En- 
richment of Adult Life. 

STATE OF MICHIGAN, Department of 
Public Instruction, Lansing, Mich., 
Paul F. Voelker, supt. 

State makes no financial provision for 
adult education classes; local commu- 
nities encouraged by state officials to 
continue and enlarge adult education 
programs, during 1931-32, 767 teach- 
ers, 38,524 students in community-sup- 
ported night schools and Americaniza- 
tion classes at total cost of $375,925; 
extensive state vocational education pro- 
gram. 

STATE OF MINNESOTA, Department of 
Education, St. Paul, Minn., O. R. 
Sande, in charge^ adult elementary 
evening schools. 

State pays 50 per cent of each adult 
class teacher's salary under certain con- 
ditions; in 1932-33, 38 communities 
provided adult classes, enrolling 3,865 
students, and employing 127 teachers; 
total cost $26,187. 

STATE OF MISSISSIPPI, Department of 
Education, Jackson, Miss., W. F. 
Bond, supt, of education. 

State provides no financial support for 
adult classes; in 1931-32, 188 students, 
10 teachers, in community-supported 
night schools, at total cost of $1,137. 

STATE OF MISSOURI, Department of Ed- 
ucation, Jefferson City, Mo., Charles 
A. Lee, suft. of public schools. 

State gives support to classes in home 
economics for adults through vocational 
home economics funds; evening classes 
for adults conducted by teachers of vo- 
cational agriculture in high schools, as 
part of their work; 1,547 adults en- 



ADULT EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



1 6 5 



rolled, during 1931-32, 20,537 stu " 
dents, 694 teachers, in public night 
schools and Americanization classes, at 
total cost of $275,200. 

STATE OF MONTANA, Department of 
Public Instruction, Helena, Mont., 
Elizabeth Ireland, supt., public in- 
struction. 

Throughout state, local school districts 
are permitted to use general school funds 
for evening schools; 15 communities 
provided adult classes, 1931-32, 434 
students, 15 teachers, in public night 
schools and Americanization classes ; total 
cost, $1,345. 

STATE OF NEBRASKA, Department of 
Public Instruction, Lincoln, Nebr., 
Charles W. Taylor, supt., public in- 
struction. 

State provides total financial support 
for adult classes; during biennium 
1931-33, 1 8 communities had classes, 
with registration of 899. 

STATE OF NEVADA, Department of Pub- 
lic Instruction, Carson City, Nev., 
Walter W. Anderson, supt., public in- 
struction. 

State makes biennial appropriation for 
evening schools; 3 communities pro- 
vided adult classes, 1931-32; 92 stu- 
dents in public night schools 1929-305 
Trade and Industrial Section of Voca- 
tional Education Division conducts part- 
time courses and evening classes for min- 
ing people, in various sections of state. 

STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE, Depart- 
ment of Education, Concord, N. H., 
James N. Pringle, supt. education. 

State makes no appropriation for adult 
classes; during 1931-32, 2,014 stu " 
dents, 91 teachers, in community-sup- 
ported public night schools at total cost 
of $12,815. 



STATE OF NEW JERSEY, Department of 
Education, Trenton, N. J., William 
A. Ackerman, chief > in charge eve- 
ning schools. 

State finances 50 per cent of cost 
of evening schools under certain condi- 
tions, during 1931-32, 6 1 communities 
provided adult classes (enrollment in 
Americanization classes, 7,558); in 
1931-32, 49,015 students, 1,511 teach- 
ers, in public evening schools; total cost 
of instruction, $919,139. 

STATE OF NEW MEXICO, Department of 
Public Instruction, Santa Fe, N. M., 
Georgia L. Lusk, supt., public instruc- 
tion. 

State gives no financial support to 
adult classes; during 1931-32 three 
communities provided adult classes; 776 
students, 29 teachers, in Americaniza- 
tion classes and public night schools at 
total cost of $3,202. 

NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPART- 
MENT, Adult Education Bureau, Al- 
bany, N. Y., W. C. Smith, chief*, 
Caroline A. Whipple, supo.; Eliza- 
beth A. Woodward, supv.; Alfred E. 
Rejall, supv., Jay R. Crowley, supv. 

State gives no aid for adult edu- 
cation; small allotment of Federal funds 
granted for evening home making 
courses and apprentice training; during 
1931-32, 119 communities provided 
adult classes; total enrollment, 210,276 
(immigrant education, 51,671; elemen- 
tary education, 5,877; academic educa- 
tion, 66,901; commercial, 27,787; in- 
dustrial, 35,639; home making, 9,705; 
recreation-health, 9,829; music, 827; 
miscellaneous, 2,040) ; in addition, 
15,234 persons enrolled in parent edu- 
cation classes; 4,250 teachers engaged 
in extension work carried on at an ap- 
proximate cost of $2,884,103; for fur- 
ther information about Department, see 
Agricultural Extension, 



i66 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA, Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, Raleigh, 
N. C., A. T. Allen, supt. 

State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes, during 
1931-32, 17 communities provided adult 
classes; 712 students, 29 teachers in 
public evening schools; total cost, $6,- 
388. 

STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA, Department 
of Public Instruction, Bismarck, N D., 
Arthur E. Thompson, supl. 

State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes; during 
1931-32, 4 communities provided adult 
classes; 339 students, 23 teachers, in 
Americanization classes and public eve- 
ning schools at total cost of $2,580. 

STATE OF OHIO, Department of Educa- 
tion, Columbus, Ohio, J. L. Clifton, 
dir. 

State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes, during 
1931-32, 35 communities provided 
adult classes; 62,313 students, 1,092 
teachers, in evening schools and Ameri- 
canization classes, operated at total cost 
of $363^70- 

STATE OF OKLAHOMA, Department of 
Public Instruction, Oklahoma City, 
Okla., John Vaughan, suft. 

State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes; during 
1931-32, 1,455 students, 65 teachers, 
in night schools and Americanization 
classes at total cost of $13,370. 

STATE OF OREGON, Department of Pub- 
lic Instruction, Salem, Ore., C. A. 
Howard, 



State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes; during 
1931-32, 3,017 students, 133 teachers 



in community-supported evening schools, 
operated at total cost of $4.2,731; 
classes held in cooperation with Federal 
Government to train miners for work 
in gold-bearing area of state. 

COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, De- 
partment of Public Instruction, Har- 
nsburg, Pa., A. W. Castle, dtr. y ex- 
tension education. 

State law makes Extension Education 
part of state program of free public in- 
struction; state gives financial aid to 
local communities for adult classes on 
basis of ability and effort ranging from 
25 per cent to 75 per cent of minimum 
salary of teachers, during 1931-32, 64 
communities maintained adult classes 
with enrollments as follows. 37,000 in 
Americanization classes, 12,000 in home 
classes for foreign-born mothers, 25,000 
in adult elementary classes, ioo,000 in 
evening high school classes, and 1,772 
teachers. 

STATE OF RHODE ISLAND, Department 
of Education, Providence, R. L, Em- 
erson L. Adams, dir., adult education. 

State provides half the funds for 
adult classes on expenditure by town of 
$ 1,000 or less, and one-fifth of any 
funds expended between $1,000 and 
$3,500; maximum state reimbursement 
to any community, $1,500; during 
J 93 2 "33j J 7 communities provided adult 
classes; 2,234 enrolled in Americaniza- 
tion classes, 1,704 in parent education 
classes, and 8,552 in evening schools; 
total amount of teachers' salaries, $74,- 
168. 

STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA, Adult De- 
partment, Department of Education, 
Raleigh, S. C., Wil Lou Gray, suftr., 
adult department. 

Adult department during 1932-33 
fostered two types of schools night or 
continuation schools, held mainly for 



ADULT EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



167 



mill workers, and the Opportunity 
School at Clemson, a college vacation 
school for workers; 36 of 46 counties 
in state had organized adult classes, "with 
enrollment of 8,999 students, 5,175 of 
whom were over twenty-one; course of 
study based on everyday needs of pu- 
pils, with emphasis on three R's for 
those who have not completely mastered 
them; because of financial conditions 
the lay-by campaign, the program of 
adult education for rural folk of state, 
had to be discontinued, during 1933- 
34, endeavoring to have every school 
house in state open three nights a week 
for discussion of economic needs of 
community by all the people. 

STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA, State De- 
partment of Education, Pierre, S. D., 
L D. Weeks, supt., piblic instruction. 

No funds provided by state to local 
communities for adult education classes; 
Americanization work conducted 1932- 
33; during 1931-32, 524 students, 24 
teachers in community-supported eve- 
ning schools, at total cost of $5,162; no 
Americanization work, no appropriation 
for salaries, or aid to schools will be 
given during period 1933-35* 

STATE OF TENNESSEE, Department of 
Education, Nashville, Tenn., P. L. 
Harned, comm. education. 

State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes; during 
1931-32, 1,913 students, 55 teachers 
m night schools at cost of $8,885. 

STATE OF TEXAS, Department of Edu- 
cation, Austin, Texas, S. M. N. 
Marrs, supt. 9 public instruction. 

State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes; during 
1931-32, 8 communities provided adult 
classes; 12,227 students, 262 teachers 
enrolled in evening schools and Ameri- 
canization classes; total cost, $96,304. 



STATE OF UTAH, Department of Public 
Instruction, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
Charles H. Skidmore, supt., public in- 
struction* 

State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes; 1,204 
students, 45 teachers, enrolled in public 
evening schools and Americanization 
classes during 1931-32; total cost of in- 
struction, $4,910. 

STATE OF VERMONT, Department of 
Education, Montpelier, Vt., Francis 
L. Bailey, comm. education. 

State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes; during 
1931-32, 394 students in evening 
schools taught by 20 teachers; total cost 
of instruction, $12,301. 

COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA, Depart- 
ment of Public Instruction, Rich- 
mond, Va., Sidney B. Hall, supt. 

State gives no financial aid to local 
communities for adult classes; during 
I 93 I -3*> 6,244 students, 196 teachers, 
m public night schools, at cost of $65,- 
2OO. 

STATE OF WASHINGTON, Department of 
Public Instruction, Olympia, Wash., 
N. D. Showalter, supt., public instruc- 
tion. 

During 1932-33, 107 classes in fields 
of home economics (child development, 
parent education, etc*), trades and in- 
dustries (navigation, radio service, draft- 
ing, plan and blueprint reading for men, 
and pattern drafting, spotting and press- 
ing, and chemistry for women), and 
agriculture (poultry, dairying, horticul- 
ture, marketing, live stock, farm man- 
agement, etc.) held with enrollment of 
2,580; state department supplied ser- 
vices of specialists in parent education 
who conducted training classes for lead- 
ers during month of September in 9 
selected centers of state with surround- 
ing communities participating; Has en- 



i68 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



couraged back-to-land movement and 
plans to meet needs of people attempt- 
ing to farm for first time and those 
forced to settle in new territories. 

STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA, Department 
of Education, Charleston, W. Va., 
William C. Cook, supt.j free schools. 

No financial aid given by state to 
communities for adult classes; during 
1931-32, 1,351 students, 76 teachers 
enrolled in Americanization classes and 
public evening schools; operated at total 
cost of $12,532. 

STATE OF WISCONSIN, Department of 
Education, Madison, Wise., George 
P. Hambrecht, in charge, adult edu- 
cation* 
State appropriates 50 per cent of cost 

of adult education classes, provided com- 



munities match sum; during 1931- 
32, 43 communities provided adult 
classes; 58,869 students, 1,181 teachers, 
in evening schools and Americanization 
classes; total cost of instruction, $310,- 
070. 

STATE OF WYOMING, Department of 
Education, Cheyenne, Wyo., Kath- 
arine A. Morton, supt., public In- 
struction. 

State gives financial aid to communi- 
ties for adult classes by authorizing 
school district to establish schools and 
to pay up to 66% per cent of cost out 
of district general school funds; during 
1931-32, 21 communities provided adult 
schools; 912 students, 52 teachers, in 
public evening schools and Americani- 
zation classes; total cost, $5,844. 



Following are listed some representative programs for adults conducted 
under the auspices of local public schools during 1932-33. A few private 
agencies whose work is primarily in the public school field are also included. 
The list is arranged alphabetically by state and city. 



COVINA UNION HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT, 
Evening High School, Covina, Calif., 
V. R. Ross, frin. 

Conducts courses, chiefly in vocational 
subjects, for men and women; attend- 
ance, 1,100; in cooperation with citi- 
zens' committee of representatives of 
local Chamber of Commerce, Business 
and Professional Women's Club, parent- 
teacher associations, etc., has carried on 
during 1932-33 series of weekly forums 
of eight meetings each, conducted by 
speakers drawn from colleges and uni- 
versities of southern California^ classes 
in millinery and dressmaking and arts 
and crafts held in outlying sections of 
school district. 

LONG BEACH PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Adult 
Education Department, Long Beach, 



Calif., Elmer C. Jones, in charge, 
adult education courses. 

Offers three types of work: special 
day and evening high school classes, day 
home making classes, citizenship work 
and home teaching; evening high school 
curriculum includes credit courses in 
liberal arts, practical arts, a civic-social 
course and a course in trades and in- 
dustries; special day classes in art, home 
making, parent education and civic prob- 
lems, for American and foreign-born 
women; also special courses of lectures 
on timely subjects offered occasionally; 
$.50 registration fee charged each stu- 
dent attending classes or lectures; regis- 
tration, 6,726. 

Los ANGELES CITY SCHOOLS, 7th floor, 
Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Los 



ADULT EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



Angeles, Calif., Harry M. Shafer, 
asst. supt. 

Day and evening Americanization 
classes in written and spoken English 
and in citizenship for non-English- 
speaking people; enrollment, 4-jl975 
427 mothers and fathers enrolled in 
parent education classes; 53,660 stu- 
dents enrolled in evening classes in vo- 
cational and academic subjects covering 
every field in which students seek in- 
formation, total enrollment somewhat 
lower than formerly because of nom- 
inal tuition fee now charged (usually 
$i) ; unemployed admitted to all classes, 
if qualified, the Federal Government, 
the state and the county, as well as 
school district, support evening schools. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, Department of 
Adult Education, Bridgeport, Conn., 
John T. Wadsworth, in charge, adult 
courses. 

Conducts 38 Americanization classes, 
6 of which are held in afternoon; 
subjects taught include English, history, 
and government of United States; en- 
rollment, 1932-33, 1,030; one in- 
structor gives ten lectures on parent 
education during year and visits and 
advises parent-teacher meetings, 85 per 
cent of curriculum of non-accredited 
evening high school classes consists of 
commercial subjects, English, algebra 
and Italian being only academic sub- 
jects taught; registration, 1,200; state 
pays $4. for each pupil in average at- 
tendance for 75 sessions, which amounts 
to about 1 8 per cent of sum expended 
for evening classes. 

NEW HAVEN PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Board 
of Education, Adult Education Dept., 
169 Church St., New Haven, Conn., 
Catherine Finnegan, dir. 

Americanization classes in reading, 
writing, and speaking English, with 
special emphasis on history and govern- 



169 



ment; registration, 1,950, 300 mothers 
attend school in afternoon for pur- 
pose of studying parent education, read- 
ing, writing, citizenship, and elemen- 
tary subjects, 50 men attending citizen- 
ship school in morning; state contributes 
same funds for evening schools as for 
day schools; personnel service depart- 
ment maintained, with director who ad- 
vises inquirers on problems of immi- 
gration, naturalization, employment, etc. 

AMERICANIZATION SCHOOL, loth and H 
Sts., N.W., Washington, D. C, 
Maude E. Alton, administrative frin. 

Public school operating under the 
Board of Education of the District of 
Columbia ; courses offered in English (be- 
ginners', intermediate, and advanced), 
citizenship, typewriting, current topics, 
United States history, industrial geogra- 
phy, legislative study, mathematics, prac- 
tical law; also elective courses in music 
appreciation, band, orchestra and classes 
in preparation work; citizenship classes 
prepare students for naturalization ex- 
aminations; parent education work in- 
cludes mothers* class twice a week, 
mothers' sewing groups held each school 
day and supervised by matron employed 
to direct nursery and give informal 
training in child care, branch classes at 
convenient centers, health lessons, field 
teaching in more than a hundred homes; 
also special Budget Luncheon Club to 
help mothers meet budget problems aris- 
ing from unemployment 5 all classes, with 
exception of special coaching classes, 
have groups below high school level as 
well as of high school level; funds for 
upkeep and teaching staff included in 
District of Columbia appropriation bill 
which is enacted by Federal Congress; 
extra-curricular activities and welfare 
work financed by Americanization 
School Association aided by various or- 
ganizations of city; enrollment, 1931- 

32, 2,112. 



i yo 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



CHICAGO PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 228 No. La 
Salle St., Chicago, 111., C. J. Lunak, 
asst. suft. of schools. 

Americanization classes, giving in- 
struction in reading, writing, and speak- 
ing of the English language, civil gov- 
ernment and American history, total 
attendance, 5,480, parent education 
classes attended largely by members of 
parent-teacher associations with teachers 
furnished by Board of Education, en- 
rollment, 602; 18,035 adults in accred- 
ited evening high schools, special 
classes conducted in shelters for unem- 
ployed in subjects requested; State con- 
tributes one-half instructional costs for 
Smith-Hughes classes in accredited eve- 
ning high schools. 

SCHOOL COMMITTEE OF THE CITY OF 
BOSTON, 15 Beacon St., Boston, Mass., 
Joseph F. Gould, dir.> evening and 
summer schools. 

Americanization and parent education 
classes and classes in English for for- 
eigners conducted throughout entire city 
as part of evening school organization 
and of Day School for Immigrants; eve- 
ning elementary schools established in 
all sections of city give courses for stu- 
dents desiring diploma similar to that 
given graduates of elementary day 
schools; Americanization courses and 
courses in home economics, Committee 
conducts no special classes for unem- 
ployed j evening class enrollment, 1932- 
33, as follows: high schools, 8,886; ele- 
mentary schools, including adult immi- 
grants and illiterate minors, 4,415; 
trade school, 1,212, Day School for Im- 
migrants, 751; Commonwealth reim- 
burses city to extent of 50 per cent of 
cost of instruction for classes attended 
by adult immigrants. 

NORWOOD AMERICANIZATION CLASSES, 
Norwood, Mass., Wilda L. Vose, for* 

Beginners* intermediate, and ad- 
vanced Americanization classes held; 



total enrollment, 115; mothers' classes 
of 30 women meet in homes for in- 
struction in English, cooking, canning, 
and nursing, during 1932-33 con- 
ducted opportunity school for unem- 
ployed with educational and recreational 
provisions; state pays 50 per cent of 
expenses for Americanization classes and 
mothers' classes. 

DEPARTMENT OF EVENING SCHOOLS 
AND IMMIGRANT EDUCATION, Room 
422, City Hall, Springfield, Mass., 
Josephine D. Mason, in charge, adult 
classes. 

During 1932-33 conducted 27 classes 
for adult immigrants with enrollment 
of 613, representing 20 different na- 
tionalities; special course developed to 
teach reading and writing to illiterates; 
Day School of Immigrants in Continua- 
tion School had total enrollment during 
1932-33 of 73 students, 46 of whom 
were adult immigrants learning English; 
evening classes of high school level offer 
training in academic, commercial, and 
trade subjects; 1,997 students enrolled 
in evening high schools 1932-33; Amer- 
icanization classes given financial aid by 
state, 50 per cent of salaries being paid 
to teachers, principals, and supervisor re- 
imbursed to city treasury by state. 

AMERICANIZATION COMMITTEE, Board 
of Education, Duluth, Minn., May 
C. Fairbanks, field sec. and supv. of 
Americanization and adult education 
of Duluth Public Schools. 

Committee works with Department of 
Americanization in Public Schools; at- 
tempts to bring about the naturalization 
of all aliens in city; encourages both 
foreign-born and native-born adults to 
attend classes in vocational and cultural 
subjects offered by public schools and 
by other organizations; supported by 
Community Fund. 



ADULT EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



ST. PAUL PUBLIC SCHOOLS, St. Paul, 
Minn., W. H. Orme, m charge, adult 
classes. 

Conducts 20 day-time and 2 eve- 
ning Americanization classes in English 
and citizenship; total attendance, 297. 

ST. Louis EVENING SCHOOLS, St. Louis, 
Mo., B. G. Shackelford, asst. sup* 

Enrollment of 297 in English and 
citizenship classes conducted in elemen- 
tary schools throughout city; all regular 
high school subjects offered in accredited 
evening high school classes; enrollment, 
3,242, enrollment in vocational and 
commercial classes, 12,882, a few 
classes leading to graduation in elemen- 
tary school given in connection with 
evening school work; although no spe- 
cial classes offered unemployed they are 
generally invited to evening schools; 
evening schools financed by Board of 
Education through appropriation from 
general education fund. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, Omaha, Nebr., 
Leon O. Smith, asst, supt. 

Department of Vocational Education 
offers 259 classes in adult home making 
including art in home and clothing, 
child care and development, food prep- 
aration, gardening, budgets and home 
management 5 enrollment, 1932-33, 
4>363 > also 41 trade extension classes 
including dietetics, psychology, public 
health, anatomy for nurses, radio ser- 
vice, with 688 enrolled. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, Buffalo, N. Y., 
George E. Smith, super,, extension edu- 
cation. 

Americanization classes in reading, 
writing, and speaking English and in 
citizenship; parent education classes, in- 
cluding about 1, 800 people, mostly 
women with foreign background, given 
instruction in reading, writing, and 



speaking English, with special emphasis 
on child care, health rules, etc.; from 
7,000 to 9,000 men and women re- 
ceiving instruction in evening elemen- 
tary schools in business and commercial 
subjects, speaking, music, gymnasium 
work, shop work, and preparatory in- 
struction for admission to high school; 
nearly 3,000 persons taking non- 
credit high school courses; educational 
program for unemployed in operation 
for two years, with classes taught by 
over 100 teachers in virtually every sub- 
ject demanded by sufficient number of 
unemployed; state gives city no direct 
financial aid for extension classes, ex- 
cept for classes for the unemployed. 

Civic COMMITTEE FOR ADULT LITER- 
ACY, 96th St. Branch, New York Pub- 
lic Library, 112 E. 96th St., New 
York, N. V., Helen Winkler, dir. 

Aims to promote the establishment of 
all-day and evening school opportunities 
for educationally and vocationally un- 
derprivileged industrial workers as an 
integral part of public school systems; 
to enable illiterates to acquire knowl- 
edge of reading and writing English 
and of arithmetic, as prerequisites to 
acquisitions of industrial adaptability 
and skills necessary to meet constantly 
changing demands of industry and labor 
market; to serve educationally and voca- 
tionally workers constantly being dis- 
placed by industrial changes, those in 
need of training for new occupations, 
and persons on part-time or night work 
and seasonally unemployed seeking 
training for slack season jobs; and to 
enable non-citizens to acquire working 
knowledge of the English language, his- 
tory and civics needed for citizenship 
and franchise; publishes An Experiment 
in Adult Education Training for the 
Unemployed in the New York City 
Continuation Schools, $.15, and Mak- 
ing the Schools an Increasing Factor in 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Diminishing Unemployment (reprint 
from The American City), $.05, by 
Helen Wmkler. 

NUMBER 9 EVENING SCHOOL, 261 Jo- 
seph Ave., Rochester, N. Y., George 
A. McNeill, in charge, adult classes. 

Classes in English for foreigners, en- 
rollment, 312; 648 attending classes in 
citizenship, over 40 teachers employed 
and over 1,200 adults registered in 
classes in industrial, mechanical and 
academic subjects, in home economics, 
commerce, music, and English for for- 
eigners; free Collegiate Center formed 
under College of Forestry of Syracuse 
University and financed by local Work 
Relief Bureau; funds for classes for un- 
employed received from Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation. 

CLEVELAND BOARD OF EDUCATION, Di- 
vision of Adult Education, Board of 
Education Administration Bldg., 
Cleveland, Ohio, J. A. Pierce, dir. 

Offers 79 Americanization classes one 
or two afternoons a week in school 
buildings, libraries, settlement houses, 
etc., for mothers, attendance, 1,876, 91 
evening elementary classes, meeting two 
evenings a week for two hours an eve- 
ning, have enrollment of 2,254; ac- 
credited and non-accredited evening 
high school classes on technical, com- 
mercial, and some academic subjects; 
3,552 adults enrolled m 215 accredited 
classes and 2,935 i n 1 33 non-credit 
classes; some financial assistance given 
city for non-accredited classes under 
Smith-Hughes Law. 

DIVISION OF SCHOOL EXTENSION, Ad- 
ministration Bldg., 2 1st St. and 
Parkway, Philadelphia, Pa., Wnu H. 
Welsh, dir* 

Day and evening classes in English 
and citizenship are conducted in schools, 
neighborhood centers, and homes, 



classes meet during day and evening 
hours; total enrollment, 1932-33, 
2,700, two schools of elementary grade 
level maintained, attended by colored 
men and women, at which short inten- 
sive courses and courses in preparation 
for admission to standard evening high 
school are offered; enrollment, 1,256; 
Central Evening High School, which 
gives courses in all subjects offered in 
day schools, is state accredited secondary 
school and under state law credits earned 
there are accepted in all state institu- 
tions on par with credits earned in day 
high schools, enrollment, 2,500; 13 
non-accredited evening high schools in 
city offer courses in commercial, indus- 
trial, home making, general education, 
recreational and miscellaneous fields; 
enrollment for year, 17,540; no spe- 
cial program for unemployed, although 
some day classes give intensive training 
in specific fields (filing, stenography 
and typewriting, etc.) ; state and Fed- 
eral aid received by city for all Smith- 
Hughes trade extension and home mak- 
ing classes. 

PITTSBURGH PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa, Coit R. Hoechst, far., 
ext. education. 

Americanization taught through eve- 
ning schools, special day schools and 
classes in homes; enrollment, 2,182; one 
class in parent education; enrollment, 
27, 31 elementary classes in 9 schools 
with enrollment of 928; non-accredited 
evening high school classes in academic, 
trade and recreational subjects in 13 
schools; enrollment, 8,260, 3 Smith- 
Hughes trade classes; attendance, 1,538; 
summer trade school for unemployed, 
attendance, 1,190, accredited evening 
high school for adults, 1,701. 

PUBLIC EVENING SCHOOLS, Dallas, 
Texas, J. O. Mahoney, dir. 

English and Americanization classes 
with total enrollment of 154 students 



ADULT EDUCATION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS 



173 



held for foreigners at 3 centers; 
classes conducted In elementary subjects 
covering work from third to seventh 
grade; enrollment, 167; non-accredited 
evening high school classes in home 
economics, shop work and art; enroll- 
ment, 972; special day classes held dur- 
ing summer of 1933 for unemployed, 
about one-third of students attending 
night school are without employment 
and since small fees, usually $i to $3, 
are charged for courses there has been 
a decrease in attendance because of in- 
ability of students to pay fees and car- 
fare; total enrollment, all classes 1932- 
33, 5,115; state gives financial assist- 
ance to city for vocational classes meet- 
ing requirements of Smith-Hughes law. 

SEATTLE PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Broadway 
Evening School, Seattle, Wash., C. R. 
Frazier, asst. svpt. 

Americanization classes offered two 
evenings a week during six months of 
year in regular evening school; after- 
noon classes for foreign mothers main- 
tained throughout year if demand war- 
rants; naturalization classes offered two 
evenings per week throughout year, 
series of lectures to parents of pre-ado- 
lescent and adolescent children given 
annually by director of child study de- 
partment of Seattle Public Schools; in 
addition, parent study groups meet reg- 
ularly; evening classes of high school 
level and below maintained for two terms 
of three months each between October 
and April; regular evening school in- 
cludes many subjects of secondary grade, 
as well as courses for which credit is 
given; 700 free scholarships (i.e., non- 
tuition) provided for unemployed; after- 
noon classes taught by volunteer instruc- 
tors also provided; state gives financial 
aid on basis of attendance ($.08 per 
session), balance of operating cost se- 
cured from nominal enrollment and 
laboratory fees; no city tax money used 



except for light, heat, and use of build- 
ings. 

Bee also the following agencies listed 
under National Organizations: 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AG- 
RICULTURE 
UNITED STATES OFFICE OF EDUCATION 

and 
DES MOINES FORUM, p. 65. 

Also the following articles: 

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, p. I. 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, p. 254. 

VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE, p. 288. 

VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION OF PHYS- 
ICALLY HANDICAPPED ADULTS, p. 
294. 

READING LIST 

Alderman, L. R., and E. C. Lombard. 
Adult Education. Chap. XII, Bien- 
nial Survey of Education in the 
United States, 1928-1930. U. S. Of- 
fice of Education Bulletin, No. 20. 
Washington, D. C., 1931. 38 p. 

Deals with public education of 
adults, especially with developments 
of the work during the decade 1920- 
1930. Gives an account of rehabili- 
tation work by states and brief notes 
on university extension and alumni 
education. Miss Lombard gives a sur- 
vey of the progress that has been 
made in the field of child develop- 
ment and parent education. 

Fnese, J. F. The Cosmopolitan Evening 
School, Organization and Adminis- 
tration. Century, 1929, 388 p. 

Emphasizes the importance of 
adult education. The author thinks 
the cosmopolitan evening school is an 
"opportunity school," in the true 
sense of the word, for the older citi- 
zens. It provides opportunities for 
citizens to increase their efficiency 
and for the schools to serve the com- 



174 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



munity. Discusses all the important 
problems of the evening school and 
the place that the public school plays 
in the movement for adult education. 

Grace, A. G. Mental Ability of Adults 
as Related to Adult Interests, Needs 
and Activities. Cleveland Board of 
Education, Cleveland, Ohio, 1930, 
213 p. (mimeographed). 

A detailed report of the work in 
adult education carried on by the 
Cleveland Board of Education. The 
philosophy of adult education is dis- 
cussed, and budget programs, time 
schedules, organization and adminis- 
tration outlined. 

Gray, W. S., Wil Lou Gray, and J. W. 
Tilton. The Opportunity Schools of 
South Carolina. American Association 
for Adult Education, 1932, 141 p. 

An experimental study conducted 
by the State Department of Educa- 



tion of South Carolina to determine 
the progress of adults of limited edu- 
cation when favorable conditions are 
provided, and the limitations of in- 
struction for students of different 
levels of capacity. 

Swift, F. H., and J. W. Studebaker. 
What is This Opportunity School? 
American Association for Adult Edu- 
cation, 1932, 87 p. 

An account of the history of the 
Denver Opportunity School, which 
was founded in 1916, a complete 
examination of its curriculum and 
student body, together with a care- 
ful study of its finances, and a dis- 
cussion of its relation to the public 
school system of Denver. Prepared 
for the American Association for 
Adult Education as a "contribution 
to attempts which are being made to 
ameliorate unemployment." 



PUPPETS IN ADULT EDUCATION 

Adults in America have recently rediscovered in the puppet show a 
form of entertainment and education which for hundreds of years has 
pleased European audiences. Puppets are native to almost every Euro- 
pean country. In the churches of the Middle Ages marionettes or "little 
Marys," were used at the altar to make scenes from the Bible 
vivid and mysterious to the unlettered. Russian peasants have always 
enjoyed "Petrushkas" who traveled over the countryside in a gay show, 
and Soviet officials cleverly capitalized on that interest by devising a 
"Red Petrushka" to teach the principle of the new government. 

The term "puppet" is general and applies to all kinds of figures 
animated for dramatic use. A puppet may be worked on the hand, when 
it is called a "guignol," or on strings when it is called a "marionette." 
While a puppet is apparently under the complete control of the pup- 
peteer, he becomes so real in the mind of the spectator that he gives 
out the feeling that he is an independent individual. This is more than 
an illusion. Gordon Craig has called puppets "men without ego." 

An interest in puppetry in America has been developed through 
contact with foreign groups. Notable among the pioneers in the profes- 
sional field in this country are Ellen Van Volkenburg, Tony Sarg, and 
Remo Bufano. Their work in the presentation of excellent plays with 
finely designed figures ranging from the smallest possible size to heroic 
puppets for grand opera is a source of great stimulation to the amateur. 

In the educational field, there are only a few colleges and universi- 
ties using puppets. The Department of English of the Washington 
Square College of New York University has used marionettes to illus- 
trate play production in the Elizabethan era. The fine arts departments 
of educational institutions have been slow to realize the value of an 
active miniature theater for correlating the arts of design, color, and 
form. 

Occupational therapists in several hospitals have found puppetry 
very helpful. A new method of lip-reading for the adult deafened that 
requires training in body rhythm as an important aid to speech education 
includes the manipulation of an especially designed stringed figure. 

The making and manipulating of puppets combine art and me- 

175 



176 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

chanics; body rhythm and emotions are correlated and translated by the 
puppeteer to the audience through the strings. 

CATHERINE F. REIGHARD, Directory 
The Puppet Players. 



Following are some of the adult groups using puppets for recreational 
and educational purposes: 



BROOKLYN STATE HOSPITAL, Occupa- 
tional Therapy Department, 68 1 
Clarkson St., Brooklyn, N. Y., Susan 
Wilson. 

Several puppet shows a year, planned 
and executed by patients as part of 
work in occupational therapy. 



HAYES PUPPETEERS, South Hadley, 
Mass., Janet Card Hayes. 

Group adapted play for marionettes, 
designed and constructed scenery, cos- 
tumes, and puppets; has given several 
performances. 



The following educational institutions offer puppet work. This list is 
arranged alphabetically by institution. 



ANTIOCH PUPPETEERS, Antioch Col- 
lege, Yellow Springs, Ohio, George 
Wells. 

Small group of students experiment- 
ing with traveling puppet show. 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Extension 
Division, Berkeley, Calif. 

Courses in construction, costuming, 
scenery and devices, stage and lighting, 
properties and effects, with emphasis on 
hand-puppets; also advanced course pro- 
viding for further practice in produc- 
ing plays for hand-puppets, marionettes 
or shadow figures; for further infor- 
mation about program of Division, see 
article on University Extension. 

COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF DETROIT, 
Detroit, Mich., Paul McPharlin. 

Evening classes in puppetry with in- 
struction in making and manipulating 
marionettes. 



MILLS COLLEGE, Oakland, Calif., Perry 
Dilley. 

Classes in puppetry, including de- 
signing and technique of making and 
manipulating marionettes. 

TEMPLE UNIVERSITY, Teachers Col- 
lege, Philadelphia, Pa., Helen D. 
Smiley, dir. 

Courses in construction of stringed 
figures; manipulation of figures; stage 
construction; properties and scenery; 
lighting; costuming; playwriting for 
marionettes; directing, etc.; enrollment, 
1 0-20. 

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, Extension 
Division, Seattle, Wash., John Ashby 
Conway. 

Class in Theatre Workshop study 
technique of making and manipulating 
string marionettes and Greco-Turkish 
and Japanese types of shadow puppets; 
students mainly grade and high school 
teachers; for further information about 
extension program of University, see 
article on University Extension. 



PUPPETS IN ADULT EDUCATION 



177 



YPSILANTI NORMAL COLLEGE, Depart- 
ment of Speech Education, Ypsilanti, 
Mich., Bessie Whitaker, Anna M. 
Burger. 

Marionettes used to develop sense of 
rhythm in teaching of lip reading. 

READING LIST 

Bufano, Remo. Be a Puppet Showman. 
Century, 1933. 

Designed for those who wish to 



build and give a puppet show. Well 
illustrated with cuts of construction 
processes and finished products. 
McPharlin, Paul. Puppetry Yearbook, 
1933. Paul McPharlin, Birmingham, 
Mich. 

The fourth international yearbook 
of puppets and marionettes. Among 
its many pictures is a selection of 
the puppet scenes exhibited during 
the Century of Progress Exposition, 



THE RADIO IN ADULT EDUCATION 

Although there had been a considerable amount of experimental 
broadcasting by educators and educational institutions previous to 1929, 
a comprehensive survey of the field was not undertaken until that year, 
when two studies were begun, one a fact-finding survey made by a 
Committee on Radio appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, the 
other an analytical study conducted by the American Association for 
Adult Education. The two organizations cooperated closely. 

In the spring of 1930 the survey made by the Association was pub- 
lished under the title, Education Tunes In. It included an analysis of 
radio broadcasting conducted in educational institutions, and, in addi- 
tion, program analyses by correspondents of the Association in the dozen 
or more broadcasting districts into which the United States was divided 
for the purposes of the study. In the course of the study, it became 
evident that some constructive plan must of necessity be advanced if 
an effort were to be made on the part of those interested in education 
to meet the requirements of the listening public. A small group of 
educators met to discuss the broadcasting situation, and to find out 
whether anything could be done to utilize radio more generally as an 
instrument in education. This group was enlarged by subsequent meet- 
ings to include representatives of education, government, industry, and 
the general public. As a result, the National Advisory Council on Radio 
in Education grew out of these meetings with the declared purpose of 
promoting the effective utilization of the art of broadcasting in the 
general field of adult education. About a year later, the National Com- 
mittee on Education by Radio, an organization working in the educa- 
tional field chiefly with schools, was formed. A note about the program 
of the Committee appears on p. 331. 

It will always be difficult to make a complete and at the same time 
up-to-date catalog of educational broadcasts in the United States, chiefly 
because there is no centralized agency for broadcast programs, and be- 
cause conditions in broadcasting are subject to constant change and 
adjustment. There are approximately six hundred stations in this 
country, each of which is a unit unto itself in so far as program produc- 
tion is concerned. Each is required by the Federal Radio Act to broad- 
cast "in the public interest" and each station manager interprets public 

178 



THE RADIO IX ADULT EDUCATION 179 

interest" as he chooses. To add to the difficulty, education in the United 
States has operated traditionally and actually under a system of state 
autonomy, and since broadcasting recognizes no geographical limitations 
such as state boundaries, it is impossible to rely upon the usual educa- 
tion machinery for information. 

Since public broadcasting started in America in 1920, between 100 
and 200 educational stations owned and operated by educational institu- 
tions of various types have been licensed. Stations in this classification 
have had a difficult time maintaining themselves during the last few 
years, since no method of operation has been devised that will guarantee 
their existence. Less than fifty now survive. Many of these have been 
pioneers in broadcasting and have produced notable educational 
programs. 

The National Advisory Council on Radio in Education is at present 
engaged in compiling a summary of the history of these stations and of 
the types of programs they have produced. A list of educational stations 
now in existence, together with a brief description of their programs 
follows this article. 

In addition to broadcasts by educational stations, a wide variety of 
programs that may be classified as educational have been presented by 
national networks and by individual stations. Some of them are 
ephemeral in character, but many have continued for a number of sea- 
sons and have large audiences. 

Early in 1933, Cline M. Koon of the United States Office of Educa- 
tion, and the National Advisory Council on Radio in Education com- 
piled a list of national voluntary organizations with public service 
objectives that had utilized broadcasting. It was discovered that there 
were at least forty-five such organizations that broadcast regularly, 
among them the following: American Child Health Association, 
American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, American 
Farm Bureau Federation, American Medical Association, The Brook- 
ings Institution, Child Study Association of America, Federal Council 
of the Churches of Christ in America, Foreign Policy Association, 
National Advisory Council on Radio in Education, National Association 
for the Advancement of Colored People, National Council of Parent 
Education, National Council of Women of the United States, National 
Education Association, National Federation of Music Clubs, National 
Kindergarten Association, National League for American Citizenship, 
National League of Women Voters, National Recreation Association, 
National Urban League, National Vocational Guidance Association, 
Personnel Research Federation, Science Service, and the Young Men's 



l8o HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

Christian Association of the United States. (A complete statement of the 
adult education programs of these organizations appears under National 
Organizations.) In addition, there are at least seventy-six other national 
public service organizations that broadcast occasionally, and approxi- 
mately fifty other such organizations that have indicated that they would 
use the air if a means could be provided for meeting program expenses. 
In surprisingly few cases has an effort been made by either com- 
mercial or educational broadcasters to make educational programs of 
permanent value or to prepare the audience for intelligent listening. 
Only a few programs provide printed material for study after the 
broadcast or reading lists and outlines for the use of the listener both 
before and after the talk. Only a relatively small number of listeners' 
groups, meeting for the purpose of hearing and discussing the lecture 
under competent direction, are in existence. Even such an obvious aid 
to methodical listening as a regular day and hour for a series of broad- 
casts is frequently overlooked. The success of such notable programs 
as the Damrosch Music Appreciation Hour, the American School of 
the Air, the broadcasts of the Foreign Policy Association, the National 
League of Women Voters, and the National Advisory Council on Radio 
in Education have demonstrated the value of carefully planning not 
only the program itself, but also those aids to listening which insure a 
well prepared and intelligently critical audience. 

LEVERING TYSON, Director, 
National Advisory Council 
on Radio in Education 

Following is a list of broadcasting stations operated by educational 
institutions and classified as educational. The National Broadcasting Com- 
pany, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, and the Columbia Broad- 
casting Company, 485 Madison Avenue, New York City, will supply infor- 
mation about educational programs broadcast on their networks. The reader 
is also referred to the list of organizations in the above article which have 
utilized broadcasting in promoting their programs. The list is arranged 
alphabetically by state. 

WCAC 250 watts, Connecticut State WRUF 5000 watts, University of 

College, Storrs, Conn., B. W. Ellis, Florida, Gainesville, Fla., Garland 

dir. Powell, dir. 

Operates approximately two hours Operates approximately twelve hours 

daily; broadcasts on music, dressmaking, daily; half of program devoted to edu- 

news, science, education, engineering, cational material; broadcasts on music 

English, medicine, government, agricul- appreciation, public health, public 

ture and poultry farming, German, safety, agriculture, home economics, 

French, child health, and psychology. cooking, books, pharmacy, economics, 



THE RADIO IN ADULT EDUCATION 



181 



and news, publishes manual for music 
appreciation course for high schools. 

WJTL 100 watts, Oglethorpe Uni- 
versity, Oglethorpe, Ga., David 
Brmkmoeller, mgr. 

Although operated by University, car- 
ries commercial programs; broadcasts 
regular college courses in German, Span- 
ish, French, music, history, literature, 
psychology, sociology, economics, and 
religion, which, together with certain 
written work, will be credited towards 
college degree. 

WILL 500 watts daytime, 250 watts 
nighttime, University of Illinois, Ur- 
bana, 111., Joseph F. Wright, dir. 

Operates approximately three and a 
quarter hours daily; educational broad- 
casts on sociology, agriculture, philoso- 
phy, French, sports, history, medicine, 
business law, music, home economics, 
and literature. 

WBAA 500 watts, Purdue University, 
Lafayette, Ind,, J. W. Stafford, mgr. 

Operates approximately two hours per 
week; broadcasts short talks on agricul- 
ture, history, biology, education, law, 
and accounting. 

WOI 5000 watts, Iowa State College 
of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, 
Ames, Iowa, R. K. Bliss, dir. 

Operates approximately nine hours 
daily; educational broadcasts on news, 
home economics, mechanics, history, 
sports, vocational education, government, 
music, agriculture, science, economics, 
child study, public health, landscape 
architecture, public safety 5 has library 
of more than a thousand phonograph 
records of "classical or semiclassical" 
music from which selections are made 



for daily program; since 1930 over 
1,200 persons have borrowed books at 
nominal fee, from Radio Book Club 
sponsored by College Library and sta- 
tion. 

WSUI 500 watts, University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa, Carl Menzer, dir. 

Operates approximately ten hours 
daily; broadcasts on history, music, art, 
public health, psychology, child welfare, 
literature, economics, news, business, 
science, travel, government, sociology, 
and astronomy. 

KFKU 500 watts, University of Kan- 
sas, Lawrence, Kansas, Harold G. 
Ingham, dir. 

Operates approximately one hour 
daily; broadcasts on following subjects: 
French, music, education, journalism, 
history, political science, German, ath- 
letics, literature, and adult education. 

KSAC 1000 watts daytime; 500 watts 
nighttime, Kansas State College, Man- 
hattan, Kansas, L. L. Longsdorf, pro- 
gram mgr. 

Operates approximately three and a 
half hours daily; occasional broadcasts 
for farm groups with motion pictures 
shown concurrently with broadcasts on 
following subjects: agriculture, health, 
vocational education, home economics, 
music appreciation, government, art, 
engineering. 

WKAR 1000 watts, daytime only, 
Michigan State College, East Lan- 
sing, Mich. 

Broadcasts on all branches of agri- 
culture, home economics, chemistry, 
health, history, sociology, education, 
speech, economics, literature, govern- 
ment, and biology. 



I 82 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



WLB 1000 watts, University of Min- 
nesota, Minneapolis, Minn., Haldor 
B. Gislason, dvr. 

Operates approximately two hours 
per day; educational broadcasts on mu- 
sic, German, French, Spanish, eco- 
nomics, history, world affairs, child wel- 
fare, sports, and adult education. 

WCAL- 1000 watts, St. Olaf College, 
Northfield, Minn., Martin Hegland, 
dir. 

Operates approximately one hour 
daily; broadcasts on music, education, 
religious subjects, and political science. 

WEW 1000 watts, St. Louis Univer- 
sity, St. Louis, Mo. 

Operates approximately ten hours 
daily j broadcasts mostly entertainment, 
a few educational programs on music, 
child welfare, literature, dramatic ex- 
pression, home economics, law, French, 
and public affairs. 

WCAJ 500 watts, Nebraska Wesleyan 
University, Lincoln, Nebr., J. C. 
Jensen, station dir. 

Operates approximately two and a 
half hours daily 5 broadcasts on religion, 
political science, law, music, public 
health, English, education, citizenship, 
psychology, and economics. 

KOB 10,000 watts, University of 
New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. M., 
E. C. Hollmger, chmn^ radio com- 
mittee. 

Station leased to Albuquerque Journal 
with contract giving time for daily edu- 
cational broadcasts to the University; 
operated commercially. 



WSVS 50 watts, Seneca Vocational 
High School, 666 East Delaware 
Ave., Buffalo, N. Y., Elmer S. 
Pierce, dir. 

Operates approximately two and a 
half hours daily, broadcasts on art, 
health, astronomy, literature, education, 
science, zoology, history, and travel. 

WCAD 500 watts, St. Lawrence Uni- 
versity, Canton, N. Y., H. K. Borg- 
man, operator. 

Operates approximately one and a 
half hours daily; broadcasts on forestry, 
agriculture, health, history, science, me- 
teorology, law, economics, and English. 

WESG 1000 watts, New York State 
College of Agriculture, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, N. Y., Charles A. 
Taylor, dir. 

Operates approximately one hour 
daily; broadcasts almost entirely on 
farming, including farm management, 
agricultural engineering, forestry, busi- 
ness and marketing, animal husbandry, 
fruit, crops and soils, rural education, 
etc. 

WEAO 750 watts, Ohio State Uni- 
versity, Columbus, Ohio, Robert C. 
Higgy, dir. 

Operates approximately seven hours 
daily; educational broadcasts on Spanish, 
French, Italian, history, civil govern- 
ment, vocational guidance, English, 
business, geography, engineering, educa- 
tion, home economics, agriculture, na- 
ture, botany, literature, health and med- 
icine, music, science, and current events, 

WNAD 500 watts, University of Ok- 
lahoma, Norman, Okla., T. M. 
Beaird, dir. 

Operates approximately two hours 
three or four days per week; broadcasts 



THE RADIO IN ADULT EDUCATION 



on astronomy, literature, engineering, 
art, education, journalism, political sci- 
ence, geology, medicine, music. 

KOAC 1000 watts, Oregon State Ag- 
ricultural College, Corvallis, Ore., 
W. L. Kadderly, frogram dtr. 

Operates approximately twelve hours 
daily; educational broadcasts on follow- 
ing subjects: news, agriculture, horticul- 
ture, public safety, foreign customs, 
music, shorthand, home economics, en- 
gineering, interior decoration, dentistry, 
law, and political science. 

KBPS I0 o watts, Benson Polytechnic 
School, Portland, Ore., W. D. Al- 
lingham, mgr. 

Operates approximately three hours 
daily; time given to public organiza- 
tions such as National Congress of Pa- 
rents and Teachers, Oregon Music 
Teachers Association, Public Health Bu- 
reau, etc. ; also broadcasts programs from 
Reed College, Science Department. 

KFDY 1000 watts, South Dakota State 
College, Brookings, S. D., S. W. 
Jones, extension radio specialist. 

Operates one and a half hours daily; 
broadcasts on music appreciation, home 
economics, agriculture, horticulture, and 
education. 

KUSD 500 watts, University of South 
Dakota, VermiUion, S. D., B. B. 
Brackett, dir. 

Operates approximately one hour 
three times per week; talks on music, 
economics, chemistry, history, psy- 
chology, Greek, Spanish, law, education, 
literature, health. 

WTAW 500 watts, Agricultural and 
Mechanical College of Texas, Col- 
lege Station, Texas, E. P. Humbert, 
dir. 
Broadcasts short talks on agriculture 

and engineering. 



i8 3 



KWSG 2000 watts daytime; 1000 
watts nighttime, State College of 
Washington, Pullman, Wash., Frank 
F. Nalder, chmn., faculty radio com- 
mittee. 

Operates approximately twelve hours 
daily, educational broadcasts on agricul- 
ture, literature, physical education, 
science, home economics, music, child 
welfare, engineering, and economics. 

WHA 1000 watts. University of 
Wisconsin, Madison, Wise., H. B. 
McCarty, dir. 

Operates approximately two and a 
half hours daily; talks on agriculture, 
geography, art, music, public safety, 
home economics, history, science, nature 
study, geology, and botany. 

See also following organizations listed 
under National Organizations: 

NATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL ON RADIO 
IN EDUCATION 

THE NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON EDU- 
CATION BY RADIO 

READING LIST 

Institute for Education by Radio. Edu- 
cation on the Air. Yearbooks, 1930, 
1931, and 1932. Columbus, Bureau 
of Educational Research, Ohio State 
University. 

Report of discussions of educators 
and broadcasters on various aspects of 
radio and education. 

Lingel, Robert. A Bibliography of Edu- 
cation by Radio. University of Chi- 
cago Press, 1932. 147 p. 

An extensive, annotated bibliog- 
raphy on education by radio in the 
United States. 

National Advisory Council on Radio in 
Education. Present and Impending 
Applications to Education, of Radio 



184 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

and Allied Arts. National Advisory Perry, Armstrong. Radio and Education. 
Council on Radio in Education, 1931. Biennial Survey of Education in the 
94 p. United States, 1928-1930. Chap. 
An explanation of the system of XVIII. Washington, D. C., United 
broadcasting in the United States. States Office of Education, Bulletin 
This is one of the Information Series 1931? No. 20. 23 p. 
prepared for the Council. Other Covers origin of broadcasting, con- 
booklets available are: The Broad- tributions of amateurs, college broad- 
caster and the Librarian; Research casting and broadcasting to schools. 
Problems in Radio Education, etc. Tyson, Levering. Education Tunes In. 
Radio in Education. 1931? American Association for Adult Edu- 



1932, and 1933. University of Chi- cation, 1930. 119 p. Out of print. 
cago Press. A study of radio broadcasting in 

Proceedings of annual meetings. adult education. 



THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT EDUCATION 

The recreation movement is based on the assumption that recreation, 
broadly conceived, is a necessary part of living and a vital element of 
integrated personality. Under this assumption, recreation implies crea- 
tion and personal expression as well as renewal, refreshment, satisfac- 
tion, and joy. The spirit of play which may lighten and brighten work 
as well as leisure is held to be fundamental. As a corollary to these views 
it is held that the modern community should provide adequate recrea- 
tional training facilities and opportunities for all its people. 

The National Recreation Association, which functions as a national 
clearing house and training center, stresses the simple, unsophisticated 
satisfactions of free time. It fosters the games, sports, music, dances, 
drama, arts, crafts, camping, nature activities, holiday celebrations, his- 
torical pageants, and other activities which have their roots in folkways 
and race-old pursuits that have given color and inspiration to the life 
of man from the earliest times. The Association is affiliated with 
municipal recreation commissions or departments, park boards, and 
boards of education, the principal agencies of public recreation. Its 
services are given through the field work of men and women who study 
local needs, serve as consultants to recreation executives and boards, 
assist in campaigns, and conduct training classes 5 through correspond- 
ence services in drama, music, and general recreation activities 5 through 
studies and surveys; and through the publication of the magazine, 
Recreation, bulletins, pamphlets, and books. Institutes covering crafts, 
drama, folk dancing and games are conducted among several thousand 
adults in rural districts annually in cooperation with the United States 
Department of Agriculture. A further description of the activities of 
the Association appears on page 338. 

Since 1906 the number of communities reporting organized public 
recreation has increased from 41 to 1,012. The estimated total attend- 
ance of adults at outdoor playgrounds in 1932 was in excess of 55,OOO,- 
OOO and at indoor recreation centers in drama, music, athletic and craft 
activities, 75,000,000. More than 1,916,850 individuals participated in 
the following league sports: baseball, basketball, bowling, field hockey, 
football, horseshoes, ice hockey, playground ball, soccer, tennis, and 

185 



1 86 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

volley ball. (The participants in fifteen Canadian cities are included in 
these statistics.) Other popular activities were folk dancing, handcrafts, 
social dancing, community singing, plays, puppetry, pageants, art, water 
sports, and hiking. Interest in municipal golf, tennis, and winter sports 
has increased rapidly during the last few years. 

Municipal and county recreation agencies have secured and de- 
veloped water-fronts, playgrounds, athletic fields, bathing beaches, 
camp sites, winter sports areas, and other facilities for outdoor life. 
Chicago has set a high standard in its park and water-front development. 
The Los Angeles Department of Playgrounds and Recreation conducts 
six, Oakland five, and a number of other California communities, one 
or more municipal camps. 

Community recreation programs have developed around group 
participation. The athletic team, hiking club, chorus, orchestra, drama 
group, and craft club are typical recreation units. Particular emphasis is 
put on the securing and training of leaders who are individuals of under- 
standing, enthusiasm, and skill. 

The total cost of public recreation to taxpayers was in 1931 one per 
cent of all local government costs. The unit cost of participation at a 
playground was less than five cents. 

The encouragement of family recreation, drawing out the recrea- 
tional arts of the foreign-speaking residents in the large cities, and the 
organization of amateur community orchestras are notable recent trends. 
For a number of years Boston Community Service and allied agencies 
have sponsored international festivals of music, drama, and dancing. 
Cleveland conducts expositions of the arts and crafts, and tournaments 
in the folk drama and dances of its numerous foreign language groups. 
Oakland and Los Angeles, California, and Reading, Pennsylvania, are 
among those cities that have given special assistance to families in the 
promotion of home recreation. There are at least one hundred cities 
which have a non-profit-making community orchestra of thirty or more 
players. 

The humanizing effects of the recreation movement on community 
institutions have been substantial. The emphasis in the use of parks 
is shifting from the passive enjoyment of scenery to the maximum use 
of areas in active recreation. The new concept of park functions has 
resulted in the establishment of athletic and water sports areas, field 
houses, tennis courts, and golf courses, as well as children's playgrounds 
with no loss, however, to park beauty. Minneapolis is notable not only 
for the fact that it possesses one acre of parks for every eighty residents, 



THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT EDUCATION 1 87 

but also for the number, distribution, beauty, and use of its park areas. 
Birmingham with eighty-six and Indianapolis with seventy-five tennis 
courts are representative of the increasing facilities for the popular 
sport of tennis. A number of county park commissions, particularly 
those in Essex County and Union County, New Jersey, and Westches- 
ter County, New York, have made extensive provision for recreational 
activities. These commissions offer tennis, lawn bowling, golf, winter 
sports, football, baseball, field and track events, swimming, cricket, 
soccer, field hockey, quoits, fishing, boating, canoeing, riding, archery, 
and even shooting. They have set aside extensive reservations for public 
use. Oglebay Park, near Wheeling, West Virginia, has developed a 
systematic program of hiking, picnicking, and nature study. 

With its interest in the creative and its emphasis on adult participa- 
tion, the recreation movement has influenced gradual changes in the con- 
struction of school buildings which now include gymnasiums, swimming 
pools, and play fields. The first floors of two new school buildings in 
Newark, New Jersey, are designed as complete recreation units which 
may be set off from the rest of the buildings. 

Recreation leaders have encouraged the use of schools by the com- 
munity. The National Recreation Association's Yearbook for 1932 re- 
ported 1,932 indoor recreation centers in 245 cities. At 1,249 of these 
the attendances for the season totaled 15,144,831. Both school and non- 
school centers are included. One hundred and eighteen school buildings 
in New York City are used as community centers on an average of three 
times a week. However, the growth of school recreation centers has 
been very slow. In some cities where the centers are outstanding, for 
example Chicago, Newark, and Milwaukee, the school community 
centers are neighborhood institutions closely integrated with the com- 
munity life through councils, program outreach, and the relation of 
leaders to individual families. 

The influence of the movement on city planning is apparent not 
only in the inclusion of parks, parkways, and boulevards, but also of 
sports areas and recreation buildings. Some hundreds of real estate 
subdividers have set aside considerable percentages of their develop- 
ments, sometimes as great as 10 per cent, for recreation purposes. 
Radburn, the model residential community in northern New Jersey, 
provides extensively for tennis, swimming, and other forms of recrea- 
tion for adults. (See p. 47 for a further description of the program 
of this community.) 

Municipal and county governments are, of course, not the only 



1 88 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

agencies providing recreation for adults. Membership and semi-public 
institutions privately administered also serve large numbers. The social 
settlements are important, particularly among less privileged individ- 
uals. During the period 1925-29 they reported a striking development 
of interest in pottery, modeling, drawing, and embroidery. Their 
needlecraft shops encourage foreign-born women to preserve skills 
learned abroad in the use of the needle. Athletics, drama, social dancing 
and clubs hold established places in the settlement program. The most 
important settlement functions, however, are not the promotion of 
activities, but rather the fostering of "free association between indi- 
viduals and groups" and laboratory work in recreation, civics, and 
health. 

The Christian associations and the Jewish community centers, in- 
cluding the Y.M.H.A. and the Y.W.H.A., are also notable for 
their adult recreation activities. Their programs include not only a very 
wide range of physical recreation but also more social features such as 
music, drama, social dancing, hiking, camping, and archery. In many 
communities the Christian associations promote activities among non- 
members, particularly inter-church groups and industrial workers. The 
trend in these membership agencies is more and more toward a social- 
ized recreational program in which the men participate with the women. 

Many churches have become keenly interested in recreation. Num- 
bers have gymnasiums and other facilities. Drama, games, and social 
recreation are emphasized, and a few employ recreation directors. 
Some of the best literature on methods has been produced by church 
recreation leaders. Numerous volunteers from the churches have been 
trained in classes conducted by the Y.M.C.A. and municipal recreation 
departments. 

Despite rapid progress during the last quarter century, the public 
recreation movement reaches only a part of the population on an in- 
tensive basis. As to outdoor facilities, most of the cities in every popula- 
tion group fall short of reaching the standard of one acre of permanent 
open space to every hundred of the population. Among a people inade- 
quately trained for leisure the grip of commercialized amusements 
which are neutral if not degrading in character is still very powerful. 
However, with the industrial depression focusing attention on wide- 
spread unemployment and opening up a prospect of a large increase in 
leisure, the public is rapidly awakening to the necessity of forms of 
recreation in which it can actively participate. At the moment the de- 
mands on public facilities have increased enormously. The prospect is 



THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT EDUCATION 189 

that with improved industrial conditions, local and county governments 
will extensively broaden their provision for recreation. 

WEAVER PANGBORN, 

Director of Educational Publicity, 
National Recreation Association. 

The following list of recreational opportunities for adults includes a 
number of the most extensive and effective programs in the United States, 
but it by no means exhausts the roll of communities having excellent facil- 
ities. With few exceptions, the agencies listed are municipal or county. They 
are arranged alphabetically by state and city. 



PARK AND RECREATION BOARD, 424 City 
Hall, Birmingham, Ala., R. S. Mar- 
shall, supt. 

Strangers' Club gives instruction to 
five groups in basket weaving, decorat- 
ing, photo-tinting, china and glass paint- 
ing, making of hooked rugs, and work 
in metals and other mediums; Board 
conducts activities in five recreation 
buildings for white people and in three 
indoor centers for Negroes; makes pro- 
vision for all athletic sports, folk danc- 
ing, handicrafts, holiday celebrations, 
water sports, and musical activities in 
parks, athletic fields, and playgrounds. 

DEPARTMENT OP PLAYGROUNDS AND 
RECREATION, City Hall, Los Angeles, 
Calif., Raymond E. Hoyt, suft. 

Department provides aquatics (in- 
cluding classes in life saving, diving, 
and swimming; 16 swimming pools and 
4 beaches), archery, baseball, basket- 
ball, bocci, cricket, croquet, drama ac- 
tivities (including puppetry, plays, and 
pageants), fronton (played by Mexican 
groups), folk dancing, golf, handball, 
hikes, home play service, lawn bowling, 
90 musical groups (choral societies, 
operetta, community bands, orchestras, 
Mexican choruses, Negro choruses), 6 
mountain camps, picnic service, recrea- 
tional activities for industrial employees, 
roque, soccer, tamborella (Italian, 
groups), tennis, track, and field sports; 



conference for play leaders of private 
agencies. 

DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION CAMPS 
AND PLAYGROUNDS, Los Angeles 
County, Room 301, 240 So. Broad- 
way, Los Angeles, Calif., James K. 
Reid, supt. 

Provides two mountain camps, bath- 
ing beaches; winter sports (53>I50 dif- 
ferent participants during 1932 sea- 
son), water sports, nature study, motion 
pictures, community singing, drama, 
handcraft, hiking, and holiday celebra- 
tions. 

DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREA- 
TION, Oakland, Calif. 

City maintains 57 fully equipped 
playgrounds; public parks with addi- 
tional area of 628 acres; 5 municipal 
camps for week-end holidays and sum- 
mer vacations, one in the Sierras, the 
other on Feather River; municipal audi- 
torium seating 8,800. 

RECREATION COMMISSION, 376 City 
Hall, San Francisco, Calif., Josephine 
D. Randall, suft. of recreation'. 

Sponsors and promotes musical organ- 
izations (including a Mothers* Glee 
Club), drama, athletic leagues for em- 
ployees in industries, golf driving and 
putting on city playgrounds, horseshoe 
pitching, and bocci ball; conducts 



190 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



mountain camp; according to Chief of 
Police, ten community centers featur- 
ing clubs for youths and adults have 
materially reduced delinquency. 

DIVISION OF COMMUNITY CENTERS, 
Public Schools of Washington, Wash- 
ington, D. C., Elizabeth K. Peeples, 
dir. 

Offers Negro population, as part of 
general recreation system, eight commu- 
nity centers where activities include 
piano classes, industrial arts, study 
groups, athletics, drama, music, social oc- 
casions, and discussions on civics; 60,888 
participated in 1932; leaders for centers 
given weekly training courses by de- 
partment; music and lectures offered at 
Sylvan Theatre, thousands attending; 
city department of playgrounds provides 
several playgrounds for colored citizens 
used in part by young men, and one 
golf course and several parks exclusively 
for colored people; Phyllis Wheatley 
Y.W.C.A. conducts clubs, drama and 
other activities, and Y.M.C.A , calis- 
thenics, boxing, bowling, wrestling, bas- 
ketball and other sports, 

SOUTH PARKS COMMISSION, 57 and Cot- 
tage Grove Ave., Chicago, 111 , V. K. 
Brown, suft. playgrounds and s-ports. 

One of 12 municipal park divisions 
offering recreation opportunities to Chi- 
cago public; among facilities adminis- 
tered are: 396 tennis courts, 15 out- 
door swimming pools, 3 golf courses, 4 
bathing beaches, 87 baseball diamonds, 
25 athletic fields, 18 recreation build- 
ings and 24 playgrounds for children; 
Chicago has notable development of 
water-front parks. 

RECREATION DIVISION, Council of So- 
cial Agencies, 410 Majestic Bldg., 
Indianapolis, Ind., Dwight S. Ritter, 
dir.y Leisure Hour Clubs, 

Leisure Hour Clubs conducted in 
schools, part buildings, and in other 



centers for benefit of unemployed pri- 
marily, although many employed per- 
sons participate in programs, offer en- 
tertainments and motion pictures, ath- 
letics, games, dramatics, discussions, 
dancing, and novelty programs in which 
members of clubs take part; work con- 
ducted on volunteer basis, about fifty 
local agencies cooperating in arranging 
activities and providing supervision; Mu- 
nicipal Park Department operates eight 
recreation centers under direction of 
four leaders; groups using centers 
mainly self-supervising. 

PLAYGROUND ATHLETIC LEAGUE, 7 E. 
Mulberry St., Baltimore, Md., Wil- 
liam Burdick, dir. 

Includes in program gymnasium 
classes, all athletic sports, folk dancing, 
social dancing, plays, community sing- 
ing; extensive organization of clubs 
and classes for underprivileged women. 

DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION, 504 
Elmwood Ave., Detroit, Mich., C. E. 
Brewer, comm. 

All athletic sports, tennis, folk danc- 
ing, crafts, hiking, holiday celebrations, 
choruses, gymnasium classes, plays, so- 
cial dancing, aquatics; training classes 
for representatives of churches and 
clubs in social recreation; Park Depart- 
ment administers extensive facilities for 
golf and swimming. 

BOARD OF PARK COMMISSIONERS, 325 
City Hall, Minneapolis, Minn., 
K. B. Raymond, dir. y division of rec- 
reation* 

City owns 131 parks covering 4>777 
acres, providing more than an acre of 
parks or recreation space to each hun- 
dred of population; park facilities out- 
standing with respect to number, dis- 
tribution, maintenance, and use; all 
sports, winter and summer, including 



THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT EDUCATION 



water carnivals, winter sports carnivals, courts and 51 clay courts), picnicking, 
archery, tobogganing, skiing, speed golf, ice skating, band concerts; main- 
tains South Mountain Reservation of 
2,061 acres for hiking, picnicking, etc. 



skating, band concerts, pageants, numer- 
ous women's activities. 



DEPARTMENT OF PARKS, 407 Court 
House, St. Paul, Minn., Ernest John- 
son, sup. of playgrounds. 

In 1932, 29,150 different individuals 
participated in winter sports; 44 skat- 
ing areas, 2 toboggan slides, ski jump; 
other sports highly developed; also band 
concerts, orchestra, and chorus. 

PARK COMMISSION, Union County, Ad- 
ministration Bldg., Warinanco Park, 
Elizabeth, N. J., F. S. Mathewson, 
supt. of recreation. 

Picnicking facilities (approximately 
IOO fire places), boating, bowling, ten- 
nis, golf, canoeing, bathing, camping, 
archery, general athletic sports, horse- 
back riding, trap shooting, band con- 
certs, handcrafts, plays, cricket, hiking, 
nature walks, ice hockey; mountain 
reservation of 1,962 acres. 

DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION, Newark 
Board of Education, Newark, N. J., 
Lewis R. Barrett, dir. of recreation. 

Puppetry, drama, orchestras, choruses, 
holiday celebrations, athletic sports, so- 
cials, social dancing, debating, bands, 
and glee clubs; assists recreation pro- 
grams of Y.M.C.A. and other private 
organizations and clubs; serves great 
numbers of underprivileged; 34 eve- 
ning school recreation centers offer clubs, 
classes in sewing and carpentry. 

PARK COMMISSION, Essex County, 115 
Clifton Ave., Newark, N. J., David 
I. Kelly, sec. and dir. 

General athletic sports, archery, lawn 
bowling, water sports, tennis (142 grass 



RECREATION COMMISSION, Room 43, 
City Hall, Plamfield, N. J., R. W. 
Schlenter, dir. 

Facilities for archery, aquatics, bowl- 
ing on the green, indoor bowling, 
cricket, baseball, basketball, golf, gym- 
nasium classes; Astronomical Society 
meets monthly, with lectures and obser- 
vation trips; sponsors drama tourna- 
ments, holiday celebrations; gives in- 
struction in conducting parties and so- 
cials, nature club offers lecture-hikes, 
bird study, collections; picnic service 
and tennis; community centers offer 
athletics, handcrafts, music, and art. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, 500 Park Ave., 
New York, N. Y., Eugene C. Gibney, 
dir* of extension activities. 

Makes 118 official and 334 unofficial 
community centers available to public; 
official centers, under direction of 
trained leaders employed by Board of 
Education, offer chess, checkers and 
other quiet games, gymnasium classes, 
basketball, swimming, folk dancing, or- 
chestras, choruses, cookery classes, clubs, 
meeting rooms for parents* associations 
and civic and welfare organizations; 
small libraries of books furnished by 
Public Library, including many titles on 
science and mechanics as well as fiction; 
sponsors contests in elocution; unofficial 
centers used by outside agencies on con- 
tinuous permits from Board of Educa- 
tion for regularly recurring occasion 
(for example, centers conducted by Com- 
munity Councils which in some instances 
use them solely for meetings of neigh- 
borhood councils and in others for con- 
ducting athletic and game activities). 



igz 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



FOLK FESTIVAL COUNCIL OF NEW 
YORK, 222 Fourth Ave., New York, 
N. Y., T. L. Cotton, vicc-chmn. 

Membership includes representatives 
of over forty organizations and ethnic 
groups 5 offers at New School for Social 
Research course in Folk Dances of Many 
Peoples, conducted by leader and se- 
lected groups of dancers in costume 
from various ethnic groups affiliated with 
Council, and similar course in Folk 
Songs of Man/ Peoples, gives two or 
three annual public presentations of folk 
songs and dances, with performers in 
costume; publishes Tolk-News> fort- 
nightly, which includes activities of 
Council and events in field of folk arts 
taking place in New York City. 

THE PALISADES INTER-STATE PARK 
COMMISSION, 25 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y., William A. Welch, 
Mef 



Commission administers Bear Moun- 
tain, Harriman State, Hook Mountain, 
and Palisades Parks recreation areas on 
the Hudson used by residents of New 
York and New Jersey; section devoted 
to camps for individuals and business 
and social service organizations; facil- 
ities of various parks include an inn, 
bath house, tourist camps with field fire 
places and other conveniences, large 
play field, miles of marked trails, over- 
night stone shelters, nature trail, several 
field museums, and facilities for winter 
sports; summer recreation facilities in- 
clude a twenty-five acre athletic field, 
swimming pool, tennis courts, rowing 
and an outdoor dancing pavilion. 

RECREATION COMMISSION, Westchester 
County, White Plains, N. Y., 
E. Dana Caulfcins, swft. of recreation. 

County Center maintained for civic 
and recreational activities, classes, con- 
certs, and entertainments; workshop 



offers 23 departments of arts and crafts, 
choral societies, 5 orchestras, chamber 
music groups, Negro choruses and Arts 
and Crafts Guild, 30 drama groups, 
Westchester Trails Association, camps, 
ice skating, skiing, tennis, and general 
athletic sports; Commission operates fa- 
cilities for golf, swimming, and other 
outdoor activities and conducts Playland 
at Rye, high-grade amusement park. 

PARK AND RECREATION COMMISSION, 
City Hall, Charlotte, N. C., Walter 
J. Cartier, supt. 

Archery, baseball, basketball, play- 
ground ball, tennis, golf, field hockey, 
folk dancing, hiking, holiday celebra- 
tions, band concerts, choruses, and or- 
chestra; one indoor center. 

CINCINNATI RECREATION COMMISSION, 
328 City Hall, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Tarn Deering, dur. 

Traveling theater and folk dance 
festival; music division offers five or- 
chestras, including a civic orchestra of 
eighty pieces, one band, five choruses 
and hundreds of community sings; 
13,000 individuals participate in base- 
ball, tennis, and other sports; extensive 
athletic and sports program for women, 
including gymnasium classes, swimming, 
tennis, basketball, volleyball, recreation 
ball, hockey, and various kinds of danc- 
ing; community center program includes 
instruction in music and dramatic art; 
maintains special recreation centers for 
unemployed; picnic service available, 
with trained leaders lent by Commis- 
sion; extensive recreation program for 
colored people. 

BOARD OF EDUCATION, Department of 
Community Centers and Playgrounds, 
Board of Education Bldg., Cleveland, 
Ohio, G. I. Kern, mfo. 

Social dancing, choruses, glee clubs, 
social clubs, and classes in 27 indoor 



THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT EDUCATION 193 



recreation centers for white persons and 
in 2 for Negroes, Division of Recrea- 
tion of Park Department offers wide 
variety of sports and band concerts; 
conducts expositions of arts and crafts 
and tournaments in the folk drama and 
dances of foreign-language residents. 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC PLAYGROUNDS 
AND RECREATION, City Hall, Read- 
ing, Pa., Thomas W. Lantz, suft. of 
recreation. 

Athletic sports, plays, social dancing, 
folk dancing, hiking, holiday celebra- 
tions, band concerts, community sing- 
ing, orchestra; Tyson-Schoener school 
recreation center, sponsored and financed 
by Reading Junior League, in coopera- 
tion with recreation department and 
school board, offers full program of 
clubs, classes, and recreational activity; 
eight other indoor recreation centers; 
city developing six hundred acre moun- 
tain park for picnicking and motoring, 
horseback riding, nature study, ath- 
letics, and camping, 

MEMPHIS PARK COMMISSION, Fair 
Grounds, Memphis, Tenn., Minnie 
M. Wagner, suft. of recreation. 

Nine community centers in schools 
conduct classes in folk, aesthetic, social, 
and other dancing, dramatic activities 
include operetta, three-act plays, musi- 
cal comedy, revues, and minstrels; eight 
municipal gymnasium classes for women 
(450 participants); department offers 
all outdoor sports and holiday celebra- 
tions, classes in life-saving, tennis, golf, 
and archery; six parks and playgrounds 
exclusively for Negroes. 

PUBLIC RECREATION BOARD, 215 Rio 
Grande Ave., Fort Worth, Texas, 
R. D. Evans, sup. 

Sports including golf, tennis, swim- 
ming; community gatherings, nature 



study, motion pictures, hiking, choruses, 
holiday celebrations, pageants, plays, or- 
chestra, community singing, 

BO^RD OF SCHOOL DIRECTORS, mi 
No. Tenth St., Milwaukee, Wise, 
Extension Department, Milton C, 
Potter, chmn.^ Dorothy C. Enderis, 
awt. to 



Twenty indoor school recreation cen- 
ters offer classes in applied arts, beauty 
culture, dressmaking, furniture making, 
home care of the sick, lip reading, knit- 
ting and crocheting, leather tooling, 
metal work, rug making, textile paint- 
ing, etc.; instruction in gymnastics, 
civics, English, public speaking, debat- 
ing, dancing of all kinds, play reading 
and production, voice placement, cos- 
tume designing, stage setting, and scen- 
ery; other activities include lectures, 
recitals, social dancing, orchestras, chor- 
uses, glee clubs, nature study, chess and 
holiday celebrations, department con- 
ducts varied sports program in public 
parks; many thousands of foreign-born 
participate. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN FOLK DANCE SOCIETY 
AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 

CIATION 
FOREIGN LANGUAGE INFORMATION 

SERVICE 
NATIONAL COMMISSION ON THE ENRICH- 

MENT OF ADULT LIFE OF THE 

N.E.A. 

NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 
YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIA- 

TIONS 

And OGLEBAY INSTITUTED p. 14. 

Also the following articles: 

THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 33. 
Music IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 115. 



194 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL EDUCATION CON- 
DUCTED BY RELIGIOUS GROUPS, p. 

195- 

ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS, 

p. 203. 

EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE 
UNEMPLOYED, p. 238. 



READING LIST 

Burns, C. Delisle. Leisure in the Mod- 
ern World. Century, 1933. 302 p. 

The new leisure as a social chal- 
lenge with the possibility of a new 
type of civilized life, not dependent 
upon a leisured class but arising di- 
rectly from the leisure of those who 
work for a living. 

Jacks, L. P. Education Through Rec- 
reation. Harper, 1932. 155 p. 

Series of addresses divided into 



eleven brief chapters under such 
headings as: A New Adventure in 
Education; Democracy and Educa- 
tion; Health and Skill; Leisure; 
Recreation and Art, 

Lynd, R. S. and H. M. Lynd. Middle- 
town. Harcourt, 1929. 550 p. 

A study in contemporary American 
culture. Part IV, Using Leisure. 
Chapter headings. Traditional Ways 
of Spending Leisure; Inventions Re- 
making Leisure; The Organization of 
Leisure. 

Sterner, J. F. Americans at Play. Mc- 
Graw-Hill, 1933. 20 1 p. 

One of the series of Monographs 
prepared under the direction of the 
President's Research Committee on 
Social Trends. Chapter XVIII Re- 
cent Social Trends in the United 
States Recreation and Leisure Time 
Activities. 



PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL EDUCATION CONDUCTED 
BY RELIGIOUS GROUPS 

For many years the churches of America have been engaged in the 
religious education of adults, but within the last few years church 
leaders have "been conscious of a need for broadening their approach by 
including other subjects which two decades ago would not have been 
recognized as germane to religious education. 

The educational program of the Federal Council of Churches of 
Christ in America., for example, aims to promote "the improvement 
of social relationships." The Coundl considers national, international, 
and local problems in this field, encourages all forms of educational 
activities in local churches through its publications, and cooperates with 
local churches tcarrying on adult education programs. Many of the 
members of tie Council have come to believe that the formation of 
groups for the discussion of such subjects as international relations, the 
economic situation, the relations between the various faiths, and child 
guidance \vill bring about a better understanding of personal and social 
problems. Most numerous are the classes formed especially for parents. 

Obtaining competent leaders for these discussion groups, especially 
in the smaller communities, is a serious problem. Sometimes the pastors 
themselves lead the groups, but frequently leaders, equally competent, 
are laymen with a specialist's knowledge of the subject under discussion 
and a gift for tteaching. Some of the churches have deliberately gone 
about the problem of training leaders, and have prepared courses with 
this end in mind. Well known among these are the Standard Teachers 
Training Courses prepared under the supervision of the International 
Council of Religious Education. 

The Council, which functions as the agency through which Protes- 
tant denominati'Oiis share in developing their own educational programs, 
maintains a. Department of Leadership Training. Under the auspices 
of the Department, a meeting of fifteen national denominational and 
interdenoniinatioiial directors of leadership training was held in 1931, 
to develop plans for conferences for "leaders of leaders." Since 1931 
two types of leadership conferences have been held, one for denomina- 
tional and interdenominational regional secretaries, the other for deans 
and instructors, The Council maintains a Department of Adult Work 



196 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

to advise and assist members. In his annual report for 1932, the Direc- 
tor of this Department states: "There is a growing conviction that 
satisfactory progress in the church's total education program awaits an 
educationally-minded adulthood in the church. In spite of the scope and 
strategic importance of adult religious education, the provision made 
for its professional leadership is insignificant, as compared with that 
made in other phases of the work." 

Three Protestant denominations maintain full-time directors of 
adult work: the Methodist Episcopal Church (South), the Northern 
Baptist Convention, and the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America. A number of other denominations have part-time directors 
of adult work. The American Unitarian Association and some of the 
other Protestant denominations, not members of the Federal Council of 
Churches, also sponsor courses in adult education. 

Among the Jews there has been until recently no organized national 
program of adult education. A number of rabbis and Y.M.H.A. and 
Y.W.H.A. leaders, however, have individually been carrying on 
programs. It is estimated that approximately 15,000 adult Jews are 
receiving Jewish education in organized classes throughout the country 
in Reformed and Orthodox congregations, "Y's," and Jewish centers. 
In 1932, the Rabbinical Assembly of America and the United Syna- 
gogue of America appointed a Joint Commission on Adult Education, 
and the work of this Commission will be watched with interest. The 
Jewish Welfare Board, as parent organization for Y.M.H.A. ? s and 
Jewish Community Centers in the United States and Canada, encourages 
study groups, open forums, choral societies, and other forms of adult 
education. 

The Catholic Church now, as always, teaches chiefly through the 
liturgy and the pulpit, but it supplements these means by the use of the 
radio, a news service, and study groups. The National Catholic Wel- 
fare Conference maintains a news service to which seventy-six news- 
papers subscribe, and which not only sends out news of Catholic activi- 
ties and events of interest, but also provides editorials and feature 
articles. Its Social Action Department is interested in the improvement 
of industrial relations. The National Council of Catholic Men and the 
National Council of Catholic Women have organized a study club 
committee, which serves about eight hundred clubs in different parts 
of the country. Outlines for study have been prepared on such subjects 
as religion, education, health, citizenship, immigration, etc. At the 
Catholic Summer School of America, held annually at Cliff Haven, 
New York, extension courses are given under the direction o Fordhara 



PROGRAMS OF RELIGIOUS GROUPS 197 

University, and lectures are offered on literature, history, sociology, 
and art. In cooperation with the Knights of Columbus, a one-day course 
for leaders of groups of Catholic boys is held at the School. The Knights 
of Columbus also conducts correspondence courses for members of the 
order and their families. 

In the Christian Science church, the education of adults is restricted 
to instruction in Christian Science. Reading rooms for the dissemination 
of information about Christian Science are maintained wherever there is 
a Christian Science Church. 

The radio is being used by all the major religious bodies. Both the 
National Broadcasting Company and the Columbia Broadcasting System 
make time available for use by the various bodies regularly. In addition 
to Sunday services, there are daily religious broadcasts. The Federal 
Council of the Churches of Christ in America and the Greater New York 
Federation of Churches present religious programs on which many of 
the foremost preachers of the country appear every Sunday over nation- 
wide networks. The other federations of churches throughout the coun- 
try cooperate. 

In addition to the series of weekly broadcasts sponsored by the 
National Council of Catholic Men, and broadcast over a nation-wide 
network of nearly fifty stations, there are other broadcasts, notably those 
from the powerful Vatican radio station, addressed to members of the 
Catholic Church and to other interested persons. -^ ^ 



It is impossible for obvious reasons to list here the churches of all 
denominations and creeds and all the religious organizations throughout the 
country that are supplementing their primary function by encouraging the 
formation of recreational and educational groups. Business men's and women's 
clubs, forums, discussion groups, mothers* clubs, reading circles, and other 
similar organizations will be found flourishing under the auspices of churches 
all over the land. A number of representative programs are listed below. 
They are arranged alphabetically by state and city. 

SAN DIEGO OPEN FORUM, Unitarian cial letters to regular attendants; aver- 
Church, 3,372 Front St., San Diego, age attendance per meeting, 6005 ap- 
Calif., Howard B. Bard, dir. proximate attendance per year, 21,000. 

Weekly forum from October to _ T _ ^ 

June; principal topic during past 7 t, Srr * >"? Jp*?' 'f *"- 

Reaction for a New Rr4 sponsor, Pf^ Stam * d > ^ Me ? E ' 

week-night lectures at which admission teaman, ex. a*r, 

is charged; funds raised by collections Monthly forums during winter; fi- 

and special subscriptions; advertises ia nanced by budget of $300; topics se- 

newspapers; monthly circulars and spe- lected from present-day problems such 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



198 

as Judaism and Christianity; Facing the 
Jewish Problem; and The World Situa- 
tion Today; round table discussion 
group; occasional exhibits; average at- 
tendance per meeting, 350; approxi- 
mate attendance for season, 2,100. 

SECOND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH 
FORUM, 10 Holmes Ave., Waterbury, 
Conn., William G. Green, chmn., 
214 Pine St., Waterbury, Conn. 
Sunday evening meetings for eight 
months during winter; financed by con- 
tributions of attendants; topics discussed 
include religion, international and eco- 
nomic problems, poetry, the single tax, 
unemployment, and national economy; 
sends publicity notices to newspapers 
twice each week; average attendance per 
meeting, 500; approximate attendance 
for year, 15,000. 

MT. PHEASANT CHURCH (CONGREGA- 
TIONAL), Washington, D. C., Russell 
J. Clinchy, pastor, 

Course in child guidance with coop- 
eration of parent-teacher associations 
and mothers' clubs; Thursday evening 
visitations to social institutions of city. 

BLOOMINGTON OPEN FORUM, First 
Unitarian Church, Bloomington, 111., 
Edwin C. Palmer, dir.> 108 E. 
Beecher St., Bloomington, 111. 
Weekly meetings during winter 
months; supported by season tickets, sin- 
gle admissions and special contributions; 
subjects discussed: The Schools and a 
Better Social Order, Russia Today, The 
Story of Radium and Cosmic Ray, etc. ; 
average attendance per meeting, 300; 
approximate attendance per season, 
6,000. 

FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 
Evanston, 111., Hugh Elmer Brown, 
fattor. 

Sunday noon forum, including thirty- 
minute presentation on subject by spe- 



cialist, followed by questions and dis- 
cussion, 

FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, La- 
Grange, 111., Philip A. Swartz, faster. 

Men's Forum has discussed number 
of subjects (spending from three to 
twelve sessions on each) including re- 
ligions of the world, principles of 
Christian citizenship, race relations, etc. 

SUNDAY EVENING FORUM, First Con- 
gregational Church, Lake St. and 
Kenilworth Ave., Oak Park, 111., Al- 
bert B. Coe, ckmn. 

Weekly Sunday evening programs, 
November through April, for discussion 
of international and racial relations, 
current labor, economic and political 
problems, religion, literature, personal 
adjustment; funds raised by offerings at 
each meeting; advertises through church 
calendar, local newspapers, and Chicago 
Saturday newspapers; occasional an- 
nouncements to church membership 
through the mail; average attendance, 
650. 

OLD SOUTH MEETING HOUSE FORUM, 
Milk and Washington Sts., Boston, 
Mass., Mrs. T. G. Abbott, ex. sec. y 
87 Beacon St. 

Weekly discussions on Sundays from 
November to April on world politics 
and peace, religion and morals, educa- 
tion and life, books and their social im- 
plications; forum maintained out of 
general endowment funds of the Old 
South Association in Boston; prepares 
and distributes timely reading lists for 
subjects of each forum; publicity ma- 
terial printed in all city newspapers; 
average attendance per meeting, 800; 
approximate attendance annually, 
2O,000. 



PROGRAMS OF RELIGIOUS GROUPS 



199 



SOUTH CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 
Springfield, Mass., James Gordon 
Gilkey, faster. 

Conducts a Sunday night forum for 
adults, with membership limited to 
75 members of church and congregation 
who have enrolled in advance; topic for 
1932-33, The Ethics of the Present 
Economic Order; specialists deliver lec- 
tures. 

THE UNION CHURCH (CONGREGA- 
TIONAL), Taunton, Mass,, E. H, 
Green, pastor. 

Men's class emphasizes reading, book 
reports, current events; members review 
current literature at meetings; outside 
speakers. 

FRIDAY EVENING FORUM OF FIRST 
CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, Bergen 
and Boyd Ave., Jersey City, N. J., 
H. L. Everett, dir. 

Attendance varies from several hun- 
dred to a thousand; weekly meetings 
October to April; supported by sustain- 
ing memberships; discussions on inter- 
national relations, economic and political 
affairs, etc.; advertises in daily news- 
papers; notifies membership and public 
of activities through letters and pro- 
grams. 

UNITY FORUM, UNITY CHURCH, 67 
Church St., Montclair, N. J., N. D. 
Fletcher, dir. 

Four or five meetings a year during 
winter months; supported by contribu- 
tions; topics discussed include psy- 
chology, civic and international eco- 
nomic issues, and public welfare; notices 
of meetings published in church bul- 
letin; average attendance per meeting > 
200 ; approximate attendance for sea- 
son, 800. 



OPEN FORUM LECTURE COURSE, 
Y.M.H.A., 1 8 So. Stockton St., Tren- 
ton, N. J., Mrs. A. Budson, dir. 

Four or five lectures from October 
to April; topics discussed include Mak- 
ing People Moral by Law, The Trouble 
in Manchuria, etc.; financed by course 
tickets, and tickets for separate lectures; 
average attendance, 60; approximate at- 
tendance for season, 300. 

NORMAN MENDLESON OPEN FORUM, 
Jewish Community Center, ill 
Washington Ave., Albany, N. Y., 
M. H. Chaseman, sec. 

Bi-monthly meetings in winter only; 
lectures on general topics of common 
interest: modern poetry, elections, civi- 
lization in a machine age, liberal educa- 
tion, censorship, etc.; financed by Cen- 
ter budget, small endowment, and 
admission fee; average attendance per 
meeting, 130. 

JEWISH COMMUNITY CENTER, Bing- 
hamton, N. Y., Julian L. Greifer, 
rabbi. 

Conducts civic educational forum 
which aims to encourage development of 
city-wide adult education movement in 
Binghamton; forum not committed to 
any specific point of view, attitude, or 
platform; questions of national and 
civic importance discussed. 

BRONX FREE FELLOWSHIP, 1591 Boston 
Rd., Bronx, N. Y., Leon Rosser Land, 
^ dir, 

Progressive religious and educational 
organization; lectures, discussions on 
current political, religious, economic, 
local and world problems. 

THE ACADEMY FOR ADULT JEWISH 
EDUCATION, Congregation Beth 
Elohim, Eight Ave. at Garfield PL, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Isaac Land man, dir. 

"Attempts to answer call of present 
adult Jewish generation for better 



200 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



knowledge of Judaism, for keener un- 
derstanding of Jewish history, for a 
wider acquaintance with Jewish litera- 
ture, for a more intimate conception of 
contemporary Jewish life and prob- 
lems"; recognized by University of 
State of New York as institution of 
higher education; courses open to all 
adults. 

THE COMMUNITY CHURCH, 550 W. 
noth St., New York, N. Y., John 
Haynes Holmes, faster. 

Annual series of lecture courses and 
study groups including: Sunday evening 
forum series, October to April, on vari- 
ous subjects of current interest, funds 
raised by silver collection; average at- 
tendance per meeting, 700; per season, 
4,500; Tuesday evening series of lec- 
tures and chamber music; study groups 
on various subjects including astronomy, 
drama, book reviews, etc.; also courses 
of seven lectures each conducted by au- 
thorities on economics, literature, psy- 
chology, etc. 

INSTITUTIONAL SYNAGOGUE, 37-43 W. 
1 1 6th St., New York, N. Y., Abra- 
ham Bernstein, ex. dir. 

Classes in commercial courses, cooking 
and sewing; many clubs for men and 
women; gymnasium and swimming. 

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 12 W. 
1 2th St., New York, N. Y., J. V. 
Moldenhawer, pastor. 

Discussion groups, lectures on books, 
crafts, art classes, music, and dramatics. 

MADISON AVENUE PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH, Madison Ave. at 73rd St*, 
New York, N. Y., George Arthur 
Buttrick, mmister. 

Adult educational and recreational 
activities conducted under modern 



methods, with emphasis on fellowship 
and wholesome use of leisure. 

RIVERSIDE CHURCH, Riverside Drive 
and 1 22nd St., New York, N. Y., 
Harry Emerson Fosdick, pastor. 

Wednesday evening lectures for entire 
membership on current problems; classes 
in parent education and discussion 
groups; Riverside Guild, group of per- 
sons from 18-25 years, study in small 
groups variety of subjects including 
dramatics, economics, international rela- 
tions, current events, etc.; program for 
women includes lecture-discussions on 
international relations, talks at Metro- 
politan Museum of Art, musicales, etc.; 
program for men includes discussion 
groups on modern economic problems, 
reader's club, class in public speaking; 
gymnasium; classes in leather work, 
block printing, drawing, painting, etch- 
ing, puppetry, etc., given by Arts and 
Crafts Department. 

WEST END SCHOOL OF ADULT EDUCA- 
TION, West End Presbyterian Church, 
Amsterdam Avenue at i(>5th St., New 
York, N. Y., Frank B. Ward, lean. 

Offers courses under expert leadership 
in French, German, handicrafts, jour- 
nalism, orchestral music, physiology, 
stenography, typewriting, world affairs, 
etc., counseling service; athletics and 
other extra curricular activities. 

SYRACUSE Civic FORUM, Mizpah Audi- 
torium, Syracuse, N. Y., Bernard C. 
Clausen, dir., First Baptist Church. 

Weekly meetings Sunday afternoons 
during winter only; supported by offer- 
ing; forum includes complete League 
for Industrial Democracy lecture course, 
plus wide variety of other subjects; ad- 
vertises in newspapers and by radio an- 
nouncements; average attendance, 200; 
approximate attendance for season, 
6,OOO. 



PROGRAMS OF RELIGIOUS GROUPS 



201 



EAST Mr. ZION BAPTIST CHURCH, 
Cedar Ave. and E. iO3rd St., Cleve- 
land, Ohio., Ernest Hall, <&>., adult 
work. 

School of Adult Education conducted 
under auspices of Department of Re- 
ligious Education; attendance, 150; 
courses in political science, education, 
problems of unemployment, personality 
development, racial adjustment, civic 
administration, teacher training, and 
training in religious subjects; methods 
of instruction include reading, lectures, 
and round table discussions; also occa- 
sional Sunday night lectures; debates 
held during winter season on current 
problems. 

Y.M. AND Y.W.JLA. FORUM, 36 So. 
Washington St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 
Louis Smith, chmn. 

Monthly Sunday series and Monday 
series intermittently during winter 
months; discuss world affairs, capitalism 
and unemployment, America's tariff sys- 
tem, banking and credit structure; Ger- 
many and the Future of Europe; Build- 
ing a Modern Morality, etc.; partially 
supported by Y.M. and Y.W.H.A. 
members; others charged $5 for 
courses; average attendance per meet- 
ing, Sunday, 300; Monday, 150; ap- 
proximate annual attendance, 4,500; 
five dramatic recitals of current books 
and plays and three talks on psychology 
each season; publishes Association maga- 
zine weekly. 

ST. LUKE'S CHURCH (LUTHERAN), 129 
E. Maple St., York, Pa., Earl S. 
Rudisill, fastor. 

Conducts week-day school for adults 
on such subjects as child training, the 
Christian home, marriage, etc. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 



AMERICAN BAPTIST PUBLICATION SO- 
CIETY 

AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION 

CHURCH OF THE BRETHREN 

CHURCH OF THE UNITED BRETHREN 
OF CHRIST 

COMMISSION ON JEWISH EDUCATION 

CONGREGATIONAL EDUCATION SOCIETY 

EVANGELICAL SYNOD OF NORTH AMER- 
ICA 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA 

GENERAL BOARD OF CHRISTIAN EDUCA- 
TION 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS 
RESEARCH 

THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF RE- 
LIGIOUS EDUCATION 

JEWISH WELFARE BOARD 

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS 

METHODIST PROTESTANT CHURCH 

NATIONAL CATHOLIC WELFARE CON- 
FERENCE 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF JEWS AND 
CHRISTIANS 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CATHOLIC MEN 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CATHOLIC 
WOMEN 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF JEWISH 
MEN'S CLUBS 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED 
STATES 

PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA 

UNITED CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

UNITED LUTHERAN CHURCH IN AMER- 
ICA 

THE UNITED SYNAGOGUE OF AMERICA 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS 

YOUNG MEN'S HEBREW ASSOCIATIONS 

YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIA- 
TIONS 

YOUNG WOMEN'S HEBREW ASSOCIA- 
TIONS 

Also the following articles: 
ADULT EDUCATION FOR NEGROES, p. 124.. 
ADULT EDUCATION FOR THE UNEM- 
PLOYED, p. 238. 



202 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



READING LIST 

Butterfield, Kenyon L. The Christian 
Enterprise among Rural People. Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Cokesbuiy Press, 1933. 
247 p. 

The Cole lectures for 1932 deliv- 
ered before Vanderbilt University. 

Hochbaum, H. W. The Rural Church 
and Cooperative Extension Work. 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
1929 No. 57. 24 p. 

Urges more effective cooperation 
between extension forces and rural 
churches in the development of a 
satisfactory country life. 

Johnson, F. E., ed. The Social Work 
of the Churches. Federal Council of 



Churches of Christ in America, 1930. 
238 p. 

A handbook of information. 
President's Research Committee on 
Social Trends. Recent Social Trends 
in the United States. McGraw-Hill, 

1933. 2 V. 

V. II, Chapter XX by C. Luther 
Fry, Changes in Religious Organiza- 
tions. 

Winchester, B. S. The Church and 
Adult Education. Smith, 1930, 181 

P* 

A discussion of the objectives and 

methods of religious education of 
adults; the areas of adult experience; 
and the educational possibilities of 
church work. 



ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS 

Settlements and university extension are related in origin. Arnold 
Toynbee, the founder o the first settlement house in England, was 
associated with the university extension group and gave lectures to 
popular audiences. Canon Barnett established the Tower Hamlets 
Branch of the London University Extension Society in 1877, seven 
years previous to the opening of Toynbee Hall. Lectures, study groups, 
and art exhibits were a most important part of the work of the early 
settlements, and today the British settlements are still closely asso- 
ciated with the adult education movement. 

American settlements were greatly influenced by the British experi- 
ence and their university connections were equally important* As early 
as 1890, Hull-House maintained a summer school at Rockford College 
for men and women as an outgrowth of the college extension classes held 
in winter. ; 

Since the early days of the settlement the teaching of English to 
immigrant neighbors has been an ever-present demand and one that 
fortunately could be readily met. The settlement has stimulated public 
schools to open their facilities for adults and to adapt methods of teach- 
ing to the needs of the adult immigrants and those who have had to 
leave school. At present English classes held in settlements may be sup- 
plied with teachers by public authorities, the settlements being responsi- 
ble for the place of meeting, for recruiting members, for the social side 
of the program, and for keeping up attendance. Home teaching has been 
developed as part of the settlement program. Under this plan a teacher 
is sent into the tenement to gather a group of women who can not be 
induced to attend school or the settlement. When they become well 
acquainted with the teacher and develop an interest in learning, they 
are introduced into the new world of school or settlement. 

Because settlements have encouraged free speech, open discussion, 
lecture courses, and debating societies, as well as study groups have 
formed part of the program of most settlements. The provision for 
neutral ground for discussion of disputed subjects has always been one 
of their responsibilities. Discussion of current events under leadership 
has formed a part of the informal program in every group of young 
people and adults. 

203 



204 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

The difficulties in finding leadership for educational groups have 
always been most serious. Stereotyped school methods invariably 
fail and only the most flexible and imaginative leadership shows suc- 
cess. It still remains true that leadership must be discovered and 
methods must be developed if groups of men and women whose early 
experiences in education are not such that they want more of it are to 
be truly interested in further education. The social group as a means 
of education through association has become the most successful avenue 
of approach. 

The women's clubs have always been by far the best attended and 
best organized adult groups in settlements, and the educational content 
of many club programs has been high. The settlements have sought 
to find larger opportunities for their neighbors and through the settle- 
ment federations have arranged for joint meetings of clubs from sev- 
eral settlements in order to broaden horizons and show the women their 
own possibilities for civic and social action. This practice has led to the 
formation of federations of women's dubs. 

Many settlements have tried experiments in actual participation of 
adult groups in the government of the house and house activities. Some 
few houses have built their educational program largely around this 
house-council type of organization. Under such a plan a delegate body 
made up of representatives of adult groups on which the staff and board 
of directors may or may not be represented takes responsibility for con- 
trol of definite activities and finances. Such experience is a valuable 
adjunct to education, though here again success depends upon skill of 
leadership. 

A number of settlements have developed notable programs for men. 
Within the last years, especially, there has been a marked increase in 
the interest of men in settlement clubs. Many groups are interested in 
local affairs, and carry on programs which bring in speakers and dis- 
cussion leaders. In some instances public school buildings have been 
used to secure more space than the settlement house can afford. In 
Chicago several men's groups in settlements formed the nucleus for the 
organization of the Workers' Committee on Unemployment The move- 
ment now includes groups not only in Chicago but in New York, Cleve- 
land, and other cities organized and meeting in settlements, park houses, 
churches, and other centers. Practical and constructive committee work, 
economic and legislative discussions, self-help projects, music, drama, 
and entertainment, and educational classes are part of the procedure in 
most of the local groups. 

One of the most important contributions of the settlements to the 



ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS 205 

opportunities for informal education has been their belief in the im- 
portance of the arts in community life. The provision for concerts of a 
high order has long been a part of the program of nearly all settle- 
ments. Art exhibits, opportunities to study music, to play in orchestras, to 
sing, model, draw, make pottery, or carve are available in practically 
all settlements. Folk festivals, folk art societies, and retrospective ex- 
hibits have been stimulated and organized by the settlements in many 
different cities. Dancing and the theater, music and craft are thought 
of not as means of education, but as ends in themselves, beautiful and 
satisfying, and therefore valuable in the life of the individual and the 
community. The music school settlements offer opportunity for indi- 
vidual instruction and for group playing in ensembles and orchestras. 
The development of appreciative audiences has been a contribution of 
the music school settlements generally. 

Organization of local groups for special projects either of neighbor- 
hood or city-wide importance is a continuous function of settlements. 
Local improvement societies are avenues for cooperative effort which 
offer training in active citizenship. A local group to further the acquisi- 
tion of a playground or other neighborhood improvement may be or- 
ganized as the need arises. 

With the increase of leisure among employed as well as unemployed, 
experimental work among adult groups is being carried on by many 
settlements. More and more adults are using opportunities to organize 
groups along varied lines of interest to draw, model, to read and to 
play, to work and to discuss problems. The opening of new doors to 
many people is the ever-present opportunity of the settlement. 

LILLIE M. PECK, Assistant Secretary, 
National Federation of Settlements. 

Following are some of the settlement houses conducting adult education 
programs. The list is arranged alphabetically by state and city. 

ENSLEY COMMUNITY HOUSE, 1404 Ave. TELEGRAPH HILL NEIGHBORHOOD As- 
H, Ensley, Ala., Dorothy L. Crim, SOCIATION, 1736 Stockton St., San 
headworker. Francisco, Calif., Hazel Avery, head- 



Staff has taught more than 300 men 

to read and write; three orchestras and Two active mothers' clubs with va- 

one band 5 three annual art exhibits; oc- ried program of sewing, talb on nutri- 

casional lectures; lectures for parents on tion, child guidance, and mental hy- 

food and on discipline, attendance, 45 ; giene, dramatics group; musical pro- 

one men's social club, two women's. grams arranged through Community 



206 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Music School; English and citizenship 
classes; university extension work of- 
fered. 

LOWELL HOUSE, 198 Hamilton St., 
New Haven, Conn., Stella E. Mon- 
son, headtoorker. 

Program of informal education car* 
ried on through four women's clubs; 
sewing and crafts; lectures on child 
care, health, first aid, current events. 

NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 213-221 Woos- 
ter St., New Haven, Conn., Mary M. 
Phinny, resident headworker. 

Formal classes in sewing and em- 
broidery, in music (piano, violin, cello, 
and singing club); in drawing and 
painting, enrollment, 13; pottery, en- 
rollment, 15; two annual art exhibits 
of students* work, attendance, 300; oc- 
casional lectures; health and safety dem- 
onstrations; five women's social clubs, 
membership, 90, 

FRIENDSHIP HOUSE, 326 Virginia Ave. 
S.E., Washington, D. C., Lydia A. 
H. Burklin, 



Extensive parent education program 
for parents of children in day home; 
adult glee club with Sunday music hour 
for adults and children, average attend- 
ance, 60 ; lecture course in home eco- 
nomics, enrollment, 12; one men's so- 
cial dub, two women's social clubs. 

NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 470 N St., 
S.W., Washington, D. C., Mrs. J. 
P. S. Neligh, htadworker. 

Courses in nutrition and home hy- 
giene, enrollment, 12; child care, en- 
rollment, 47; occasional lectures. 

CHICAGO COMMONS, 955 Grand Ave., 
Chicago, 111., Lea D. Taylor, head- 
worker, Glenford W. Lawrence, dir* 
of adult 



Most of educational work concerned 
with consideration of measures to rem- 



edy or prevent unemployment; three 
Local Improvement Societies (Italian, 
Polish and Greek), with total member- 
ship of 890, meet to discuss problems 
which affect community life, particu- 
larly those connected with unemploy- 
ment, including relief, unemployment 
insurance, public works and reorganiza- 
tion of the economic order; discussions 
usually carried on in native tongue; in 
addition, two discussion groups on prob- 
lems of unemployment conducted in 
English; enrollment, 73; classes in Eng- 
lish and citizenship for foreign born, 
112; drama class, attendance, 24; music 
(piano, violin, vocal, chorus, music 
club), total enrollment, 54; two annual 
art exhibits, attendance, 1,200; five 
women's social clubs, enrollment, 500. 

EMERSON HOUSE, 1757 W. Grand Ave., 
Chicago, 111., Mrs. William E. 
Boyes, head resident. 

Workmen's Committee has numerous 
talks on economic conditions, attend- 
ance, 60; help given individuals in 
speaking and writing English and in 
preparation for citizenship; occasional 
educational talks and short courses in 
nursing and child care given members 
of four women's clubs, enrollment, 130. 

GADS HILL CENTER, 1919 W. Culler- 
ton St., Chicago, 111., Ruth Austin, 
headworker* 

During past two years educational 
program has changed from formal type 
to "social education", English classes, 
enrollment, 40; Mexican workshop, en- 
rollment, 24; stage scenery, enrollment, 
16; Lyra Singing Society, membership, 
30; discussion groups on economics, 
civics, etc., enrollment, 21; child care 
classes, enrollment 29; home economics 
classes, attendance, 30; five men's clubs 
and four women's dubs. 



ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS 



207 



HULL-HOUSE, 800 So. Halsted St., 
Chicago, 111., Jane Addams, heed- 
worker. 

Formal classes in beginners', inter- 
mediate, and advanced English, attend- 
ance, 60-80; advanced English com- 
position, attendance, 10-20 weekly; 
pottery, enrollment, 55; weaving, en- 
rollment, 30; metal work, enrollment, 
6; cooking, enrollment, 25; music 
(piano, singing, violin, cello) ; drawing 
and painting classes, enrollment, 60; 
block printing and etching class, enroll- 
ment, 15; dancing classes; dramatic 
clubs; three or four art exhibits an- 
nually; occasional lectures, child guid- 
ance work carried on through nursery 
schools; 25 men's social clubs; 10 
women's social clubs; during 1933 
House has been center for joint project 
in training for leadership conducted by 
Chicago Federation of Settlements with 
a group of 85 young people, selected 
from older groups of various settle- 
ments, having program of cultural and 
educational activities, under leadership 
of exponent of Danish Folk High 
School movement. 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO SETTLEMENT, 
4630 Gross Ave., Chicago, 111., Mol- 
lie Ray Carroll, hcadvoorker. 

Formal classes in English, four per 
week, average attendance, 25; two or- 
chestral groups, one choral group, one 
banjo group, total membership, 45; 
drawing and painting classes, average at- 
tendance, 10; art exhibits; weekly 
forum of clubs for unemployed, mem- 
bership, 25; occasional lectures; Red 
Cross and nutrition classes for parents; 
one men's, four women's social clubs. 

CHRISTAMORE HOUSE, 502 N. Tremont 
St., Indianapolis, Ind., Olive D. Ed- 
wards, headworker. 

Formal class for foreign women in 
English, enrollment, 10; in cooking and 



sewing, enrollment, 30 in each class; 
class in music appreciation, enrollment, 
25; drama class, enrollment, 25; series 
of six lectures on state and municipal 
government, enrollment, 25; occasional 
lectures on educational subjects; course 
in child welfare, enrollment, 75; Civic 
League; five women's social clubs; five 
men's social clubs. 

NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 428 So. 1st St., 
Louisville, Ky., Frances Ingram, head, 
resident. 

Citizenship class, aggregate attend- 
ance, 985; departments of music, handi- 
craft, enrollment, 250; dramatics; art 
class; clubs that discuss civic, scientific, 
and international questions; four moth- 
ers' clubs with program of lectures on 
health, handicraft, poetry, cooking dem- 
onstrations; athletics and games; library 
of Syrian, Italian, Jewish, and English 
books; Well Baby Clinic for instruction 
in care and feeding of children; staff 
gives lectures on work of House before 
all types of organizations; groups from 
local and state universities and other 
organizations visit House regularly to 
study plan and program. 

ELIZABETH PEABODY HOUSE, 357 
Charles St., Boston, Mass., Eva W. 
White, headworker. 

Formal classes in woodcarving, en- 
rollment, 15; in commercial art, en- 
rollment, 13; in stagecraft, enrollment, 
15; in music (Polish chorus, member- 
ship, 35; Albanian chorus and dancing 
group, 30; Ukranian dancing group, 
30; Ukranian balalaika, 40; operetta 
company, 40) ; informal work includes: 
two art exhibits annually; courses of 
weekly lectures on literature and eco- 
nomics, enrollment, 35 in each group; 
occasional lectures on various subjects, 
average attendance, 125; a dramatic or- 
ganization, membership, 25; labor 
group, membership, 60. 



208 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



ELLIS MEMORIAL, 66 Berkeley St., Bos- 
ton, Mass., Jane R. McCrady, head- 
worker* 

Formal class in English, enrollment, 
20; annual art exhibits, course of six 
lectures on old world history, attend- 
ance, 25; occasional lectures; one men's 
and four women's social clubs. 

HECHT NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 22 
Bowdoin St., Boston, Mass., Mrs. 
Harry Saftel, headworker. 

Formal classes in the crafts, drawing, 
and painting, dramatics, rhythmics; dis- 
cussion groups; informal work includes 
occasional lectures on mental hygiene, 
current events, vocational guidance, nu- 
trition, with attendance of over 100 at 
each lecture; three annual clothes insti- 
tutes, four annual art exhibits and illus- 
trated lectures; parent education pro- 
gram consisting of lectures on foods, at- 
tendance, 12, and on child welfare, 
attendance, 22; mothers' club, 125 
members, meets twice a month. 

NORTH BENNET ST. INDUSTRIAL 
SCHOOL, 39 No. Bennet St., Boston, 
Mass., George C. Grenner, head- 
worker. 

Formal classes in elementary and ad- 
vanced Italian, enrollment, 2 1 ; English 
for foreigners; two handicraft classes, 
enrollment, 20; music (violin, piano, 
chorus), enrollment 35; drawing and 
painting, enrollment, 35; clay model- 
ing, enrollment, 17; two classes in cab- 
inet making, 36; wood working (class 
for unemployed), 10, interior painting 
and decorating, enrollment, 34; watch 
repairing, 14; printing, 12; day classes 
in power machinery work, enrollment, 
27; class for unemployed in power ma- 
chinery, enrollment 20; informal pro- 
grams in dramatics, dancing, music, and 
craft work; three women's social clubs; 
two mothers' clubs include in programs 
classes in cooking, sewing, nursing. 



SOUTH END HOUSE, 20 Union Park, 
Boston, Mass., Albert H. Stoneman, 
he&dworker, 

Formal classes in language, 10; crafts, 
1 8, appreciation of music, 30; lectures 
on the psychology of human relations, 
four sessions, attendance, 50; on savings 
bank insurance, 50; on legal matters, 
IOO; and on parent training, 35; two 
men's and seven women's social clubs; 
representative group comprising South 
End Joint Planning Committee inter- 
ested in local improvement. 

NORTH BRIGHTON COMMUNITY HOUSE, 
31 Lincoln St., Brighton, Mass., Bar- 
bara MacKinnon, dir. 

Small settlement with classes in Eng- 
lish for two groups of Lithuanians and 
two groups of Armenians; two civics 
clubs for those wishing to become citi- 
zens. 



ROXBURY NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 858 
Albany St., Roxbury, Mass., Ethel W. 
Dougherty, headworker* 

Individual instruction in English and 
citizenship, also in violin and piano; 
informal education through men's and 
women's social clubs. 

FRANKLIN SETTLEMENT, 2129 Franklin 
St., Detroit, Mich., Sarah Selminski, 
headvcorker. 

Woodcarving class, enrollment, 6; 
parent education classes, enrollment, 40; 
men's and women's social clubs; two 
local improvement societies. 

ST. ELIZABETH'S COMMUNITY HOUSE, 
3314 Junction Ave., Detroit, Mich, 
Clara Swieczkowska, headworker. 

Formal classes in English attended by 
98 Polish women; classes in handicraft. 



ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS 



209 



SOPHIE WRIGHT SETTLEMENT, 663 Su- 
perior St., Detroit, Mich., Grace B. 
Ketchum, headworker. 

Classes in English, enrollment, 48, 
in music (piano, violin, brasses), total 
enrollment, 22; lectures on health and 
child care. 

MARGARET BARRY SETTLEMENT 
HOUSE, 759 Pierce St., N.E., Minne- 
apolis, Minn., Mollie Sullivan, head, 
resident* 

During past two years has offered 
courses for unemployed men and 
women in English, commercial subjects, 
and parliamentary law; classes in cook- 
ing, sewing, camp cooking, and care of 
clothes; men's social club, membership, 
75; women's social club, membership, 
30. 

NORTH EAST NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 
1929 2nd St., N.E., Minneapolis, 
Minn., Robbins Oilman, hea&worker* 

Formal classes in English, enrollment, 
*932-33> 576 (38, aggregate attend- 
ance) ; two classes in sewing, total en- 
rollment, 1932-33, 150; two women's 
social clubs. 

NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATION, 1000 No. 
1 9th St., St. Louis, Mo., J. A. Wolf, 
hea&worker* 

Formal class in English, enrollment, 
20, sewing, 50, paper working, 50; 
courses in diet and child care, and lec- 
tures to parents of children in settle- 
ment nursery school; four women's so- 
cial clubs. 

NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 3069 Q St., 
Omaha, Nebr., Helen W. Gauss, 
headworker. 

Formal classes in English and citizen- 
ship for men and women; dressmaking; 
furniture repairing; orchestra and chor- 



uses for girls, women, and men; offers 
under Smith-Hughes instructors five 
courses in nutrition, enrollment, 58 
women, 22 men; three classes in home 
nursing, enrollment, 45 women; one 
class in home management, enrollment, 
10 women, one class in sex hygiene, en- 
rollment, 35 men; and one class in can- 
ning, enrollment, 36 women, informal 
classes in parent education, attendance, 
77 women, 35 men; art exhibits; fes- 
tival of songs and dances; lectures on 
city management, average attendance, 
18; on banking problems, average at- 
tendance, 13; and on planting gardens, 
50, one men's social club, two women's 
social and study clubs; Folk Arts So- 
ciety, representing 16 nationalities; 
credit union. 

WOODSON CENTER, 5301 So. 3Oth St., 
Omaha, Nebr., Mrs. M. L. Rhone, 
headworker* 

Center (for colored people) offers 
formal classes in English at night school, 
25 enrolled, in dressmaking with enroll- 
ment of 27; and in furniture repairing, 
enrollment, 1 1 ; canning class offered 
under Smith-Hughes Act, registration, 
25; Improvement Club, 64 members; 
credit union group, membership, 44; 
lectures on family budgeting, attend- 
ance, 75; on thrift, attendance, 80; and 
on gardening, attendance, 16; also oc- 
casional lectures. 

WlLLOUGHBY HOUSE SETTLEMENT, 97 

Lawrence St., Brooklyn, N. Y., Helen 
G. F. Hutton, heactworker. 

Classes changed from year to year to 
meet needs of applicants; dramatics 
course, enrollment, 25; occasional lec- 
tures, average attendance, 30; one men's 
club for unemployed, enrollment, 250; 
during 1933-34 classes in woodwork, 
metal work, cooking, and other subjects 
to be offered. 



210 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



WESTMINSTER COMMUNITY HOUSE, 424 
Adams St., Buffalo, N. Y., Elizabeth 
A. Roblin, headworker* 

Adult education program carried on 
chiefly through five women's clubs, with 
total membership of 300; affiliated with 
Buffalo City Federation of Women's 
Clubs; House offers classes in sewing, 
cooking, handicraft, budget-making, and 
dramatics; men's clubs, with member- 
ship of 275, have recreational programs. 

CHRISTADORA HOUSE, 147 Avenue B, 
New York, N. Y., Christina I. Mac- 
Coll, headworker^ Edward J. Spar- 
ling, el. dir. 

Formal classes in German, Italian, 
French, Spanish, metal work, weaving, 
sewing, domestic science, music (chor- 
us, orchestra, faculty recitals) ; drawing 
and painting; journalism club, theater 
group; Ukrainian Knowledge Society, 
Poets* Guild; informal program of art 
exhibits; lectures on parental problems; 
four men's, two women's social clubs. 

GREENWICH HOUSE, 27 Barrow St., 
New York, N. Y., Mrs, V. G. Sim- 
khovitch, he&dworker. 

Formal classes in Italian, beginners' 
and advanced, enrollment, 40; wood 
carving, stone cutting, cabinet making, 
and pottery, total enrollment, about 
100; little theater group; drawing and 
painting class; instruction in child care 
and training given parents of children 
in nursery school and all-day kindergar- 
ten; Greenwich House Music School, 
enrollment, 250-300 pupils; numerous 
art exhibits; discussion group; Sunday 
evening forum open to general public; 
local improvement society. 

HAARLEM HOUSE, 311 E. n6th St., 
New York, N. Y., Miriam A. San- 
ders, headworker. 

Six formal classes in English, total 
enrollment, 75; Italian class, enroll- 



ment, 10; dressmaking, enrollment, 12; 
citizenship, enrollment, 25; community 
singing, attendance, 200; numerous art 
exhibits annually; occasional lectures on 
civics, health, foreign affairs, etc.; par- 
ent education program conducted 
through mothers' clubs; dramatic group; 
seven men's social and athletic clubs, 
two women's social clubs; two local im- 
provement societies. 

HAMILTON HOUSE, 72 Market St., New 
York, N. Y., Lillian Robbins, head- 
worker* 

Program of women's clubs includes 
home making and child study classes, 
music, dramatics, discussion groups on 
civic problems, two English classes; 
local branch of New York Workers' 
Committee on Unemployment conducts 
discussions on economic situation. 

HARTLEY HOUSE, 413 W. 46th St., 
New York, N. Y., May Mathews, 
headworker. 

Formal classes in English, enrollment, 
IO; Italian, 12; cooking, 40; sewing, 
35; informal talks for social clubs on 
various topics; child study group, mem- 
bership, 25; four women's social clubs. 

HENRY STREET SETTLEMENT, 265 
Henry St., New York, N. Y., Helen 
Hall, headworker. 

Three women's clubs, 169 members; 
two men's clubs, 51 members; weekly 
programs include music, lectures, and 
discussions on health and current topics; 
adult program includes pottery, draw- 
ing, sculpture, woodwork, weaving, and 
needlecrafts; music school offers indi- 
vidual and group instruction; language 
classes; English; German; French; and 
music appreciation; Neighborhood Play- 
house provides classes in stagecraft, act- 
ing, speech and dancing; local of Un- 
employed Workers' Committee. 



ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS 



21 I 



HUDSON GUILD, 436 W. 2jth St., New 
York, N. Y., John L. Elliott, heat- 
worker. 

Six classes in English for foreigners, 
attendance, 200; classes in weaving, 
pottery, and home making, total enroll- 
ment, 1005 10 concerts annually, at- 
tendance, 1,000, several art exhibits an- 
nually, course of lectures on current 
topics for group of unemployed men 
and women, enrollment, 200; lectures 
and demonstrations on parent education, 
six men's social clubs, three women's; 
home teaching in budgeting, cooking, 
home decoration, sewing. 

NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE OF CENTRAL 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 422 W. 
57th St., New York, N, Y., Florence 
Clendenning, headworker. 

Classes in French, enrollment 12; 
handicraft, total enrollment, 35; music 
(piano, violin, cello, orchestra, voice, 
theory), total enrollment all classes, 76; 
drawing and painting, 30; clay model- 
ing, 30; lecture courses on domestic sci- 
ence and child study, four women's 
social clubs. 

RECREATION ROOMS AND SETTLEMENT, 
84-86 ist St., New York, N. Y., 
Mildred A. Gutwillig, headworker. 

Classes in sewing, enrollment, 25; 
folk dancing, 20; child study, 35; two 
women's social clubs. 

UNION SETTLEMENT, 237 E. iO4th 
St., New York, N. Y., Helen Harris, 
headworker* 

Three English classes, total enroll- 
ment, 50; music (general singing and 
folk dancing, attendance 130 weekly; 
orchestra, membership 20; musicales, at- 
tendance, 85 monthly); sewing class, 
five sessions weekly, enrollment, 10 a 
day; and cooking classes, five sessions 



weekly, enrollment, 15 a day; lecture 
courses on health, enrollment, 50; oc- 
casional lectures, attendance, 50; parent 
education lectures on health, attendance, 
1,055, ^ our nien*s, seven women's social 
clubs. 

UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENT, 184 El- 
dridge St., New York, N. Y., Albert 
J. Kennedy, headworker. 

Programs of adult clubs include lec- 
tures and discussions on current topics; 
art exhibits; musicales and lectures; 
foreign affairs forum. 

ALTA SOCIAL SETTLEMENT, 12510 
Mayfield Rd., Cleveland, Ohio, W. 
Thomas McCullough, headworker. 

Program 1933-34 includes: child 
study club for mothers of children at- 
tending play school, enrollment, 25; 
women's group, with informal recrea- 
tional program including art, music, 
and handicrafts; home decoration class; 
formal classes in English and Italian. 

COUNCIL EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE, 
13512 Kinsman Rd., Cleveland, 
Ohio, Walter Leo Solomon, head- 
worker. 

Three branches in different parts of 
city; six formal classes in English hav- 
ing attendance of 95; three sewing 
classes, average attendance, 15; two 
singing groups, average attendance, 20; 
lecture courses on first aid, enrollment, 
20; two parent education groups, 31 
lectures, average attendance about 50; 
three concerts, average attendance, 150; 
one men's social club, four women's so- 
cial clubs; art exhibits from Cleveland 
Museum; Culture Society conducts 
dramatic studio, average attendance, 40; 
and literary group maintains special 
school for members financed and super- 
vised by Society. 



212 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



EAST END NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 2749 
Woodhill Road, Cleveland, Ohio, 
Lilian Amiraux, headworker, 

Formal work in English, woodwork, 
sewing, printing, drawing and painting; 
art exhibits, occasional lectures on child 
training, health, correct dress, etc.; 
mothers' child study club, membership, 
25; four mothers' sewing groups, en- 
rollment, 100; dramatics, observation 
trips; occasional educational moving 
pictures; two men's social clubs, Neigh- 
borhood Men's Council organized Rec- 
reation Room, offering moving pictures, 
games, reading, radio, and concerts, five 
afternoons and evenings a week; Com- 
munity Council emphasizes local im- 
provement, especially in regard to rec- 
reational needs of district. 

GOODRICH SOCIAL SETTLEMENT, 1420 
E, 3 1st St., Cleveland, Ohio, Alice 
P. Gannett, headworker. 

Classes in cabinet making and uphol- 
stering for men ; singing for women and 
older boys; dramatics and modeling; 
art exhibits; lectures on current prob- 
lems; parent education for nursery 
school mothers; two men's social clubs, 
one women's; three neighborhood im- 
provement organizations functioning. 

THE HIRAM HOUSE, 2723 Orange Ave., 
Cleveland, Ohio, George A. Bellamy, 
keaduorker^ Frank Casper, dir. adult 
education. 

Formal classes in English, enroll- 
ment, 59; Italian, enrollment, 37; Bul- 
garian, enrollment, 6, sewing, enroll- 
ment, 148; music (mixed vocal, enroll- 
ment, 33; chorus singing, 130; men's 
glee club, 15); craft exhibits annually, 
attendance, 570; lecture courses on food 
selection and preparation, attendance, 
90; occasional lectures on political ac- 
tivities and economics; nationality fes- 
tivals, attendance, 6,465; canning club, 



membership, 75; gardening club, mem- 
bership, 179, seven men's, four women's 
social clubs, 

UNIVERSITY NEIGHBORHOOD CENTERS, 
7063 Broadway, Cleveland, Ohio, 
Wilber I. Newstetter, headworker. 

Informal adult education program 
consisting of trips to points of interest, 
dramatics, lectures, forums, etc., con- 
ducted through 7 men's and 10 women's 
social clubs; also special interest groups 
including: craft guild, membership, 15; 
dramatic group, membership, 25; music 
group; lectures on parent education, en- 
rollment, 16; English class enrollment, 
IO, three volunteer leader groups, 
membership, 95; social and fraternal 
organizations in settlements and in 
community aided in developing educa- 
tional programs through informal edu- 
cation committee with membership of 
settlement workers, teachers, librarians, 
etc. 

GLADDEN COMMUNITY HOUSE, 619- 
629 W. Town St., Columbus, Ohio, 
Carl H. Bogart, head resident. 

Informal program including cooking, 
enrollment, 40; occasional lectures 
with average attendance of 100; two 
groups belonging to Unemployed 
League, membership, 300; community 
garden project serves over 600 families; 
House gives instruction in gardening, 
canning, and preserving. 

NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 1556 E. 29th 
St., Lorain, Ohio, Sina K. Evans, 
headwork&r. 

Woman's Club of Lorain cooperates 
in conducting adult education program; 
child training classes for mothers of 
children in settlement kindergarten; 
course of lectures in parent education 
open to all residents of city given by 
lecturer from Cleveland College. 



ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS 



213 



FRIENDLY HOUSE SETTLEMENT, 268 
No. Main St., Mansfield, Ohio, R. 
E. Gimbel, headworker. 

Formal classes in English, three ses- 
sions a week, enrollment, 14; annual 
art exhibits, attendance, 500, language 
meetings held by various foreign groups 
for purpose of discussing conditions in 
native countries as compared with con- 
ditions in United States, two colored 
groups recently organized; two men's 
and two women's social clubs. 

HOUSE OF INDUSTRY, 716 Catherine St., 
Philadelphia, Pa., Anna D. Bramble, 
headworker* 

Day and evening English classes con- 
ducted by teachers appointed by Board 
of Education, enrollment for each class, 
1 8; art exhibits lent by Academy of 
Fine Arts changed occasionally; parent 
education classes conducted by nursery 
school teachers and day nursery case 
workers for parents of these two groups; 
five women's social clubs. 

THE LIGHTHOUSE, 146 W. Lehigh 
Ave., Philadelphia, Pa., Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert P. Bradford, head- 
worker*. 

Formal classes in handicraft, drawing 
and painting, typewriting, hair dress- 
ing, public speaking, life saving, total 
enrollment, 84; informal classes in 
music (theory, chorus, instrumental), 
total enrollment, 90; two annual art 
exhibits, attendance, 1,2615 course of 
lectures on the Bible, 125 enrolled; 
occasional lectures, attendance, 80; lec- 
ture on diet and child training, attend- 
ance, 65; Saturday night concerts, in- 
cluding plays, musicales, lectures, aver- 
age attendance, 2505 one men's and 
one women's social club; two men's and 
one women's discussion groups. 



NEIGHBORHOOD CENTRE, 428 Bain- 
bridge St., Philadelphia, Pa., Carrie 
Younker, headworker. 

English and citizenship classes con- 
ducted by the Board of Education, en- 
rollment, 152; class in sewing, attend- 
ance, 1 8, lectures on child training, 
health, nutrition, attendance, 49; course 
in dramatics; one men's and two 
women's social clubs. 

ST MARTHA'S HOUSE, 2029 So. 8th 
St., Philadelphia, Pa., Iris D. Hig- 
gins, headworker. 

Classes in English for Italian women; 
one men's club and three mothers' clubs 
discuss economic conditions and have 
illustrated talks on travel, technical sub- 
jects, and on civic improvement; one 
women's club given instruction in Swed- 
ish weaving, sewing, and cooking by 
instructors from Home Economics Bu- 
reau of State Extension Service. 

SUSAN PARRISH WHARTON SETTLEMENT, 
1708 No. 22nd St., Philadelphia, 
Pa., John C. Smith, Jr., headworker. 

A settlement for colored people; 
adult chorus, 25 participating; arith- 
metic and spelling classes, enrollment, 
12; child guidance lectures, enrollment, 
155 first aid and nursing group, enroll- 
ment, 45 per week; five women's social 
clubs. 

WEBSTER HOUSE, 3113 Wharton St., 
Philadelphia, Pa., Dorothy Mueller, 
headworker. 

Formal classes in English attended by 
25 Italian women; two mothers' clubs, 
one American, the other Italian; occa- 
sional lectures on health. 

WORKMAN PLACE NEIGHBORHOOD 
HOUSE, 756 So. Front St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Mary E. Mott, head- 
worker. 

Classes in English, enrollment, 25; 
in crafts, enrollment, 16; music and 



214 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



parent education carried on in connec- 
tion with two mothers' clubs; art ex- 
hibits. 

IRENE KAUFMANN SETTLEMENT, 1835 
Center Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa., Sidney 
A. Teller, headworker. 

Formal classes conducted by Board 
of Education; aggregate attendance, 
3*035; classes in crafts including work 
with all types of material, enrollment, 
2,076, in music (individual instruction 
in piano, violin, and voice theory, glee 
club ensemble and orchestras), aggre- 
gate attendance, 3,491; classes in draw- 
ing and painting, 703 ; sculpture classes, 
enrollment, 337; numerous lectures on 
health, politics, and economics; debates 
between various clubs; use of facilities 
offered to other organizations for lec- 
tures on travel, economic and social sub- 
jects; extensive parent education pro- 
gram; 42 men's social clubs; 28 
women's social clubs, 39 local improve- 
ment societies. 

KINGSLEY ASSOCIATION, 220 Larimer 
Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa., Mrs. Charles 
C. Cooper, dir. 

Formal classes in needle work, weav- 
ing and dress making, total enrollment, 
73; pottery classes, enrollment, 27; 
men's carpentry (for unemployed), en- 
rollment, 15; art exhibits; musicales; 
informal parent education work, fathers' 
and mothers' folk dancing club, mem- 
bership, 48 , one men's and two women's 
social clubs include singing in program; 
house stresses social education. 

FEDERAL HILL HOUSE, 400 Atwells 
Ave., Providence, R. L, Mary F. 
Geary, resident dir. 

Classes in English, enrollment, 58; 
Italian, enrollment, 5 1 , fine Italian em- 
broideries, enrollment, 15; linen em- 
broideries, enrollment, 20; School of 



Music, enrollment, 54; modeling, n; 
prenatal classes, 46; three or four an- 
nual art exhibits, attendance, 1,000; 
occasional lectures; Italian Cultural 
Club, membership, 33; Guild Players, 
membership, 33, two-day "Institute on 
the Three Arts" (music, dramatics and 
visual arts in the community), held 
October, 1933, 

RUSK SETTLEMENT, 301 Gable St., 
Houston, Texas, Nolle Bailey, head- 
worker. 

Three classes in English for Mexi- 
cans, enrollment, 65; one class in Span- 
ish for Americans, enrollment, 40; 
mothers' sewing club, membership, 140; 
two orchestras, membership, 20 each; 
classes in piano and violin, enrollment, 
16; lectures on child care and feeding, 
enrollment, 58; 12 men's social clubs, 
15 women's social clubs. 

NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE, 727 W. ist 
South St., Salt Lake City, Utah, Ellen 
Taylor, headworker. 
Six weekly courses in home nursing 
and first aid given by Red Cross; men's 
club considers current problems and 
events at discussions led by public offi- 
cials; three women's social clubs. 

See also the following organization 
listed under National Organizations: 
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLE- 
MENTS 

Also the following articles: 

ADULT EDUCATION AND THE FOREIGN 

BORN, p. 58. 
Music IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 115. 

READING LIST 

Addams, Jane. The Second Twenty 
Years at Hull-House: September 1909 
to September 1929: With a Record 
of a Growing World Consciousness. 
Macmillan, 1930. 413 p. 

Neighborhood A Settlement Quarterly. 
National Federation of Settlements, 



ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS 



215 



Inc., 147 Avenue B, New York, 
N. Y. 

Volume IV, March, 1931, contains 
"Bibliography of Books, Articles and 
Reports written by Settlement Work- 
ers and Others Dealing with Settle- 
ments and Their Interests Published 
Between 1930-1931." 
Woods, Robert A., and Albert J. Ken- 
nedy. The Settlement Horizon: A 
National Estimate. Russell Sage Foun- 
dation, 1922. 499 p. Bibliography. 



The authors "survey the origins 
and growth of the settlement, discuss 
its various manifestations and its prac- 
tical functioning in the light of that 
conception, and point to the result 
that would flow from an application 
of the characteristic approach of the 
settlement to the larger problems of 
social readjustment. . . . It is at once 
a history, a practical handbook, and 
philosophical interpretation." 



SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND INSTITUTES FOR ADULTS 

Within the past two decades there have sprung up all over the 
country a number of individual enterprises and experiments in adult 
education which for want of a better term will be classified here as 
"adult schools." These institutions arose to fill a need on the part of 
adults not met by the public school system. Some of them began as 
lyceums and forums, a few with social service features, and later de- 
veloped into institutions designedly and exclusively devoted to con- 
tinuing the education of adults. Because of their willingness to experi- 
ment with new methods and to serve as the proving ground for new 
practices, these organizations have been responsible for the introduc- 
tion of many of the accepted methods now in use among educational in- 
stitutions working with adults. 

There are a number of types of adult schools, but in one respect they 
are all alike. Adult students attend school only because of a desire 
to learn j no external authority is used to force them to go to lectures 
and classes. Except in rare instances, there are no credits, no examina- 
tions, no required attendance. In certain schools, found chiefly in urban 
districts where students are likely to have had a more than average 
amount of formal education, if the lecturer "talks down," if the ma- 
terial is badly prepared or the course uninteresting, the student walks 
out and the lecturer finds himself with an empty class room. Students 
attending lectures after a day's work, in preference to spending their 
time in other pursuits, demand experts as teachers. Therefore, in these 
institutions, the quality of instruction compares favorably with that 
offered in advanced courses in the universities. 

There is another type of adult school founded as the result of the 
desire of some person or group of persons to make provision for those 
who have not had an opportunity for formal education in youth. Some 
of these institutions are resident schools where students come for periods 
varying from a few weeks to a year and where the subjects taught range 
from the rudiments of reading and writing to advanced courses in psy- 
chology and economics. Others are non-resident schools and offer eve- 
ning courses of elementary and high school grade, in a wide variety of 
subjects, A number of these institutions have happily adopted the name 
"opportunity school." 

216 



SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND INSTITUTES FOR ADULTS 2 17 

Still another type of adult school is that carried on for workers 
in industry primarily for the purpose of discussing the economic and 
sodal problems affecting the worker. These schools are described on 
pages 299 and 306. 

Institutes are closely related in purpose to special schools for adults. 
The word "institute" as used in American education is not easy to 
define. It may refer to an organization or to a place for research, or it 
may be a lyceum or a school or a combination of the two. 

Most institutes, however, are organizations which bring to the public 
the men and women of the professional lecture platform. There is 
except in rare instances no discussion, no questions, no required prepa- 
ration. In New Schools for Older Students, Nathaniel Peffer says of 
the institute audience, "Some may react to what they have heard, some 
may not. There is no way of knowing. Certainly, the exercise of none 
of the faculties except the receptive is essential." 

There are a number of institutes, still flourishing, which have given 
service for a hundred years. They date from the time when the lyceum 
and the lecture platform were the only channels of adult education out- 
side the few institutions of higher learning. Some of these, as well as 
several of the newcomers in the field, are listed below following the 

list of schools for adults. 

D. R. 

The following are representative of the various types of schools offering 
instruction for adults. This list is arranged alphabetically by state and city. 

TULARE ADULT WEEKEND SCHOOL, entrance requirements; students may 
Tulare, Calif., W. B. Knokey, suft. enter at any time during year and de- 
of schools. vote as much time to work as possible; 

Operates for six consecutive Friday clas j es for . older PfP le who do not 

evenings in January and February; cur- r ? ad or w . ri * ^ngliali; English for for- 

riculum varies from year to year, but ei S n T ers > Deluding citizenship classes, 

usually includes general cultural courses em P lo 7ment bureau; school library, 

on some aspect of travel, literature, local courses * a PP? led electncity, shoe re- 

history, etc.; supported by taxes and ? ainn S> P>^mg, telegraphy lip-read- 

contributions; students come from ^pnntmg, baking, costume designing, 

Tulare and surrounding towns and l & sch o1 sub Jf ts > Commercial sub- 

country districts; speakers usually from J. ects > etc -' a S es of students range from 

universities; enrollment, 1,200. sixtecn to Sevent 7' enrollment, 9,000. 

OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL, Denver, Colo., BEREA COLLEGE, Berea, Ky., Helen H. 
Emily Griffith, frin. Dingman, ex. sec. 

Free day and evening school open to Berea Opportunity School offers 
people of all ages living in Denver; no short courses for adults eighteen years 



2l8 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



and over regardless of previous prepara- 
tion; lectures given in literature, his- 
tory, sociology, science, and Bible; in- 
dividual proj ect work planned in differ- 
ent shops for those wanting to specialize 
in some particular vocation; emphasis 
on singing and recreation; Extension 
Opportunity School offers three-day 
school for adults in rural communities; 
programs along same lines as winter Op- 
portunity School; Berea teachers give 
lectures in sociology, history, literature, 
and cooperate in religious services; 
Foundation Junior High School of 
Berea College admits students sixteen 
years of age or over, offering program 
planned for general enrichment as well 
as for academic training. 

LOWELL INSTITUTE, Boston, Mass., 
William H. Lawrence, curator. 

Founded in 1839 by legacy in will 
of John Lowell, Jr., which provided 
that income from bequest be used to 
maintain free public lectures for peo- 
ple of Boston; free lecture courses from 
October to April, delivered by scholars, 
on science, history, and art, in Hunting- 
ton Hall, Boston, free public lectures 
on Monday afternoons in King's Chapel 
on current topics in theology; maintains 
Lowell Institute School (see p. 284) ; 
gives college courses in technical sub- 
jects as part of extension programs of 
institutions in and near Boston; lecture 
attendance, 1932-33, 15,000. 

ASHLAND FOLK SCHOOL, Grant, Mich., 
Chester A. Graham, dir. 

Through cooperative living and learn- 
ing, aims to provide educational experi- 
ence which will make adults useful citi- 
zens in creating better social and eco- 
nomic order; no academic machinery 
used; no previous schooling require- 
ments set up; Winter Folk School Ses- 
sion for Young Adults and Summer 



School for Adult Education supple- 
mented by special seminars, fellowship 
meetings, and lectures throughout year; 
members of staff lecture on economic 
and social problems, conduct programs of 
folk recreation for groups in surround- 
ing counties; school serves as educational 
and recreational center for surrounding 
rural community; enrollment, i,20O. 

PEOPLE'S UNIVERSITY, Lansing, Mich., 
Trygve Narvesen, sec. Y.M.C.A., dir. 

City-wide system provides free eve- 
ning courses for adults in modern lan- 
guages, home making, sciences, religion, 
etc. taught by volunteers; supervised by 
director; held in factory buildings, 
Y.M.C.A., schools, homes, etc.; January 
1934, 2,615 students, 71 teachers. 

BROOKLYN INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND 
SCIENCES, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Conducts Brooklyn Museum and 
Biooklyn Botanical Garden (q.v.) and 
Children's Museum , offers series of con- 
certs, dramatic readings, lectures, and ad- 
dresses by nationally known authorities. 

PEOPLE'S INSTITUTE, United Neighbor- 
hood Guild, 176 Nassau St., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., Seymour Barnard, dir. 

Organizes and conducts reading-dis- 
cussion clubs, conducts institutes to meet 
specific needs, on household arts, foreign 
relations, education public and pro- 
gressive, child care, arts and crafts, etc.; 
English classes for foreign born con- 
ducted through cooperation with other 
agencies; makes programs and supplies 
speakers for parent-teacher organiza- 
tions; individual educational guidance 
for group members, organizes women's 
excursion groups to visit progressive 
schools, museums, etc.; conducts experi- 
ments for purpose of evaluating specific 
educational methods and techniques, 
maintains cooperative relations with 
fifty social, civic, and educational agen- 



SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND INSTITUTES FOR ADULTS 219 



cies; organized Brooklyn Conference on 
Adult Education and Brooklyn Com- 
mittee on Adult Education in the 
Churches. 

ALLEGANY SCHOOL OF NATURAL HIS- 
TORY, Quaker Bridge, N. Y., R. E. 
Coker, Mr. 

Annual seven weeks' courses in eld 
zoology, geology, botany, bird study and 
nature study; facilities of school include 
open-air museum, nature trail, Indian 
garden, water garden, and fernery, op- 
erates under direction of Buffalo So- 
ciety of Natural Sciences, the New 
York State Museum, and the University 
of Buffalo, enrollment, 25-50. 

THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF THE 
CITY OF NEW YORK, 60 E. 42nd 
St., New York, N. Y., L. W. 
Hutchins, sec. and dir. 

Science is theme of most of work of 
Institute; adult program includes round 
table discussions on various aspects of 
science, large meetings at which recent 
advances in science are discussed and 
demonstrated, and special meetings de- 
signed especially to permit members to 
meet important scientists, membership, 
600. 

COOPER UNION, 4th Ave. and 8th St., 
New York, N. Y., Edward L. Rehm, 
sec. 

Institute of Technology offers civil, 
mechanical, electrical, and chemical en- 
gineering, Woman's Art School, draw- 
ing, life, modeling, pictorial composi- 
tion, theory of design, history of art, 
lettering and perspective, in day school; 
Night School of Engineering; Night 
School of Art for men and women, 
architectural drawing, and construction, 
freehand drawing and pictorial design, 
commercial design, and fashion illustra- 
tion, furniture design, modeling; class 



in oratory and debate; class in elocu- 
tion; museum, library, and reading 
room, lectures. 

THE EDUCATIONAL ALLIANCE, 197 E. 
Broadway, New York, N. Y., Henry 
Fleischman, Mr. 

Founded in 1887 and served up to 
the cessation of immigration as foyer 
for Jewish immigrants entering Amer- 
ica; aims to serve lower East Side as 
community center and to provide for 
social, recreational, educational, and re- 
ligious needs of population; classes, 
lectures, forums, concerts, entertain- 
ments, religious meetings, clubs, social 
rooms, reading rooms, summer camps, 
legal aid bureaus, art and music schools, 
gymnasiums, etc.; daily attendance, 
5,000. 

INSTITUTE FOR ADULT EDUCATION, 
DeWitt Clinton High School, Mo- 
sholu Parkway and Paul Ave., New 
York, N. Y., S. Alexander Shear, Mr. 

Organized in February, 1932; "aims 
to interest adults m furthering their 
education, to provide opportunities for 
the worthwhile occupation of leisure, to 
bring into the home some of the finer 
things of life through association 
with people of higher interests and as- 
pirations, and to develop an enlight- 
ened citizenship through the presenta- 
tion and discussion of problems of social, 
economic, and educational significance"; 
courses taught by members of DeWitt 
Clinton High School faculty who volun- 
teer services; no requirements of pre- 
vious education or training; courses open 
to men and women; sessions held twice 
a week after close of regular high school 
sessions; each course given once a week 
for fifteen weeks, courses offered fall, 
I933> i n art appreciation, creative art, 
creative writing, appreciation of the 
drama, appreciation of poetry, public 
speaking, physiology and psychology of 



220 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



adolescence, contemporary problems in 
economics, history and appreciation of 
music, science in the home, conversa- 
tional French, German, Italian, and 
Spanish, registration over 1,000. 

INSTITUTE FOR ADULT EDUCATION, 
Grover Cleveland High School, 
Grandview Ave. and Himrod St., 
Ridgewood, New York, N. Y., Emil 
L. Guerra, dtr. 

Organized for purpose of providing 
adults with vocational and cultural fa- 
cilities; classes in typewriting, short- 
hand, health problems, English litera- 
ture, public speaking, conversational 
German, art and music appreciation, 
contemporary civic problems, business 
training, etc., given at school in coop- 
eration with parents' clubs of school; 
nominal tuition fees to defray expenses 
of administration and supplies; instruc- 
tors give services; all classes held in late 
afternoon. 

INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED EDUCATION, 
in E. 1 5th St, New York, N. Y., 
Branch Office, Roerich Museum, 310 
Riverside Drive, New York, N. Y., 
Dagobert D. Runes, dir. 

Object is to furnish intelligent lay- 
man of New York City with knowledge 
of present status of various sciences, lit- 
erature, art, music, etc.; some courses 
grant "alertness clause" credits author- 
ized by Board of Education; issues nu- 
merous publications on educational sub- 
jects, list on request; attendance, 8,OOO 
in 1932-33- 

INSTITUTE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, Co- 
lumbia University, New York, N. Y., 
Russell Potter, dir. 

"Laboratory of ideas in a changing 
world, a forum for discussion of im- 
portant trends and tendencies, a meeting 
place for intelligent men and women 
who wish to know the meaning of de- 



velopments in national and international 
affairs, in philosophy and science, in 
literature and the fine arts"; presents 
lectures, concerts, recitals and plays; no 
entrance requirements, no examinations, 
no class room formalities; enrollment, 
2,500. 

THE NEIGHBORHOOD TEACHER ASSO- 
CIATION, 222 E. 79th St., New York, 
N. Y., Elizabeth A. Woodward, sufv. 

Provides opportunity for adult edu- 
cation of foreign-born women of every 
race in greater New York's five bor- 
oughs, particularly women whose tradi- 
tions interfere with natural assimilation, 
through study groups and clubs initiated 
by foreign-born hostesses or organized 
by Neighborhood teacher in homes and 
district centers, teachers serve as inter- 
pretators of American life and language; 
preserve best old world customs; inter- 
pret Neighborhood agencies to the 
mother; work in behalf of child wel- 
fare; bring home and school into closer 
cooperation; visit homes to learn 
through personal acquaintanceship the 
conditions, interests, and actual needs 
of individuals in study groups; Neigh- 
borhood teacher has been called "itin- 
erant settlement." 

NEW SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, 
66 W. 1 2th St., New York, N. Y., 
Alvin Johnson, dw. 

Established in 1919 to provide per- 
sons of mature intelligence with facil- 
ities for instruction and research in vital 
problems of day, purpose of School is 
"to seek an unbiased understanding of 
the existing order, its genesis, growth 
and present working, as well as of those 
exigent circumstances which are making 
for its revision"; no entrance require- 
ments, except for limited number of 
special courses, no degrees conferred; 
no examinations held except in special 
cases where student requires formal rec- 



SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND INSTITUTES FOR ADULTS 221 



ord of work done, faculty changes fre- 
quently in order to introduce element 
of freshness in instruction, members of 
faculty uniformly of university rank; 
courses in psychology, philosophy, lit- 
erature, art, economics, etc., all de- 
signed to carry out avowed purpose of 
School; for years I933"34> I934'35> 
School has added Graduate Faculty of 
Political and Social Science, composed 
of scholars displaced from German 
universities, graduate students admitted 
to courses offered by this faculty, others 
engaged in original research may be 
admitted after consultation with pro- 
fessors. 

THE PEOPLE'S INSTITUTE, 70 Fifth 
Ave., New York, N. Y., Everett Dean 
Martin, dir. 

Founded in 1897 as forum for pub- 
lic discussion; free lectures and discus- 
sions held in cooperation with Cooper 
Union in Great Hall of Cooper Union 
every Tuesday, Friday, and Sunday 
evening from November to May; total 
attendance, 1933, 66,550; Friday eve- 
ning lectures given by director as con- 
tinuous course each year; lectures on 
other evenings given by various author- 
ities on many subjects; total attendance, 
1932-33, 4,425; Institute program for 
1933-34 includes numerous series of 
lectures by director and other author- 
ities on Liberalism and the Spirit of 
Revolution, the Unconscious Revolu- 
tion, Ethical Factors in the Problem of 
Social Justice, History of Scientific 
Thought; at invitation of Muhlenberg 
Forum conducting series of experiments 
in Socratic discussion at Muhlenberg 
Branch Library, 

JOHN C. CAMPBELL FOLK SCHOOL, 
Brasstown, N. C., Mrs. John C. 
Campbell, dir. 

Objective is upbuilding and enrich- 
ment of country life; four months' 



course, based on Danish folk schools, 
offered during winter for adults over 
seventeen years of age; life of school 
interwoven with life of community; 
activities of farm and home life of 
school serve as practical demonstration 
to community of better mode of liv- 
ing; school staff cooperates with com- 
munity cooperative creamery, cooperative 
mill, cooperative Craft Guild, credit 
union; men's and women's clubs work 
with staff to promote all community 
undertakings; enrollment, 18 boarding 
students, large number persons in com- 
munity also reached. 

COMMUNITY SCHOOLS OF BUNCOMBE 
COUNTY, Buncombe County, N. C., 
Elizabeth C. Morriss, dtr., Mrs. J. 
M. Day, asst. dir. 

Organized in 1919, becoming an in- 
tegral part of public school system after 
several years of demonstration; cur- 
riculum planned to meet needs, inter- 
ests, and aptitudes of adult elementary 
students, largely native-born white men 
and women with small percentage of 
Negroes and a few foreign born, pro- 
gram based on community interests; 
schools attempt to enable students to 
develop techniques for attacking own 
problems, to inculcate desire for con- 
tinuing education, and to develop lead- 
ership; future plans include coordinat- 
ing activities more closely with the 
Smith-Lever and Smith-Hughes exten- 
sion services, and with the state and 
local library programs, the development 
of lay leadership for specific services, 
and the extension of community school 
program to neighboring mountain coun- 
ties through a traveling demonstration 
school, enrollment, 1919-34, 9,000. 

PIONEER NIGHT SCHOOL, R.F.D. 2, 
Friendly House, Canton, N. C., 
Hannah J. Powell, dir. 

Works with adult mountaineers, ad- 
justing program to group needs; small 



222 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



group method used, with, teacher re- 
sponsible for progress of each group; 
instruction given in reading, writing, 
arithmetic, home making, music, home 
arts, enrollment, 36. 

WILBUR WRIGHT ADULT OPPORTU- 
NITY SCHOOL, Wilbur Wright School, 
1361 E. Huffman Ave., Dayton, 
Ohio, Willard H. Marquardt, m 
charge, adult classes. 

School held annually one evening a 
week during winter for six consecutive 
weeks, from 7*30 to 9.30, each eve- 
ning divided into two class periods and 
an assembly period to allow students to 
attend two classes per evening, lecture 
courses without charge to all adults m 
Dayton, on art and interior decoration, 
aviation (through motion pictures), blue 
print reading, business practice, cabinet 
making, child guidance, home making 
courses, English for parents, French, 
German, gardening, mathematics, sci- 
ence, music, public speaking, typing, 
United States history, and civics, etc.; 
School sponsored by Board of Educa- 
tion, Parent-Teacher Association, and 
faculty of Wilbur Wright School; en- 
rollment, 1933, 406. 

OPPORTUNITY SCHOOLS OP SOUTH 
CAROLINA, Department of Education, 
Columbia, S. C., Wil Lou Gray, 
supv. 

Purpose of schools is to extend to 
persons over fourteen years of age and 
under eighth grade in attainment, 
chance for continuation education for 
one month in college environment un- 
der conditions conducive to rapid learn- 
ing; no previous schooling required for 
admission, students given instruction in 
three R's, citizenship, health rules, ap- 
preciation of literature, art and music, 
home making, foods, clothing, manual 
training, gardening, poultry raising, 
good manners, public speaking, dramat- 



ics, textiles, and wise use of leisure; 
schools financed by state, which pays 
teachers' salaries and by individuals, 
church organizations, civic and patriotic 
clubs, textile officials, and scholarships; 
$15 pays all expenses of student after 
reaching college; total enrollment dur- 
ing 13 years of existence, 2,034. 

GOODWYN INSTITUTE, Goodwyn Insti- 
tute Bldg., Memphis, Tenn., Clar- 
ence C. Ogilvie, Mr. 

Free lecture courses (sometimes illus- 
trated) October to April; average at- 
tendance, 1,000; lectures on past and 
present-day conditions in different 
countries, current events, travel, drama, 
literature, and politics; purpose is to 
provide continued education for adults 
and youths along general and special 
lines, to afford authoritative and accu- 
rate information on all kinds of prac- 
tical and cultural subjects^ and to stimu- 
late and encourage reading and study; 
maintains free reference library. 

WATKINS INSTITUTE, 605 Church St., 
Nashville, Tenn., W. D. Strayhorn, 

SUft. 

Free day and evening courses open to 
white adult students; Americanization 
class; courses in art, astronomy, com- 
mercial subjects, home arts, music, eco- 
nomics and government, etc.; enroll- 
ment, 3,000. 

Civic FEDERATION OF DALLAS, 2419 
Maple ave., Dallas, Texas, Elmer 
Scott, ex. sec. 

Program designed to fit local needs 
and interests; non-vocational except in 
Social Service Institute; operates in be- 
lief that "adult education process in a 
community is properly a cooperative en- 
terprise and that the factors involved 
are co-extensive with the whole area of 
culture and knowledge", conducts wide 



SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND INSTITUTES FOR ADULTS 223 



variety of activities from promotion of 
an art school and music appreciation, to 
a study of economic reform movements; 
methods vary from small study and dis- 
cussion groups to large open forum as- 
semblies. 

FLETCHER FARM, Proctorsville, Vt., 
Abbie Graham, dir 

Operates from May to October each 
year as center for adult education for 



lay and professional leaders resident 
anywhere; needs of small rural com- 
munity emphasized; "interest groups" 
in arts, government, public education, 
parent education, social work, courses 
and seminars on methods of adult edu- 
cation and adult education movements; 
faculty consists of persons with varieties 
of interest in adult education; pub- 
lishes occasional bulletins; membership 
consists of 30 trustees. 



The following are short-term institutes, held for the most part during 
the summer months. The list is arranged alphabetically by state and city. 



THE PEOPLE'S INSTITUTE, 38 Gothic 
St., Northampton, Mass., M. Evelyn 
Roe, sec. 

Twenty-one weeks' work, with classes 
two nights a week m English, German, 
Italian, French, Latin, art, interior deco- 
ration, calculus, algebra, and arithmetic, 
taught by Smith College students. 

WELLESLEY SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR 
SOCIAL PROGRESS, Wellesley, Mass., 
Dorothy P. Hill, for., 420 Jackson 
Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Series of annual summer institutes of 
two weeks' duration held to consider 
various aspects of the question* What 
are the Fundamentals of a Good Social 
Order and How Can They Be Real- 
ized? ; 1933 topic, Our Economic Fu- 
ture Its Direction and Control; morn- 
ing sessions devoted to lectures and 
discussions; afternoons to round tables; 
operated by representative group of edu- 
cators, men of affairs, and Wellesley 
alumnae; no scholastic prerequisites nor 
age limits, but invitations issued only 
to 130 applicants selected by admissions 
committee, so as to keep balanced rep- 
resentation from all occupational groups; 
fee of $50 covers cost of two weeks' 
term; scholarships for industrial workers. 



INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS, Uni- 
versity, Va., Charles G. Maphis, dir. 

Annual two weeks' Institute during 
summer; designed to advance popular 
understanding of current public ques- 
tions; emphasizes domestic problems of 
United States and provides for discus- 
sion by men and women charged with 
the task of public administration and 
by those who are actively engaged in 
public affairs; open to those who have 
taken part in public life and to those 
interested in any phase of public af- 
fairs, international, national, state, or 
local, during 1933 session, round tables 
on international affairs added to regular 
sessions, enrollment, 850; for further 
information about program of Institute, 
see p. 147. 

SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR WOMEN, Texas 
State College for Women, College of 
Industrial Arts, Denton, Texas, Jes- 
sie H. Humphries, for. 

College of Industrial Arts holds fif- 
teen-day Summer Institute for Women, 
offering courses in economics and gov- 
ernment, English, fine and applied arts, 
foreign languages, history, home eco- 
nomics, journalism, music, etc.; enroll- 
ment, 10. 



224 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



See also the following organizations: 

FORD HALL FORUM, p. 66. 

FRANKLIN INSTITUTE OF PHILADELPHIA, 

p. 286. 
INSTITUTE OF ADULT EDUCATION, Ann 

Arbor, Mich*, p. 102. 
INSTITUTE OF RACE RELATIONS, p. 127. 
INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS 

RESEARCH, p. 327. 
INSTITUTE OF WOMEN'S PROFESSIONAL 

RELATIONS, p. 327. 
LIFE STUDY INSTITUTES, p. 14. 

MuHLENBERG FoRUM, p. 67. 

OGLEBAY INSTITUTE, p. 14. 

Also the following articles: 

PARENT EDUCATION, p. 131. 

ADULT EDUCATION UNDER PUBLIC 

SCHOOL AUSPICES, p. 158. 
TRAINING LEADERS FOR ADULT 

GROUPS, p. 233. 
WORKERS' EDUCATION, p. 299. 

READING LIST 

Hart, J. K. Adult Education. Crowell, 
1927. 341 p. 

Chap. VIII. Adventures in Adult 
Education. Lyceums, Institutes and 
their like. pp. 169-175. 

Nelson, Thomas H. Ventures in Infor- 
mal Adult Education. Association 
Press, 1933. 120 p. 

An account of fifty-three programs 
which were successfully carried on in 
different Y.M.C.A.'s m the United 
States, together with a description of 



the methods employed. A case history 
of this phase of adult education. 

PefTer, Nathaniel. New Schools for 
Older Students. Macmillan, 1926. 
250 p. 

A study of a wide variety of adult 
educational activities, with important 
deductions regarding the aims, spirit, 
and methods of the movement in this 
country. 

Smith, H. K. The History of the 
Lowell Institute. Boston, Mass., 
Lamson Wolff e, 1898. 125 p. 

Sweeney, C. P. Adult Working-class 
Education in Great Britain and the 
United States. U. S. Dept. of Labor, 
Bulletin 1920, No. 271. Washington, 
D. C., Government Printing Office, 
191 p. 

Describes workers' education and 
tutorial classes in England and the 
introduction of the movement to 
America. Notes on schools such as 
Ruskin, Central Labour College, 
Plebs League, Rand School, etc. 

Swift, F. H., and J. W. Studebaker. 
What Is This Opportunity School? 
N. Y., American Association for 
Adult Education, 1932. 87 p. 

An account of the history of the 
Denver Opportunity School, founded 
in 1916, and a complete examination 
of its curriculum and student body 
together with a careful study of its 
finances and a discussion of its rela- 
tion to the public school system of 
Denver. 



THE LITTLE THEATER 

With the passing of the "road" company and the decline of the pro- 
fessional theater outside of New York City, hundreds of little theater 
groups have been formed all over the country and are providing a mov- 
ing-picture-satiated public with a substitute that ranks with the product 
formerly sent out by Broadway producers. 

In 1930 Kenneth Macgowan made a study of the little theater in the 
United States for the American Association for Adult Education and the 
results were published under the title Footlights Across America. This 
study disclosed that there are well over a thousand little theater groups 
functioning. Many of these, chiefly in the larger communities, have 
their own theater buildings, where repertories of plays are produced 
under competent direction. Hundreds of groups without their own 
theaters are regularly producing plays in grange halls, opera houses, 
church auditoriums, settlement houses, remodeled barns, and high 
school assembly rooms. The total number seems to be increasing year 
by year, in spite of the fact that many groups disappear in consequence 
of bad financing or bad direction. The result of the dramatic effort out- 
side of the trade theater is shown already in every branch of the 
theater. 

A wealth of folk-drama and worth-while plays of American life 
that otherwise never would have been written or produced are being 
presented by little theater groups each year. Significant work is being 
done in rural areas by Frederick H. Koch of the University of North 
Carolina and by Alfred G. Arvold of North Dakota Agricultural Col- 
lege. Professor Arvold has built up a state-wide interest in the little 
theater and has established for the use of little theater and other groups 
a lending library of plays, most of which have been "tried out" under 
his direction in the Little Country Theater in Fargo. Professor Koch has 
taught his students to see drama in their every-day surroundings, and 
has been responsible for the writing and producing of a number of note- 
worthy plays and pageants. The extent to which these plays meet the 
recreational needs of the people of the state, particularly those of the 
rural districts, is shown in the following description of a production of 
one of them, witnessed by Professor Koch: "In the sparsely settled back- 
ass 



226 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

country of the Piedmont section of North Carolina, twenty-five miles 
east of Chapel Hill, the country people of Ebenezer Neighborhood have 
built for themselves a theater of pine logs from their densely-forested 
country. This is the home of the 'Rustic Revelers.' It is a well-built 
log cabin, about fifty feet in length and twenty-five feet wide, with a 
massive chimney made of native rock on the creek side of the building. 
When we arrived, the country people had already gathered from far 
and near, and the orchestra of old-time fiddlers and banjo-pickers was 
playing a lively jig. The theater was dimly lighted with candles a row 
of them set on the mantle-shelf of the great stone fireplace. The stage 
was a movable one designed by one of the school boys, and the curtain 
was the cheapest cloth. For footlights three kerosene oil lamps were 
pkced on grocery-boxes before the curtain. The stage setting, made of 
large sheets of cardboard and covered with ordinary wrapping paper, 
cost sixty cents all told. The plays given that evening were old-time 
favorites of the Carolina Playmakers and never were they presented 
with greater sincerity or for a more appreciative audience. These charac- 
ters were familiar figures, and the actors were their own people." 

There has always been an interest in the production of plays by 
"home talent" in the rural districts and small towns of this country, 
and the need for inexpensive recreation during the past few years has 
served to quicken that interest. Agricultural extension departments in 
several states, notably New York and Iowa, consider the encouragement 
of dramatic activities an important part of their recreation programs. 
In New York State, county training schools in community dramatics, 
open to anyone wishing to take active part in the production of plays by 
community organizations, are organized by the Department of Rural 
Social Organization of the State College of Agriculture. Intensive in- 
struction is given in directing and staging plays. The three or more plays 
judged to be the best produced by community groups throughout the 
year are presented each year at a play festival held at the state Uni- 
versity. One small village in northern New York reported that the 
production of a contest play became a community project: "A costume 
group searched libraries to ascertain the correct costume for the period 
the play portrayed, and then deftly sewed and fitted 5 a group of men 
and boys made the antique furniture and small props such things as a 
pair of candlesticks which they hammered out of an old copper wash- 
boiler 5 electricians labored with lighting effects. In this case dramatics 
proved to be the socializing agency for developing that elusive 'com- 
munity spirit.' " 



THE LITTLE THEATER 227 

Colleges and universities are furthering the work of the little 
theater by graduating students who have taken well-coordinated courses 
in acting, production, design, and playwriting, as well as in the history 
of the drama. Among the institutions now giving such courses are Yale, 
Northwestern University, the University of Iowa, the University of 
Washington, and the University of North Carolina. A number of 
Negro colleges and universities, among them Morgan College cited 
below, are giving courses in the drama. 

As a means of bringing about closer cooperation between the or- 
ganized theaters already established, to serve newer theaters, and to 
broaden and strengthen the field of dramatic education, a National 
Theatre Conference was organized in 1932. The Conference assumes, 
as a basis, the importance of the theater both as an art and as a factor in 
social and educational life. It emphasizes the idea that there is a greater 
future for the American theater if there are many producing centers 
representing, in the materials of their plays and their productions, the 
whole panorama of American life, than if there is only one great 
producing center for the entire country. The work of the Conference 
is being developed according to a regional plan, with the idea of stimu- 
lating local, state, and sectional initiative and opportunity. A full 
description of the program of the Conference appears on page 339. 

D. R. 

A few of the established little theater groups, operated on a non-com- 
mercial basis, appear below. The list is arranged alphabetically by state and 
city. 

Los ANGELES COUNTY DRAMA ASSOCIA- ing for beginning actors; sponsors 
TION, 240 So. Broadway, Los Angeles, courses in stage direction, etc. 
Calif. 

. , - PASADENA COMMUNITY PLAYHOUSE, 30 

Aims to encourage development of ^ m MolinQ A p asad ^.g 

dramatic ability and to enliven interest Qilmore Brown, dir. 
of community at large in cultural, edu- 
cational and recreational values of little Produces 26 full-length plays, 26 
theater entertainment; membership con- workshop original plays, four member- 
sists of little theater groups in Los ship plays; director, general manager, 
Angeles County; extensive free circulat- 32 employees; value of plant, $450,- 
ing library of plays and books on drama; ooo; large theater seats 820, small hall 
conducts annually a one-play tourna- seats 300; three divisions of Playhouse: 
ment among members, and nation-wide Main Theatre; Playbox, an expenmen- 
playwriting contests; holds conferences tal division; and Workshop, laboratory 
for practical discussion of theater prob- theater for training theater students; 
lems such as playwriting, make-up, train- maintains close contact with community 



228 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



through Pasadena Community Playhouse 
Association of nearly 4,000 members. 

SAN FRANCISCO DRAMA FEDERATION, 
San Francisco County and City Rec- 
reation Department, San Francisco, 
Calif., Hester Proctor, Mr. 

Organized October, 1933, for pur- 
pose of arousing interest in dramatic 
arts, will serve as clearing house for in- 
formation concerning efforts of indi- 
vidual groups in county; plans to have 
program similar to Los Angeles County 
Drama Association (see above). 

YALE UNIVERSITY THEATRE, New Ha- 
ven, Conn., Allardyce Nicoll, chmn., 
Department of Drama, School of 
Fine Arts. 

Five to six major productions, eight 
to ten historical productions and nu- 
merous one-act Workshop plays a year 
in university theater, seating 700, and 
in Workshop; courses designed to pre- 
pare students in playwriting, design, 
technique of theater, for teaching and 
for work in theater. 

THE INSTITUTE PIAYERS, Jewish Peo- 
ple's Institute, 3500 Douglas Blvd., 
Chicago, 111., Charles K. Freeman, 
dramatic Mr. 

Own theater, People's Playhouse; 
maintains own workshop that designs 
and builds scenery; holds weekly classes 
in practical arts of theater including 
fencing, costuming, diction, and voice 
training; produces between twenty and 
thirty plays each year; repertory group 
playing every Wednesday evening at 
popular prices. 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY THEATRE, 
Evanston, 111., Garrett H. Lever ton, 
Mr. and frof. of dramatic produc- 
tions. 

Cooperates with Northwestern Uni- 
versity School of Speech; produces fif- 



teen full-length plays a year; theater 
seats 313; graduate and undergraduate 
courses designed to prepare student for 
teaching drama and speech, or for work 
in theater; maintains close contact with 
community. 

UNIVERSITY THEATRE, University of 
Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, Edward C. 
Mabie, Mr. 

Produces seven to twelve full-length 
plays per year, seating capacity of 
theater, 746, highly developed univer- 
sity extension program; close coopera- 
tion with community. 

THE LITTLE THEATER COMPANY, Uni- 
versity of Louisville Players, Louis- 
ville, Ky., Boyd Martin, dir. 

Cooperates with Department of Eng- 
lish, University of Louisville; produces 
five full-length, twelve one-act plays 
each year; seating capacity of theater, 
533; offers courses in playwrting and 
public speaking. 

THE MORGAN COLLEGE DRAMATIC 
CLUB, Morgan College, Hillen Road 
and Arlington Ave., Baltimore, Md., 
S Randolph Edmonds, Mr. 

Club aims to create interest in cul- 
tural and educational aspects of drama, 
to serve as outlet for dramatic talent, 
and to act as laboratory for teaching of 
courses in dramatic art; specializes in 
modern drama, especially in folk and 
Negro plays; instrumental in organizing 
The Negro Intercollegiate Dramatic As- 
sociation; college offers courses in play- 
writing, dramatic production, religious 
drama, history of theater, etc. 

LITTLE THEATER OF ST. Louis, St. 
Louis, Mo., Thomas Wood Stevens, 
Mr. 

Produces five to eight full-length 
plays per year; volunteer workers and 



THE LITTLE THEATER 



229 



actors; seating capacity of theater, 200 ; 
yearly playwriting contest. 

NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE OF AGRI- 
CULTURE, Cornell University Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, Depart- 
ment of Rural Social Organization, 
Ithaca, N. Y., Robert A. Poison. 

Organizes county training schools in 
community dramatics open to anyone in- 
terested in taking active part in pro- 
duction of plays by community organ- 
izations, including instruction in direct- 
ing and staging plays; conducts annual 
festival during Farm and Home Week, 
when three outstanding plays produced 
by rural groups of state during past year 
are presented in University's Little 
Theatre by winning groups; lending li- 
brary of plays for selection purposes has 
circulation of over 1,500 single plays, 
and over 100 books of plays annually. 

AMERICAN PEOPLE'S THEATRE, New 
York, N. Y., Morelza Morrow, dir. 

Unemployed actors and persons with 
avocational interest in dramatics discov- 
ered by Adjustment Service of New 
York (see p. 292), where director is 
counselor, serve as nucleus for group; 
class work in voice, acting, production of 
plays, diction, dancing, etc., given by 
experts, attempt made to unify work 
by studying one period of dramatic his- 
tory in all classes for two or more weeks; 
salaries of some members of staff paid 
from state funds. 

HARLEM EXPERIMENTAL THEATRE, 
1 3 5th Street Library, New York, 
N. Y., Regina M. Andrews, ex. dir. 

Chiefly interested in producing orig- 
inal plays by Negro writers; twenty 
members in acting group; during 1933- 
34 offered courses in the Voice as an 
Art Medium, Dramatic Training for* 
Church Groups, Community Acting for 



Studio Performances, Art of the Dance, 
etc. 

LOG CABIN THEATRE, Route i, Cary, 
N. C, Genevieve Woodson, dir* 

Group designed and built own log 
cabin theater, which serves as commu- 
nity house; produces chiefly folk plays 
suggested by Carolina Playmakers (see 
below) . 

THE CAROLINA PLAYMAKERS, Chapel 
Hill, N. C., Frederick H. Koch, dir. 
and Kenan- Professor of Dramatic 
Literature, Department of English, 
University of North Carolina, 

Cooperate with University of North 
Carolina; produced 112 original plays 
between 1918 and 1931 in Playmakers 
Theatre, seating 345, University Audi- 
torium, seating 1,800, and Forest 
Theatre; from 1920-33, Playmakers 
made 28 tours playing to more than 
250,000 people, extension courses; bu- 
reau of community drama; publications 
include four volumes of original Caro- 
lina folk plays and dramatic periodical, 
The Carolina Play-Book. 

THE PLAY HOUSE, 2040 E. 86th St., 
Cleveland, Ohio, Frederic McCon- 
nell, dir. 

Produces eighteen to twenty-five full- 
length plays per season; director, assist- 
ant director, thirty employees; main- 
tains $325,000 plant, seating 522 in 
large theater, 150 in small theater. 

SCHOOL OF DRAMATIC ART, Norman, 
Okla., Rupel J. Jones, dir. and assoc. 
prof, dramatic art y School of Dramatic 
Art, University of Oklahoma. 

Five to- seven full-length and fifty 
short plays per year; seating capacity of 
theater 1,800; graduate and undergrad- 
uate courses, designed to prepare student 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



230 

for teaching drama and speech, for work 
in theater, and for cultural background. 

HEDGEROW THEATRE, Moylan Rose 
Valley, Pa., Jasper Deeter, for. 

Produces eight to ten full-length 
plays per year in theater seating 168; 
staff includes director, eighteen em- 
ployees. 

LITTLE THEATRE OF WILKES-BARRE, 
39 No. Washington St., Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa , B. F. Burgundee. 

An organization of several hundred 
active workers; produces from five to 
six plays a season in rented workshop, 
staff consists of full-time paid director, 
paid secretary, and part-time technical 
director; all other positions voluntary; 
supported by about 1,000 subscribers 
and by sale of single tickets; inaugu- 
rated free dramatic classes in 1933; 
sixty-six students, many of them drawn 
from the mines and mills, receiving in- 
struction in diction, pantomim^, etc., 
beginning January, 1934, conducting 
series of eight Saturday morning con- 
ferences on stage direction and produc- 
tion for school teachers of community. 

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, Seattle, 
Wash , Glenn Hughes, prof, of Eng- 
lish, Department of English, Division 
of Drama. 

Six long and nine short plays pro- 
duced annually in university audito- 
rium, seating 2,200, and in Repertory 
Playhouse, seating 340; graduate and 
undergraduate work in playwriting and 
theater arts. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 
NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION 
NATIONAL THEATRE CONFERENCE 



And also the following related ar- 
ticles: 

PUPPETS IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 175. 
THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT 
EDUCATION, p 185. 

READING LIST 

Dean, Alexander. Little Theater Organ- 
ization and Management: for Com- 
munity, University, and School. Ap- 
pleton, 1926. 314 p. 

Covering every step of the process 
of organizing a little theater in a 
community, university, or school. De- 
tails of committee, staff, personnel, 
publicity, business management, etc. 
all thoroughly discussed. Oliver Hms- 
dell's Making a Little Theater Pay 
(French, 1915) is a shorter account, 
based on the experience of the Dallas 
little theater. 

Dolman, John, Jr. The Art of Play 
Production. Harper, 1928. 466 p. 

A practical and helpful book, well 
organized and written, treating all 
phases of production, acting, direct- 
ing, scenic design, etc., for the small 
theater in college, school, or com- 
munity. 

Gilder, Rosamond. A Theater Library. 

Theater Arts, Inc., for the National 

Theatre Conference, 1932. 74 p. 

A bibliography of a hundred books 

relating to the theater. 

Macgowan, Kenneth. Footlights Across 
America. Harcourt, 1929. 381 p. 

A survey of the present condition 
of the little theater movement in 
America and its practical working as- 
pects. The origins and history of the 
idea can be traced in Sheldon Che- 
ney's The Art Theater (Knopf, 
1925) and H. K. Moderwell's The 
Theater of Today , with an introduc- 
tion by John Mason Brown (Dodd, 
1928). 



TRAINING BY CORPORATIONS 

Many corporations conduct their own educational programs for the 
training of their employees. Such programs are in no way allied, either 
m nature or in purpose, with "workers 3 education" discussed on p. 299. 
The development of this type of adult education is comparatively new, 
and reflects the increasing complexity of production and the emer- 
gence of needs which public vocational schools and private vocational 
schools have been unable to meet. Although the schools are maintained 
primarily for the purpose of instructing employees to do their work 
more efficiently, employers, in establishing and carrying them on, have 
also taken into account their responsibility to society and to their 
employees, and have provided courses of cultural and practical value in 
subjects not directly connected with their work. 

Previous to 1931 there were several hundred industries offering 
their employees training, sometimes during working hours, sometimes 
out of hours, ranging from elementary to highly technical instruction. 
Since that date, because of unsettled economic conditions, many indus- 
trial concerns have been forced to retrench to the point of doing away 
with their educational programs entirely, or of cutting them drastically. 
Most companies believe this to be only an emergency measure, and are 
planning to go forward with their educational programs as soon as an 
improved financial state warrants it. Employers feel that present indus- 
trial conditions have served to emphasize the value of the adaptability 
and versatility that comes to employees through proper training. 

Pre-depression training programs included courses in subjects as 
widely varied as public speaking and photography. In Educational Ex- 
feriments in Industry, a study made for the American Association for 
Adult Education in 1930-31 by Nathaniel Peffer, details are given 
about the multifarious programs carried on for employees by many 
large industrial concerns, including the American Telephone and 
Telegraph Company and associated companies, the Dennison Manufac- 
turing Company, the Commonwealth Edison Company, General 
Motors Company, the Singer Sewing Machine Company, and many 
others. ' -I ( -1 

Experts have assured the editor of the Handbook that any detailed 

231 



232 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



statement o the educational programs being carried on at the present 
time by industrial concerns would be out of date, because of rapidly 
changing conditions, before it could be published. Therefore no attempt 
has been made to gather data on the subject. It is hoped that if and when 
a new edition of this volume is published, the subject can be treated 
more thoroughly. 

D. R. 



See the following article: 

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS, 
p. 280. 



READING LIST 

Allen, C. R. The Foreman and His Job. 
Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1922. 

Contains a wealth of material of 
value as a guiote for foreman con- 
ference leaders and also as a follow- 
up text for foreman groups. Avail- 
able either as a single volume or in 
pamphlet form. 

. The Instructor, the Man, 

and the Job. Philadelphia, Lippin- 
cott, 1919. 

The principal purpose of this book 
is to serve as a text and reference 
work for instructors of trade and in- 
dustrial subjects. Of use in foreman- 
ship courses in proportion as the 
foreman has responsibilities for the 



instruction of apprentices and others 
on the job. 

Mays, A. B. The Problem of Indus- 
trial Education. Century, 1927. 416 

P- 

Sketches the origin and growth of 
the modern idea of formal training 
for industrial occupations, noting par- 
ticularly the advantages and disadvan- 
tages of the various systems of ap- 
prenticeship. Explains the complexity 
of the modern problem of industrial 
education and points out its economic 
and social significance. 
PefFer, Nathaniel. Educational Exper- 
iments in Industry. Macmillan, 1932. 
207 p. 

A factual presentation of what has 
been done by a number of large in- 
dustrial firms, and in some measure 
an appraisal of their work. The whole 
inquiry shows what the possibilities 
of education for workers are and 
what has already been accomplished 
in that direction. 



TRAINING LEADERS FOR ADULT GROUPS 

The recent growth in the number of adult study and discussion 
groups has necessitated consideration on the part of educators of 
methods of training leaders for these groups. Teacher training institu- 
tions and colleges and universities have for some time been offering 
courses in the teaching of foreign-born groups, but to date the number 
of formal courses for the training of the lay leader given by educational 
institutions has been negligible. 

Where are groups to find competent leaders? Shall the colleges 
and universities be responsible for offering courses in leadership training 
or shall national organizations undertake to supply training for leaders 
of groups among their constituencies? Shall the leader be selected in 
haphazard fashion by the group and be permitted to learn the art of 
leadership "on the job"? 

Discussion groups are not waiting for an answer to these questions. 
They are going forward with such leaders as can be obtained. Some 
groups have been short-lived because of the lack of competent leaders 5 
others have imbibed astonishing amounts of misinformation from en- 
thusiastic, but ill-informed leaders j still others have obtained, usually 
by chance, well-educated persons with a natural gift for leadership, and 
a fund of accurate information to guide them and these groups have 
flourished. 

Parents have organized their parent education activities for them- 
selves in many more situations than those in which professionals have 
taken organization responsibility. In general there have not been 
enough acceptable teacher-leaders for a group which parents wish to 
start and participate in. Consequently, lay leadership in some form or 
other is found in almost every center in which there is a program of 
parent education. In many centers professional workers spend all of 
their time training and supervising iky leaders. In one community the 
professionals meet lay leaders every other week during the winter 
months and in the alternate weeks, by twos, they lead their own group 
in their own neighborhood. In another center the lay leaders are given 
a twenty-week preliminary training course 5 the next season, while they 
are leading their own groups, they receive occasional supervisory help 
from the professional. Many lay leaders have participated in training 

233 



234 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

institutes held at summer conferences, or during the school year at con- 
ferences held in connection with parent-teacher meetings. In one state 
qualified lay leaders are certified as teachers of parents 3 classes by the 
educational authorities. At the other extreme, many lay leaders have 
become leaders simply because of the esteem in which they are held by 
other parents in the community and because of their ability to win for 
themselves an immediate following. 

The churches were the first organizations to become cognizant of 
the need for trained leaders of adult classes. Most denominations now 
hold annually short courses for leaders of adult classes, at county, state 
and national meetings, and continue instruction during the winter 
months through their publications. The International Council of Re- 
ligious Education has an ambitious program involving the publication of 
curriculum guides and the holding of leadership training conferences. 
The headquarters offices of the Young Men's Christian Association, the 
Knights of Columbus, and other organizations prepare and make avail- 
able to their constituencies outlines for group leaders. 

The state agricultural extension leaders were quick to see the neces- 
sity for the well-trained lay leader in extension work. The lay leader's 
training now consists of attendance at special demonstrations and meet- 
ings conducted by agricultural and home demonstration agents, and 
frequent conferences with the agents, supplemented by the reading of 
technical literature. The extent of the work done under the supervision 
of lay leaders is indicated in the notes on agricultural extension service 
on page 4. 

Most of the national women's organizations supply carefully pre- 
pared pamphlets with instructions for leaders of parent groups, and 
study guides for group members. Frequently at the national assemblies 
of these organizations a discussion of leadership training is given ,a 
place on the program. -^ -n 

The following list, arranged alphabetically by state and city, includes 
some of the courses given in leadership training and mentions a number of 
the organizations offering guidance through publications, courses, or insti- 
tutes to leaders of groups conducted for members 

FEDERATION OF PARENT-TEACHER As- sion group leaders attended by about 

SOCIATIONS, Douglass School, First and forty members of Federation; program 

Pierce Sts., N.W., Washington, D. C, includes lectures and discussion of or- 

Edyth A. Lyons, sec., 1833 S St., ganization of individual groups and 

N.W. technique of leadership, together with 

practice by individual members in lead- 
Training class for study and discus- ing group discussion. 



TRAINING LEADERS FOR ADULT GROUPS 



235 



IOWA STATE COLLEGE, Ames, Iowa, 
Mary S. Lyle, asst. prof, home econ. 
ed. 

Credit course on methods for eve- 
ning school classes including organizing 
and teaching evening school classes, 
planning units of work, observing class 
work; enrollment, winter quarter, 30, 
summer school, 14. 

DEPARTMENT OF RECREATION, 504 
Elmwood Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Training classes for representatives of 
churches and clubs in social recreation; 
for further information concerning pro- 
gram of Department see p. 190. 

NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE FOR 
TEACHERS, Albany, N. Y., Margaret 
Hayes, dtr. m charge aduh ed. course. 

Course in parent education, designed 
for school administrators, supervisors, 
and teachers to show practical relation- 
ships of parent education movement to 
public schools; course in lay leadership 
training on techniques of leading groups, 
parent-child relationships, etc., organ- 
ized to guide leaders in lay leadership 
work; enrollment, 50. 

NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE OF HOME 
ECONOMICS, Extension Staff, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Offers training periods to study club 
officers and gives special training to 
county leaders. 

THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW 
YORK, School of Education, 13 9th St. 
and Convent Ave,, New York, N. Y., 
Paul Klapper, dean, Samuel J. Brown, 
instructor, in charge, adult ed. courses. 

Elementary and advanced courses in 
English and citizenship for foreign 
born, including consideration of class 
organization, psychology of immigrant, 
teaching modern languages, and oral and 



written English, phonetics, citizenship, 
aids in civic instruction, and socializa- 
tion of adult immigrant; feature of each 
course is presentation of lessons by stu- 
dents; actual class room work, observed 
in local evening schools, satisfactory 
completion of either course entitles stu- 
dents to state certificate in immigrant 
education. 

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY, Teachers Col- 
lege, Room 736, Wool worth Bldg., 
New York, N. Y., Abraham Curzan, 
in charge, adult ed. courses. 

Course outlining general procedure of 
teaching English, citizenship, naturali- 
zation, and special technique required 
with beginning and advanced groups of 
non-English-speaking adults; State De- 
partment of Education issues certificate 
in immigrant training to those satisfac- 
torily completing course; enrollment, 



NATIONAL RECREATION ASSOCIATION, 
3 1 5 Fourth Ave,, New York, N. Y., 
Howard S. Braucher, sec. 

Leadership training service, given by 
field workers to groups throughout the 
United States, consists of formal classes 
and informal instruction in drama, 
music, park recreation, promotion of 
activities for women and girls, recrea- 
tion in institutions, publicity methods, 
work with colored communities, physi- 
cal education; all field classes conducted 
for both volunteer and paid recreation 
leaders, recruited from municipal rec- 
reation departments, schools, churches, 
fraternal and civic organizations, etc., 
with objective of multiplying leader- 
ship, most courses limited to intensive 
institutes of from three to seven days, 
with attendance Tanging from 35-70; 
Association also conducts National Rec- 
reation School, giving nine months' pro- 
fessional course to college graduates, or 
those having equivalent, in methods of 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



236 



community recreation leadership, holds 
periodically six weeks' school for train- 
ing of colored recreation leaders; for 
further information about program of 
Association, see p. 338. 

UNITED PARENTS ASSOCIATIONS OF NEW 
YORK CITY, INC., 152 W. 42nd St., 
New York, N. Y., Margaret Lighty, 
ex. sec. 

Program of lay leadership training 
includes training of parents as discus- 
sion leaders of local groups for study 
of family relations; training of officers 
and committee chairmen of local asso- 
ciations; education department offers 
two-year courses for discussion of fam- 
ily relationship to lay leaders represent- 
ing local study groups organized within 
various parent associations; educational 
directory seeks to give lay leaders under- 
standing of discussion methods and psy- 
chological and sociological, economic 
and mental hygiene approaches to prob- 
lems incident to family relations, child 
relations, and adolescence; during 1933- 
34, 94 lay leaders representing 49 local 
study groups with total membership of 
approximately 500 receiving training; 
for further information about program 
of this organization, see p. 139. 

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, Department 
of Adult Education, Columbus, Ohio, 
Jessie A. Charters, chmn. of deft. 

Course in leadership training, em- 
phasizing methods of teaching parental 
education with lectures, project super- 
vision, and field laboratory work with 
parents' study groups, also course in ad- 
vanced leadership training, intended for 
persons in organizations and institutions 
engaged in directing work in adult edu- 
cation throughout the state, particularly 
in field of parental education; for fur- 
ther information about courses offered 
by Department of Adult Education see 
P- 57* 



UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH, School of 
Education, Pittsburgh, Pa., Coit R. 
Hoechst, dean of ed. 

Course on teaching English to adult 
immigrants instruction in principles of 
teaching English to adults, with class 
room demonstration, course on Ameri- 
can ideals and racial background, for 
teachers in extension education field, 
giving historical background and racial 
inheritances of immigrants, problems of 
assimilation and amalgamation, and 
course on extension education and ad- 
ministration including problems of 
teacher training and state certification, 
organization and administration of eve- 
ning schools, adult immigrant day 
school, home classes for foreign-born 
mothers, and community center activi- 
ties; total enrollment, 30. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY 

WOMEN 

AMERICAN BAPTIST PUBLICATION SO- 
CIETY 

AMERICAN FARM BUREAU FEDERATION 
AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION 
CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA 
CHURCH OF THE UNITED BRETHREN 

IN CHRIST 

COMMISSION ON JEWISH EDUCATION 
CONGREGATIONAL EDUCATION SOCIETY 
INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF RELIGIOUS 

EDUCATION 

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS 
METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH 
METHODIST PROTESTANT CHURCH 
NATIONAL CONGRESS OF PARENTS AND 

TEACHERS 
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CATHOLIC 

WOMEN 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF BUSINESS 
AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S CLUBS 
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLE- 
MENTS 



TRAINING LEADERS FOR ADULT GROUPS 



237 



NATIONAL GRANGE OF PATRONS OF 

HUSBANDRY 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED 

STATES 
PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN THE UNITED 

STATES OF AMERICA 
SOUTHERN WOMAN'S EDUCATIONAL AL- 
LIANCE 

UNITED CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY 
UNITED LUTHERAN CHURCH IN AMER- 
ICA 

UNITED SYNAGOGUE OF AMERICA 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRI- 
CULTURE 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 
YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIA- 
TION 

Also the following articles. 

COURSES IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 54. 

Music IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 115. 

PARENT EDUCATION, p. 131. 

THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT 
EDUCATION, p. 185. 

PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL EDUCATION CON- 
DUCTED BY RELIGIOUS GROUPS, p. 
195. 

READING LIST 

Elliott, H. S. The Process of Group 
Thinking. Association Press, 1928. 
225 p. ( 

Outlines the processes by which 
democratic participation may be pro- 
vided for in the deliberations and 
decisions of groups. Gives concrete 
suggestions for the chairman who is 



conducting a single discussion or 
planning for a conference or con- 
vention. Discusses the use of the ex- 
pert as lecturer in a conference and 
suggests the sequence for a conven- 
tion program. 

Sheffield, A. D. Creative Discussion. The 
Inquiry, 1927. 63 p. pamphlet. 

This booklet is designed to help 
leaders who are faced with the dif- 
ficulty of keeping group discussion 
from deteriorating into aimless talk. 
It enables discussion leaders to help 
their groups "get somewhere" with- 
out imposing upon them their own 
notions. It outlines the methods by 
which an average group can deal with 
an issue in such a way that the solu- 
tions will do justice to all essential 
interests at stake. 

. Training for Group Expe- 
rience. The Inquiry, 1929. 125 p. 

A syllabus of materials from a 
course for group leaders given at 
Columbia University in 1927. It is 
designed to meet the needs of boards, 
committees, classes, clubs, conferences, 
or assemblies that are exploring new 
situations involving mtegrative deci- 
sions, policies, and action. 
Walser, Frank. The Art of Conference. 
Harper, 1933. 305 p. 

Mr. Walser tells, simply and 
clearly, how to plan conferences, run 
meetings, act as chairman or con- 
feree, and get the most valuable re- 
sults. The book gives digests of typ- 
ical conference records. 



EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE 
UNEMPLOYED 

The demands upon existing institutions for public education made 
by the unemployed have broken down barriers in some instances, ex- 
tended the barriers in others, and are causing the evolution of a number 
of interesting experiments which are suggestive of future developments, 
educators are being challenged to make information available to all 
inquiring adults who are in need of knowledge to combat adversity and 
to achieve adjustments in a changing order. In answer to this challenge 
school curricula are being broadened to include many subjects not for- 
merly offered^ furthermore, the very technique of teaching is undergo- 
ing a process of change as a result of the frequent employment of 
instructors trained and practised in professions other than that of 
pedagogy. These men and women have attained distinction in their 
particular fields, and consequently they have an angle of approach and a 
vision differing from that of the average academic instructor with the 
limitations of a class room horizon. 

From many and varied sources employers in industry, vocational 
counselors, organizations of workers comes the declaration that now, if 
ever, there is need for better education to offset the futility of narrow 
specialization. The National Education Association, through its Com- 
mission on the Enrichment of Adult Life, says, "The efforts of com- 
munities in providing recreational and avocational occupations are 
serving not only to maintain morale now . . . but are preparing for the 
enrichment of life tomorrow. Many signs today point toward increased 
need for avocational pursuits in the reconstructed future. Increasingly, 
adults must find outlets for their abilities, talents, hobbies and interests 
outside their work. The measure of a man tomorrow promises to be not 
only how successful he is in his vocation, but how much he enjoys his 
avocation. The forms that avocational interests may take are as broad 
as human interests. The more they overlap, the richer will be the 
individual's power of expression." 

From the agricultural sections of the country comes the cry that 
the rural high schools should shake off the domination of college 
entrance requirements and assert their right to serve the local com- 

238 



EDUCATION FOR UNEMPLOYED 239 

munity. Youth should not be occupied with obsolete studies when farm 
life demands trained intelligence directed to the larger economic rela- 
tions of agriculture, to the principles of occupations, and to the develop- 
ment of worthy cultural activities in the home and community. 

Colleges are aware of these criticisms and are endeavoring not only 
to make their facilities more accessible and their studies more applicable 
to the technique of present-day living, but they are also trying to identify 
themselves with the popular life of the community. Many of them are 
providing special courses for emergency needs, deferring, reducing, or 
abolishing tuition payment, granting more scholarships, sponsoring com- 
munity recreational activities, and providing free lectures and entertain- 
ments. 

In the early years of the depression the public schools were enlisted 
in the educational work for the unemployed. Statements issued by the 
United States Office of Education between May and August, 1932,, 
report that many communities have made adjustments in school facili- 
ties to meet the needs of the unemployed. In general, the following 
program is in effect: evening school facilities have been extended j 
continuation schools have been put on a full-time basis 5 new courses are 
being offered by vocational schools 5 postgraduate courses have been 
provided for former high school graduates $ shops have been opened 
for every training $ recreational opportunities have been developed. A 
great deal of the work offered is vocational, and of course occupational 
needs determine the character of the vocational studies being pursued. 
In certain western states, for example, men are being taught how to 
mine 5 instruction is being given in scientific agriculture in rural districts. 

Measures taken for emergency education in the State of New York 
are so extensive, because of the concentrated need in a large metropoli- 
tan area, that they deserve special notice. In November, 1932, $30,000 
per month was allocated by the State Temporary Relief Administration 
to the State Board of Education for the maintenance of adult education 
classes in New York City. The enrollment on December 15, 1932, num- 
bered 4,000 students, taught by 250 teachers ; in February, 1933, addi- 
tional funds amounting to $39,000 were appropriated for the extension 
of educational opportunities throughout the State of New York. The 
twofold aim of the plan is to provide work for highly trained unem- 
ployed men and women who are capable of teaching, and at the same 
time, to afford educational opportunities for thousands of unemployed 
adults. Popular agencies such as churches, libraries, museums, settle- 
ments, and social organizations are providing class rooms where needed. 
Free college centers have been established at Albany, Buffalo, Garden 



24O HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

City, and White Plains, the first two under the direction of the State 
University, the latter under the College of the City of New York. 
The State College of Forestry at Syracuse is directing the work of col- 
legiate centers at Syracuse and Rochester. The state program has been 
extended to include seventy or more cities and small towns outside the 
metropolitan area, 

A further development of educational opportunities for the unem- 
ployed was announced in July, 1933, by the Federal Relief Administra- 
tion. Funds have been set aside from Federal Relief Emergency sources 
to provide a national program of work relief in education. Under this 
plan State Emergency Relief Administrations cooperate with state edu- 
cational agencies under Federal direction to promote a nation-wide 
educational program. Funds may be used for six purposes as follows: 
for work relief for teachers in rural schools in cases where schools are 
either closed or would be closed without the help of relief funds 5 to 
teach men and women to read and write English 5 for vocational educa- 
tion; for rehabilitation classes; for general education; and for the 
establishment of emergency nursery schools. The program for adults 
includes classes for illiterate adults and for persons desiring to learn new 
vocations, rehabilitation classes for the handicapped, and general adult 
education classes. As this volume goes to press complete information is 
not available as to the programs of each state. Detailed plans from forty- 
four states have so far been submitted to the Federal Emergency Relief 
organization in Washington, In a few states, among them Ohio, plans 
have been approved and are already in operation. The Ohio program 
is described in detail below. 

One of the first educational agencies to become aware of the wants 
of men and women who had never before had involuntary leisure thrust 
upon them was the public library. Early in 1930 reading rooms began 
to be crowded. People who had never used the public library before 
came to it for warmth and shelter; others who were familiar with the 
library and its uses spent their leisure time in reading to improve them- 
selves and to seek a diverting escape from harassing reality. In the past 
three years between three and four million new borrowers have regis- 
tered at public libraries; the increase in the circulation of books has been 
nearly forty per cent, the largest gain being in books dealing with social 
sciences, vocational subjects, art, and music. Thousands seeking work 
were quick to turn to the readers' adviser for planning courses of study 
when they failed to find work. As a rule readers' advisers have kept a 
file of vocational opportunities offered in the locality and have indexed 
courses being given elsewhere by special schools and colleges. 



EDUCATION FOR UNEMPLOYED 241 

State library extension activities have included the promotion of 
special study programs on world economic conditions. 

Several important experiments are under way to discover to what 
extent and in what ways unemployed individuals can be aided through 
vocational diagnosis, counsel, and retraining. The Tri-City Employment 
Stabilization Committee, organized in 1930, through the Employment 
Stabilization Research Institute at the University of Minnesota, has 
organized and operated three occupational clinics in free public employ- 
ment offices, serving the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Duluth areas. A 
description of the program of the Committee is given in the notes that 
follow this article. Psychological tests and counseling service are now 
directing hundreds of registrants along new lines of search in the effort 
to fit themselves for future work. 

In the winter of 1933 a similar experiment was instituted in New 
York City with the establishment of the Adjustment Service sponsored 
by the American Association for Adult Education and New York City's 
Committee for Unemployment Relief. The Service is described on 
page 292. 

In a number of communities local agencies having an educational 
and recreational program have combined their forces to provide cultural 
opportunities for the unemployed. In Syracuse, New York, for example, 
a committee of one hundred citizens representing every race, religion, 
social and welfare agency, as well as the city government, organized 
the Syracuse Associated Leisure Time Program, that aims to reach 
young people from the ages of 1 6 to 25. This program is being carried 
forward by volunteer and emergency relief workers and is divided into 
four sections: education, sports, social centers, and food gardens. The 
educational part of the program is administered by the State Depart- 
ment of Education. 

Williamsport, Pennsylvania, a city of forty-seven thousand, is an 
example of a community that took a scientific attitude toward its unem- 
ployment problem. In 1931 the Chamber of Commerce made a study 
of the city's unemployment situation through an analysis of some two 
thousand cases. It was found in the cases investigated, that personal 
inertia and failure to provide for occupational growth proved a larger 
factor in the unemployment of the average man than changes of meth- 
ods and materials. Accordingly, the school district, with the cooperation 
of the Chamber of Commerce, opened a retraining school. At the same 
time, a study was attempted of occupational trends which might develop 
in the future. 

Makers of educational programs during the present depression have 



242 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

had the interests of working people uppermost. Opportunities have 
been offered them to develop vocational inclinations, and to improve in 
skill and knowledge in their chosen trades. These opportunities have 
been extended through every active channel for community welfare: 
schools, universities, libraries, and meeting places for recreation and 
public discussion. 

Churches, settlement houses, Young Men's and Young Women's 
Christian Associations, and other local agencies report enlarged pro- 
grams to include the unemployed. Forums and discussion groups on 
modern economics have been organized in many churches. Settlement 
houses report an increase in the number of classes offering such voca- 
tional subjects as domestic economy and mechanics and in the number 
of discussion groups and forums on current economics and political and 
social problems. The Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciations have established special classes and schools which offer a large 
number of subjects in cultural and vocational fields 5 in a few cities voca- 
tional guidance clinics have been established. In many instances both 
organizations are cooperating with local boards of education by provid- 
ing class rooms for emergency schools. 

MARY FRANK, Former Head of 
Extension Department) 
New York Public Library. 

The above account shows that an effort is being made by many different 
types of agencies to meet the needs of hundreds of thousands of the unem- 
ployed who want to "go back to school." It is impossible to list all such 
agencies here. The selection that appears below, alphabetically arranged by 
state and city, includes representative programs. 

ALABAMA COLLEGE, Montevallo, Ala., DIVISION OF ADULT AND CONTINUATION 
O. O. Carmichael, fres* EDUCATION, University of California, 

A - - 311 California State Bldg., Los An- 

Aftemoon extension courses for un- j Calif ^ ^ T ^ 

employed young men in the town and 

surrounding communities. All communities in state can secure 

full financial support from state adult 
STATE AGMCULTURAJ. AND MECHAN- education funds for operating approved 

ICAL COLLEGE, Normal, Ala. courses ' f urs . for "^ployed chiefly 

concerned with avocational activities, 

Night classes in vocational agricul- with some social-civic forums on pres- 
ture, and classes for women in home ent-day political, social, and economic 
economics, contacts made through events; in January, 1933, 33^244. un- 
churches, employed adults registered in classes 



EDUCATION FOR UNEMPLOYED 



243 



(about one-third of total number 
served throughout year). 

GIRLS' EMERGENCY COOPERATIVE 
CLUB, Y.W.C.A. of Oakland, 1515 
Webster St., Oakland, Calif, Elinor 
Hamilton, mgr. 

Group of 39 girls engaged in re- 
modeling clothing for themselves, and 
in making quilts, small gifts, and cards 
for sale; club members offered oppor- 
tunity to earn points, which may be 
converted into cash or into gymnasium 
tickets; courses given in dress, pub- 
lic affairs, cooking, remodeling, weav- 
ing, social dancing, books, etc.; cooper- 
ative club will be included in larger 
leisure-time program now being planned 
for both employed and unemployed. 

GRAND JUNCTION STATE JUNIOR COL- 
LEGE, Grand Junction, Colo. 

Series of free informational lectures 
on topics related to understanding and 
appreciation of the community; night 
classes in Italian and geology. 

STATE OF DELAWARE, Department of 
Public Instruction, Division of Adult 
Education, nth and Washington Sts., 
Wilmington, Del., Marguerite H. 
Burnett, Mr. of division. 

During depression has given direction 
and guidance in following activities, 
budgeting and planning for mothers; 
making garments with material pro- 
vided by the Red Cross; making over 
and reconditioning clothing; providing 
recreation for unemployed family 
groups, through use of school buildings 
(10,000 participated); and by provid- 
ing recreation, including gymnasium 
classes, basketball, dances, for young 
adults in homes of unemployed. 

COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, 
Decatur, Ga. 

Offers graduate work and special 
courses to unemployed ministers. 



LEISURE TIME INSTITUTE, Y.M.C.A., 
1400 E. ssrd St., Chicago, 111., L. T. 
Grossman, dir* 

Sponsored by the Council of Hyde 
Park and Kenwood Churches; begun 
spring, 1933; purpose is "to benefit men 
and women, young and old, who wish 
to employ their leisure time in a con- 
structive way both for pleasure and 
practical advantage", courses in basic 
English and composition, fine arts, psy- 
chology, dramatics, newspaper and news 
writing, speed dictation, forum on so- 
cial and economic issues, occupations and 
social trends, effective speaking, etc.; 
instructors giving services; over 450 per- 
sons enrolled, spring, 1933; over too 
taking two or more courses; 80 per cent 
of students unemployed. 

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, University Ex- 
tension Division, Lawrence, Kan., 
Harold G. Ingham, dir. 

Has organized emergency extension 
classes in centers where there are five or 
more high school graduates unable for 
financial reasons to attend college during 
1933-34, experimental program for one 
year only; courses of junior level of- 
fered in economics, English, French, 
Latin, German, Spanish, mathematics, 
physics; courses being conducted by 
local instructors with supervision pro- 
vided by University, no student per- 
mitted to enroll for more than nine 
semester hours* credit in any one se- 
mester; comprehensive examinations at 
mid-semester and end of course to de- 
termine granting of credit to each stu- 
dent; all credits earned under this plan 
to be recorded as extension or correspon- 
dence study credits and to be included 
in 30 hours' maximum of extension 
credit which may be accepted toward 
degree from a standard college; no en- 
rollment fee required of individual stu- 
dent but class as a whole required to pay 
regular fee for single enrollment in 



244 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



correspondence course selected,- fee may 
be paid by local board of education, 
high, school, or collectively by individual 
students enrolled, for further infor- 
mation about Division, see University 
Extension. 

CITY WIDE EMERGENCY COMMITTEE 
ON HEALTH AND RECREATION, 739 
Boylston St., Boston, Mass., W. Dun- 
can Russell, sec. 

During 1932-33 conducted program 
through eight major departments mu- 
sic, physical activities, arts and crafts, 
dramatics, game and reading rooms, co- 
operative university courses, entertain- 
ment, and medicine; activities carried 
on in municipal buildings under central 
committee consisting of department 
heads and lay persons, assisted by de- 
partmental committees made up of lead- 
ing people in each of eight departments, 
under direct control of sectional or 
neighborhood committees made up of 
representatives of leading organizations 
and private citizens who represent inter- 
ests of given neighborhood, each neigh- 
borhood committee had trained organ- 
izer and assistance of paid choral, 
orchestral, dramatic, and arts and crafts 
director; reading and game room su- 
pervision under direction of men from 
Public Welfare lists, offices of Com- 
munity Service handle general admin- 
istration and supervision of work. 

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS, 
Department of Education, State 
House, Boston, Mass., James A. 
Moyer, dir. 

Work for unemployed in eastern 
Massachusetts in charge of committee 
composed of faculty members from col- 
leges in and around Boston and member 
of State Department of Education, 
classes conducted in Springfield in 
commercial subjects; enrollment, 75; 
classes in Boston included business eco- 



nomics, literature, practical psychology, 
business English, appreciation of art and 
music, and choral singing, enrollment, 
1,000. 

SIMMONS COLLEGE, Boston, Mass., Ban- 
croft Bentley, fres. 

Unemployed graduates of recent 
years allowed to enter any of non- 
technical classes without charge for tui- 
tion, provided enrollment permits; Sec- 
retarial School offers special class in dic- 
tation to maintain speed in shorthand. 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, 
766 Main St., Worcester, Mass., Rob- 
ert L. Moore, gen. sec. 

Classes offered unemployed during 
1 93 3"34 OI * vocational guidance, com- 
mercial subjects, radio theory, elemen- 
tary economics, psychology and mental 
hygiene, modern economic problems, 
health; also recreational program in- 
cluding dramatics, music, art, literature, 
competitive games. 

YOUTH, INCORPORATED, Ferndale and 
Pleasant Ridge, Michigan, Catherine 
Yates Pickering, chmn. 

Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. clubs served 
as nucleus for group which organized to 
establish a community center with an 
educational and recreational program 
available to residents of Ferndale and 
Pleasant Ridge; group bought and re- 
modeled house, providing recreation and 
class rooms, schools of Ferndale, several 
churches, public library, and private 
homes also furnish rooms for holding 
classes; classes in psychology, history, 
political science, economics, modern 
languages, music, dramatics, home eco- 
nomics, furniture finishing and repair- 
ing, commercial subjects, etc., taught by 
volunteers; majority of students recent 
high school graduates; board of directors 



EDUCATION FOR UNEMPLOYED 



245 



composed of representatives of schools, 
colleges, and churches, and other edu- 
cational and social organizations, and 
of representatives elected by members 
of Youth Incorporated; organization 
supported by small sums raised by mem- 
bers. 

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, Committee 
on Individual Diagnosis and Retrain- 
ing, Employment Stabilization Re- 
search Institute, Minneapolis, Minn., 
R. A, Stevenson, dir. 

Free vocational and educational coun- 
seling including extensive battery of 
tests offered to unemployed; has made 
intensive study of 3,700 unemployed 
individuals, furnishing them with oc- 
cupational information and putting 
them in touch with available training 
organizations in those cases where train- 
ing seems desirable to bring about oc- 
cupational rehabilitation. 

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, Extension 
Division, Minneapolis, Minn., Rich- 
ard R. Price, dir. 

During 1933-34 offering to local 
high schools opportunity to organize 
graduates into supervised groups for 
purpose of studying university corre- 
spondence courses in certain suggested 
subjects; groups following prescribed 
courses, under supervision of local edu- 
cational authority allowed to take exam- 
inations for university credit, such 
credit to be counted toward degree after 
student has spent one year in residence 
at University; total charge to student 
taking full-time work, exclusive of 
text books, about $4.5 a year; subjects in 
program include English composition 
and literature, modern world history, 
economics, mathematics, French, Ger- 
man, Latin, psychology, sociology, etc.; 
for further information about program 
of Division, see University Extension. 



MONTANA SCHOOL OF MINES, Butte, 
Mont , Charles H. Clapp, fres. 

Since 1932 has maintained courses of 
two months' duration for miners, also 
sponsored courses in placer mining, en- 
rollment over 1,500. 

EXECUTIVES' CLUB, Y.M.C.A., 654 
Bergen Ave., Jersey City, N. J., Fred 
Bevendge, in charge of class. 

Class in wood working, attended by 
former employees of Western Electric 
Company at Kearney. 

JUNIOR LEAGUE COMMUNITY HOUSE, 
30 Maple Ave., Montclair, N. J., 
Mrs. Lyman T. Burgess. 

Operating Free Time Guild where 
cultural and educational courses attrac- 
tive to educated persons out of work 
are given; concerts and recitals ar- 
ranged; working in cooperation with 
many community leaders; conducting 
Economics Forum for general public. 

RUTGERS UNIVERSITY, New Brunswick, 
N. J., Robert C. Clothier, fres. 

Admits without charge to regular 
courses in men's college unemployed 
male residents of New Jersey over thirty 
years of age; admission granted only to 
scheduled resident courses and not to 
evening and extension classes, candidates 
required to meet all class assignments, 
to provide themselves with necessary 
books and supplies, and to be subject to 
same rules governing other students. 

UNION COUNTY JUNIOR COLLEGE, Ro- 
selle, N. J., H. B. Huntley, deem. 

Selected graduates of recent years 
from high schools of county given free 
instruction in English, mathematics, 
French, German, economics, science, 
history, financed by Federal and state 
emergency relief funds; courses in- 
tended for those desiring to enter col- 
lege of liberal arts and sciences, teach- 



246 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



ers' college, or college of engineering; 
classes held late afternoon and evening 
in public school building. 

STATE OF NEW YORK, Department of 
Education, Albany, N. Y., Lewis R. 
Wilson, asst. commissioner) vocational 
and extension education , W. C. 
Smith, chief, adult education bureau. 

Conducts state-wide program with 
two-fold aim of providing work for 
highly trained unemployed men and 
women capable of teaching, and of af- 
fording educational opportunities for 
thousands of adults; in December, 1932, 
State Temporary Relief Administration 
allocated an initial fund of $30,000 for 
maintenance of classes in New York 
City; initial enrollment, December, 
1932, 4,000 with 250 teachers; in Feb- 
ruary, 1933, additional funds amount- 
ing to $39,380 appropriated for exten- 
sion of educational opportunities 
throughout State of New York; various 
cities the state over now offer classes in 
practically every subject for which there 
is sufficient demand, including fine and 
applied arts, music, drama, literature, 
languages, psychology, sociology, sci- 
ences, history and government, commer- 
cial subjects and the various trades; 
26,000 students, 800 teachers partici- 
pating in program; free college centers 
established in Albany and Buffalo under 
direction of State University, and in 
Garden City and White Plains under 
College of the City of New York, State 
College of Forestry directing work of 
collegiate centers at Syracuse and Roch- 
ester. 

BUFFALO MUSEUM OF SCIENCE, Mu- 
seum Amigos Club, Humboldt Park, 
Buffalo, N. Y., A. Edmere Cabana, 
fublicity mgr.y George R. Rendall, 
club counselor. 

Boys and girls, between ages of 16 
and 25, mostly unemployed, who had 



been aimlessly visiting museum to pass 
time, formed nucleus of club; with 
help of the Free-Time Activities Coun- 
cil of the Mayor's Committee on Un- 
employment, opportunities for swim- 
ming, gymnasium, basketball, baseball, 
glee club work, drama groups, weekly 
dances, and outings arranged, museum 
conducts class, The World We Live In, 
for club members, altogether about 400 
young people actively interested in club 
activities, general program under mu- 
seum direction, but direction and re- 
sponsibility for club management in 
hands of club counselor, appointed by 
Mayor's Committee. 

MOUNT VERNON PUBLIC LIBRARY, 
Mount Vernon, N. Y., Alice L. 
Jewett, In. 

Under direction of local superinten- 
dent of schools, in cooperation with 
Public Library and Emergency Work 
Bureau, one librarian, assisted by four 
trained workers (not librarians), em- 
ployed in promoting reading in homes 
and in conducting reading room at Wel- 
fare Center for purpose of providing 
both leisure-time activity and means of 
educational opportunity for unem- 
ployed. 

COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK, 
New York, N. Y., Frederick B. Rob- 
inson, fres. 

Afternoon courses specially for teach- 
ers, evening sessions for matriculated 
and non-matriculated students not only 
academic but also vocational and pro- 
fessional; also directing activities of 
free day colleges at Garden City and 
White Plains inaugurated by State De- 
partment of Education; radio college of 
the air over station WNYC, numerous 
lectures by staff members at college and 
elsewhere under various auspices. 



EDUCATION FOR UNEMPLOYED 



247 



ARCHITECTS' EMERGENCY COMMITTEE, 
115 E. 40th St., New York, N. Y., 
Lyda M. Nelson, ex. sec. 

Aids members of architectural pro- 
fession in the region of New York by 
finding jobs where possible and by giv- 
ing limited financial help where neces- 
sary; conducts educational architectural 
competitions and ai ranges from time to 
time for lecture and study courses for 
unemployed architects. 

COMMITTEE ON UNEMPLOYMENT AND 
RELIEF FOR CHEMISTS AND CHEM- 
ICAL ENGINEERS, 300 Madison Ave., 
New York, N. Y., M, R. Bhagwat, 
sec. 

Sponsored by all chemical societies; 
arrangements made for qualified persons 
to attend, free of charge, lectures at 
Columbia University, New York Uni- 
versity, or Rutgers University. 

NEW YORK LEAGUE OF GIRLS CLUBS, 
22 E. s8th St., New York, N. Y., 
Marie Keller, Mr. 

Classes in current events, rhythmic 
dancing, etc.; occasional lectures on 
current topics; musicales, club rooms 
open to unemployed girls for rest and 
recreation. 

NEW YORK WORKERS' COMMITTEE ON 
UNEMPLOYMENT, 112 E. iQth St., 
New York, N. Y., David Lasser, ex. 
sec. 

A non-partisan organization of the 
unemployed for the purpose of obtain- 
ing adequate relief during unemploy- 
ment; organizing complete program of 
social legislation including unemploy- 
ment and social insurance, the shorter 
work day, etc.; carries on educational 
program through mass meetings and dis- 
cussion groups to aid in building a new 
social order; now has 24 locals estab- 
lished in settlement houses and churches 
in New York City. 



Civic COMMITTEE ON UNEMPLOYMENT, 
516 Genesee Valley Trust Bldg., 
Rochester, N. Y., S. Park Harman, 
AX. sec. 

In cooperation with Citizens' Social 
Planning Committee compiled informa- 
tion about community councils of adult 
education through the country as a guide 
to formation of a "Council on Coop- 
eration in Adult Education" for Roch- 
ester; in cooperation with Citizens' 
Social Planning Committee established 
community evening school for commer- 
cial subjects on cost basis of $.10 per 
lesson; school registration over 300, 
has outlined a study looking toward de- 
velopment of technological trends in 
unemployment in industries in commu- 
nity, expects to make preliminary study 
of subject as outlined during 1934. 

SYRACUSE ASSOCIATED LEISURE TIME 
PROGRAM (S.A.L.T.), Syracuse, N. Y., 
Daniel E. Rohner, staff dir. 

Plan started by committee of about 
100 citizens representing every race, re- 
ligion, social and welfare agency, the 
city government, newspapers, and many 
other organizations and groups in city, 
for purpose of providing educational 
and recreational programs for unem- 
ployed persons, especially those 18-25; 
recreational program includes indoor 
and outdoor sports of all kinds in parks 
and social centers, aggregate attendance 
at various activities during summer 
X 933> 2,500,000; program to continue 
during winter 1933-34; educational 
classes have been taken over by state 
department of education. 

CONSOLIDATED UNIVERSITY OF NORTH 
CAROLINA, Extension Division, Chapel 
Hill, N. C., R. M. Grumman, Mr. 

Division represents extension work of 
the Woman's College, Greensboro, State 
College of Agriculture and Engineering, 



248 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



and the University of North Carolina 5 
making provision for students unable to 
attend college because of financial rea- 
sons to study at home in groups or in- 
dividually through correspondence 
courses, group study plan gives oppor- 
tunity for high school graduates and 
others with some college credit and de- 
siring undergraduate degree credit at 
the University of North Carolina to 
organize into study groups of six 01 
more, with or without a local super- 
visor; supervisor paid by group; persons 
not interested in college credit but de- 
siring to follow directed plan of study 
for educational and cultural purposes 
may organize in groups of six or more; 
to decrease expenses only one member 
of group enrolls for course and re- 
ceives set of assignments and considera- 
tion of his papers by an instructor, but 
whole group discusses the lesson ma- 
terial and instructor's comment, fee for 
correspondence course is $3.75 per se- 
mester hour; late afternoon, evening 
and Saturday morning extension classes 
organized throughout state wherever 
enough enrollments secured to cover 
cost; reduction of 25 per cent has been 
made in tuition charges for extension 
courses, making rate $7.50 for an en- 
rollment representing two semester 
hours 5 instruction (i.e., sixteen class 
meetings, of one hour and forty-five 
minutes each) ; 

During last quarter of 1932-33 col- 
lege year Division provided opportunity 
for college graduates without employ- 
ment and without funds sufficient for 
regular college course to attend Uni- 
versity as Institute students, under In- 
stitute plan students allowed to attend 
classes without receiving academic credit; 
fee of $75 covered room, board, and 
other charges, plan not functioning dur- 
ing first quarter of 1933-34, but may 
start at beginning of second quarter, 
with entrance extended to high school 
graduates. 



COMMITTEE ON OPPORTUNITIES FOR 
THE UNEMPLOYED, Public Library, 
629 Vine St., Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Miriam Walker, ex. sec. 

Conducting classes, taught by volun- 
teers in 42 subjects including account- 
ing, advertising, journalism, household 
arts, mathematics, French, German, 
tailoring, radio salesmanship, etc.; 
classes held in school buildings, 
Y.W.CA.'s, and other public buildings, 
aggregate attendance all of 1932 
through spring of 1933, 11,895; Public 
Recreation Commission plans and super- 
vises students' recreational activities; 
maintains close cooperation with all de- 
partments of public library and espe- 
cially with Readers' Bureau. 

STATE OF OHIO, Department of Educa- 
tion, Columbus, Ohio, B. O. Skin- 
ner, dir. of education. 

Department of Education directing 
general education program of Ohio 
Work Relief Education Committee; 
program supported by Federal Emer- 
gency Relief Administration funds, gen- 
eral purpose of relief program is "to 
provide constructive employment for 
unemployed persons on relief and com- 
petent to teach, and at the same time 
provide socially-constructive activities 
to numerous other persons"; local pro- 
grams conducted through County Work 
Relief Education Council (consisting of 
county and city superintendents of 
schools, director of County Relief Com- 
mission, representatives from local min- 
isterial association, local federation of 
labor, chamber of commerce, parent- 
teacher association, Federated Women's 
Clubs, County Home Economic Relief 
Unit) in cooperation witK State Com- 
mittee; instruction provided for unem- 
ployed and "other adults in need of 
further general educational activities to 
make them well-informed, responsible, 
and self-supporting citizens." 



EDUCATION FOR UNEMPLOYED 



249 



Classes in English and citizenship for 
non-English speaking persons (public 
school evening classes, home classes for 
foreign-born mothers, neighborhood 
classes, and factory classes); evening 
classes for American-born persons and 
other adults unable to read and 
write, home economics classes for home 
makers to enable them to select and 
prepare wholesome foods at a mini- 
mum cost, make clothing, etc.; courses 
in gardening and poultry raising for 
men and women, courses for unem- 
ployed adults who can benefit from 
vocational training and can not obtain 
training desired through regular chan- 
nels, such classes to include persons in 
need of vocational education to make 
them employable; general education 
courses for unemployed men and women 
of at least elementary education to en- 
able them to make wider use of public 
library facilities and general reading 
opportunities, for recent unemployed 
high school graduates to enable them 
to continue their education in part at 
least, and for industrial workers, em- 
ployed and unemployed, to enable them 
to acquire a knowledge of industrial 
history, labor standards, labor legisla- 
tion, industrial relations, etc., classes to 
enable both men and women to main- 
tain physical health and morale and to 
use their time constructively and whole- 
somely. 

IRONTON HIGH SCHOOL, Parent Teacher 
Association, Ironton, Ohio, Mandel 
Davidson, sec. 

Classes organized January, 1933; 
weekly meetings held, January to 
April, with average attendance of 400; 
classes in public speaking, home eco- 
nomics, practical nursing, current events, 
business law, public finance, philosophy, 
English, literature, music, electricity; 
teachers are practical business and pro- 
fessional men and women of city; pro- 
gram continued, 1934. 



OBERLIN COLLEGE, Oberlm, Ohio, 
E. H. Wilkms, pes. 

Free tuition during year 1933-34 ^~ 
fered class graduating June, 1933, from 
College of Arts and Sciences, and those 
eligible for graduate work unable to 
find work; no degree granted or credit 
formally acknowledged until tuition fee 
is paid. 

FREE - TIME SCHOOL, Y. W. C. A., 
Springfield, Ohio, Mrs. R. D. Pat- 
ton, Mr. 

Organized and administered by Gen- 
eral Education Department of the 
Y.W.C.A. primarily for recent high 
school graduates of both sexes, but others 
may be admitted to certain classes by 
special arrangement; all classes held in 
evening; instructors giving services; 
college-grade classes continue for 16 
weeks, short-term classes for 10 weeks; 
college-grade classes include algebra, 
Bible, English, investments and finance, 
introductory psychology, recreation lead- 
ership, French, German; short-term 
courses include dramatics, commercial 
courses, commercial art, clothing prob- 
lems, interior decorating, dietetics and 
home nursing, practical English, sales- 
manship; also glee club, orchestra, song 
leadership, sketch club; students who 
may eventually matriculate at Witten- 
berg College may obtain credit for work 
of college grade offered by school, upon 
passing an examination after one se- 
mester of work at the college, registra- 
tion, fall 1933, 425; Warder Public 
Library offering instruction to students 
m use of library. 

UNIVERSITY OF TOLEDO, Opportunity 
School, Toledo, Ohio, John Reed 
Spicer, dir. 

Free educational courses for citizens 
of Toledo; all courses of college level, 
but since there are no prerequisites and 



250 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



since courses are shortened and simpli- 
fied, no college credit given; courses in 
business subjects, education, English, 
history, languages, home economics, 
philosophy and psychology, sociology, 
mathematics, literature, political and 
natural sciences, etc.; each class meets 
one night a week for two hours , 2 terms 
of 10 weeks each; enrollment, fall, 
1933, 1,200. 

OREGON STATE SYSTEM OF HIGHER 
EDUCATION, General Extension Divi- 
sion, Eugene, Ore., Alfred Powers, 
dean. 

Classes organized by Portland branch 
of American Association of University 
Women in 1932; planned primarily for 
young people between ages of 18 and 
25, high school graduates, who for finan- 
cial reasons were unable to continue 
education; courses in written English, 
literature, French, German, Spanish, 
journalism, mathematics, history, social 
problems, current events, etc.; some 
classes during 1933-34 conducted by 
faculty of University of Oregon and 
Oregon State College; for further in- 
formation about Division program, see 
University Extension. 

LINFIELD COLLEGE, McMinnville, 
Ore., W. R. Frerichs, acting pres. 

By way of extension education offers 
community a "go to college" night; 
population of 3,000, enrollment of 150; 
lecture and discussion courses in charac- 
ter education, applied psychology, Amer- 
ican political ideas, international rela- 
tions, extemporaneous speaking, French, 
art, and music appreciation. 

OREGON STATE LIBRARY, Salem, Ore., 
Harriet C. Long, In. 

Prepares reading courses on any sub- 
ject for persons residing in Oregon; no 
charge or credit for courses; service 



planned particularly to reach rural 
young people unable to attend college 
or even to afford a formal correspon- 
dence course, but has now been opened 
to any adult in state, announcement of 
availability of courses made for first 
time on December 6, 1932; in Novem- 
ber, 19333 88 1 students enrolled in 
courses covering 238 subjects; voca- 
tional interests predominate; books sug- 
gested in each course lent from State 
Library for one month, without cost 
other than postage. 

LAFAYETTE COLLEGE, Easton, Pa., 
W. M. Lewis, fres. 

Has offered courses free to men of 
thirty years or over, with two years' 
high school education in engineering, 
economics, history, government, law, 
and other subjects of general interest to 
layman; also has conducted public 
forums on the campus; in September, 
1933, program expanded to include not 
only unemployed, but all interested in 
subjects presented; department of geol- 
ogy offering course including field trips; 
on first trip, 50 people assembled, 
about half of whom were college and 
university graduates; first lecture on eco- 
nomics attended by 200 people, about 
40 per cent of whom were college and 
university graduates, second lecture at- 
tended by 250; in addition to courses 
in geology and economics, others to be 
offered in political science, drama, and 
various technical subjects. 

CARNEGIE LIBRARY, Depression Univer- 
sity, Homestead, Pa., William F. 
Stevens, /., H. W. Eagleson, dean. 

University developed in library in 
I933> building has class rooms for di- 
rected study; volunteer teachers are 
college graduates; subjects taught in- 
clude stenography, typewriting, rapid 
dictation, public speaking, civics, Span- 
ish, German, English, drama, commer- 



EDUCATION FOR UNEMPLOYED 



251 



cial law, economics, commercial arith- 
metic, college algebra, electrical engi- 
neering, journalism, philosophy, ac- 
counting, civil engineering, psychology, 
hygiene, English literature and compo- 
sition; subjects taught selected by stu- 
dents, reference, research, and collat- 
eral reading done in library; classes 
meet during evenings, little theater 
group and glee club give plays and con- 
certs; enrollment, 500 (high school 
graduates and college students). 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC PLAYGROUNDS 
AND RECREATION, Reading, Pa., 
Thomas W. Lantz, <&r. 

Conducts self-supporting handicraft 
projects for unemployed; craft shop 
provides work for 24 men. 

LYCOMING COUNTY EMERGENCY EM- 
PLOYMENT COMMITTEE, Williams- 
port, Pa., F. Ralph Lehman, chmn. 

Chamber of Commerce began study- 
ing unemployment situation m 1930, in 
1931 opened retraining school in co- 
operation with school district; over 300 
enrolled first year for classes in truck 
driving, blue print reading, business 
procedure, etc.; 30 per cent of enroll- 
ment found work as result of courses 
taken; classes in continuous operation 
since; case studies of over 2,000 unem- 
ployed made; report to be published 
soon. 

LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES, Chamber of 
Commerce Bldg., Providence, R. I., 
O. T. Gilmore, gen. dir. 

Organized October, 1933, to furnish 
opportunity for use of leisure time in 
beneficial activities; to offer opportu- 
nity to all men and women and young 
people in city who wish to take part in 
developing and carrying on leisure-time 
activities, including sports, dances, mu- 
sic, hobbies, lectures, discussions, di- 



rected reading, and classes of various 
kinds; will serve as clearing house and 
fact-finding agency concerning needs, 
interests, activities, and resources re- 
lated to use of leisure time by people 
of City of Providence; plans to facili- 
tate mutual planning and cooperation 
between groups and organizations active 
in field, to find ways and means for 
provision of activities, programs and 
leadership found to be seriously needed, 
but not now provided; activities to be 
carried on in school buildings, com- 
munity rooms of public libraries, etc. 

BEAUMONT SOUTH PARK PUBLIC 
SCHOOL, Beaumont, Texas., C. W. 
Bingman, supt* 

Classes for adults in psychology, his- 
tory, sociology, public speaking, physics, 
chemistry, zoology, economics, drama, 
and short story; other classes in child 
guidance and health for parents; en- 
rollment 500, ranging from 30 to 250 
per subject; parent-teacher association 
conducting study courses in children's 
literature, the changing home, recrea- 
tion, parent-teacher association manage- 
ment; also series of book reviews being 
given with attendance of 1,000 adults 
per night. 

SALT LAKE CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Salt 
Lake City, Utah, L. John Nuttall, 
supt. 

Courses organized for unemployed 
with voluntary leadership, many teach- 
ers giving their time; courses in auto 
repairing, machine shop, electricity, 
acetylene welding, drafting, blue print 
reading, window trimming, domestic 
science, economics, government, history, 
music, and art. 

DEPRESSION COLLEGE, Port Royal, Va., 
Arthur C. C. Hill, Mr. 

Opened in November, 1932, to bring 
together teachers without positions, and 



252 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



students unable to continue studies in 
existing institutions; small undergradu- 
ate fee covers tuition and living ex- 
penses, while students care for own 
rooms and work in dining room, fac- 
ulty numbers 14 and undergraduates 
limited to 100. 

UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, Seattle, 
Wash,, J. F. Sterner, chmn., dtp. of 
sociology. 

Not giving any courses definitely de- 
signed for the unemployed, but granting 
permission to unemployed to attend cer- 
tain classes in University as auditors 
without payment of fees; assistance ren- 
dered by voluntary organizations on 
campus in supervising recreational ac- 
tivities for unemployed. 

COLLEGE OF PUGET SOUND, Tacoma, 
Wash., Edward H. Todd, fres. 

Practical courses m prospecting; dur- 
ing spring semester, 1933, at request of 
director of county relief work, sociology 
department organized and supervised 
class for 100 people, some of whom 
were out of work, to prepare them for 
social work among unemployed of city 
and county. 

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, University 
Extension Division, Madison, Wise., 
Chester D. Snell, dean. 

State has voted grant from relief 
funds up to $30,000 to pay fees for 
unemployed Wisconsin citizens qualified 
to take University extension and corre- 
spondence courses, courses include large 
number of vocational subjects, English 
and other languages, literature, history, 
economics and sociology, business and 
technical subjects; "unemployed" in- 
terpreted to mean those persons doing 
less than half-time work-, State CWA 
late in 1933 approved "The University 
of Wisconsin Extension Division State- 



Wide Experiment in Adult Education," 
employing 159 trained unemployed per- 
sons in all-week state-wide adult edu- 
cation project to determine educational 
needs and desires of adult population; 
Milwaukee County CWA conducting 
similar project through Milwaukee 
Center; for further information about 
program of Division, see University Ex- 
tension. 

MILWAUKEE PUBLIC SCHOOLS, School 
Administration Bldg., mi No. loth 
St , Milwaukee, Wise., Milton C. 
Potter, sup., Dorothy C. Enderis, 
extension deft. 

In February, 1932, opened special 
recreation center for unemployed men 
in unused four-story factory building; 
open seven days a week from 9 a.m. to 
9pm., activities offered include read- 
ing room, table game rooms, billiards, 
gymnasium, active floor games, wood- 
work and evening entertainments; makes 
provision for men to cobble shoes and 
mend clothing; attendance, 2,500-3,000 
daily. 

LEISURE TIME SCHOOL, Racine, Wise., 
Harriet A. Harvey, 2002 Washing- 
ton Ave. 

Cooperative venture of Y.W.C.A., 
Y.M.C.A., vocational school, public li- 
brary, and other local institutions; pri- 
marily for high school graduates, but 
some classes for persons with college 
credit or degrees; school at present di- 
vided into junior department for high 
school graduates and senior department 
for adults; students working for credit 
under University of Wisconsin plan 
(q.v.) enroll in vocational high school; 
non-credit classes in art, dramatics, li- 
brary orientation, creative writing, etc., 
under volunteer leaders; term six or 
eight weeks in length; enrollment for 
non-credit work, fall, 1933, 119. 



EDUCATION FOR UNEMPLOYED 



253 



WAUPUN PUBLIC LIBRARY, Waupun, 
Wise., Clara L. Lindsley, In. 

Conducting discussion groups on eco- 
nomic and social problems open to all 
young people interested, directed by 
older persons; discussion based on read- 
ing materials made available by library; 
topics include Five and Ten Year plans, 
war debts and reparations, etc 

See also ADJUSTMENT SERVICE, p. 
292. 

Also the following articles' 

LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION, p. 

70. 

POLITICAL EDUCATION, p. 146. 
ADULT EDUCATION UNDER PUBLIC 

SCHOOL AUSPICES, p. 158. 
THE PLACE OF RECREATION IN ADULT 

EDUCATION, p 185. 
ADULT EDUCATION IN SETTLEMENTS, 

p. 203. 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, p. 254. 
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS, 

p. 280. 
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF ADULTS, p. 

288. 



READING LIST 



Calkins, Clinch, ed. Youth Never Comes 
Again. Committee on Unemployed 
Youth, 1933. 76 p. 

A handbook for the use of com- 
munity officials, educators, social 
workers and others interested in the 
problem of unemployed youth. The 
book describes various projects 
throughout the country and contains 
suggestive material for those working 
in this field. 

Cartwright, Morse A., ed. Unemploy- 
ment and Adult Education a Sym- 
posium. American Association for 
Adult Education, 1931. 63 p. 

Presents opinions of employer, 
educator, employee, philosopher, 
economist, statesman, in their search 
for effective ways in which education 
can function to relieve unemploy- 
ment. 

Worman, E. C. Free-Time Activities for 
Unemployed Young Men. Association 
Press, 1932. 70 p. 

A study of Y.M.C.A. projects of 
various kinds in eighteen communi- 
ties with histories of development 
and records of accomplishment. Sug- 
gestive material for organizing group 
activities. 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 

University extension covers more than the phrase implies, for it is 
not confined to universities, either state or private. Its methods are 
employed also by colleges, teacher training institutions, and technical 
schools. Some of its activities are common to such diverse enterprises as 
night schools, public libraries, lyceum bureaus, trade associations, work- 
ers' institutes, and even commercial schools. However, its best known 
field is that of organized instruction conducted by public institutions of 
higher learning for persons beyond high school age, usually with a high 
school education or its equivalent. 

The instruction is given by faculty members or their representatives 
to groups of special students in classes and to individuals by mail. Classes 
are held usually in late afternoon or evening, but at the largest urban 
centers courses are given also during the day to accommodate students 
whose programs do not fit into the regular college program. Classes are 
held not only on the campus in university buildings but also in cities, 
towns, and rural districts remote from the college seat. 

In most colleges work done by extension is credited, in varying 
amounts, toward a degree. In general, the universities that offer aca- 
demic courses by mail permit one-fourth to one-half of the credit neces- 
sary for a bachelor's degree to be earned by correspondence. 

Complete statistics of extension enrollments are not available be- 
cause the courses organized vary considerably each year and each session, 
and administrative policies continally shift. Moreover, the students and 
courses are often irregular and are not counted in the routine registra- 
tion data. Estimates indicate, however, that about three hundred thou- 
sand students are enrolled in class and correspondence courses of one 
type or another conducted by colleges and universities in every state in 
the Union and in Hawaii. 

Almost all occupations and stages of school preparation are repre- 
sented in the enrollment students, teachers, members of other profes- 
sions, business executives, clerks, farmers, housewives, club women, 
mechanics, and laborers. 

University extension is a widespread, long-established educational 
agency. In the United States it is perhaps the most consciously inte- 
grated aspect of adult education. It epitomizes or embraces the princi- 

254 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 255 

pies and practices of that peculiar institution, the American college or 
university a public service institution devoted to the general welfare. 
The modern university constitutes part of one of the most significant 
patterns in American cultural history, a pattern woven about the doc- 
trine of education as a solvent of social and individual problems. To 
that doctrine have been added step by step various applications of the 
principle that institutions of higher learning must function directly in 
the interest of the public. 

Consequently, for some forty years colleges and universities have 
yielded to the demand that they extend their educational privileges and 
benefits not only to youth, but to people of all ages. In action the uni- 
versity has become literally extended in a great diversity of under- 
takings, even beyond what is usually considered education. These 
undertakings include assistance in community organization, and informa- 
tional, advisory, and demonstration services in economics, civics, public 
health, hygiene, community recreation, music, and art. Such extensions 
of the university function are related to adult education even though 
they are not a part of it in the strict sense defined by Frederick Keppel 
as "the process of learning, on the initiative of the individual, seriously 
and consecutively undertaken as a supplement to some primary occupa- 
tion." 

University extension, as it is undertaken both formally and infor- 
mally by individuals and groups, furthers the process of learning, and 
in addition provides distinct services to the organizations, institutions, 
associations, and government agencies that are incidentally contributing 
to education. The modern American university, in a broad sense, ap- 
proaches an older conception of true education j namely, institutional 
pressure on, and participation in, the life of the group, and, conversely, 
the induction of members of the group into an understanding and appre- 
ciation of community values. To this dynamic function university exten- 
sion does not so much contribute new methods and techniques as is 
generally supposed j rather it serves as an administrative device that 
projects in widening circles the methods, the knowledge, and the insight 
developed by the university as a whole. 

The formal instruction developed by university extension, chiefly 
through correspondence teaching and class work, consists of higher edu- 
cation, and some secondary education, brought to a large group of 
students who are generally more mature than the students in residence 
at a college seat and who study somewhat irregularly at "unconven- 
tional times and places." 

While some of the informal extension activities and other direct 



256 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

services of universities such as those given through clinics, hospitals, 
and research bureaus are only in a somewhat remote sense adult educa- 
tion, they are of great importance to its vitality 5 for they, more than 
the formal teaching activities, give opportunity for learning by doing, 
for improvement in individual and community living. Certain types of 
informal services, such as instruction through discussion groups or 
forums, consultation and committee work in welfare projects, and pro- 
motion of study programs of state and local voluntary associations, are 
examples of well-defined adult education when the extension work is 
sufficiently continuous, elaborate, progressive, and stimulating to be pro- 
ductive of understanding and enlightenment. These results have been 
attained with fair adequacy in the field of citizenship, school relations, 
parenthood, art, literature, and health. 

The objectives of university extension teaching, and of much of the 
informal service, are both vocational and cultural. Such diverse activi- 
ties as lectures, reading courses, institutes, educational tours, demonstra- 
tions, exhibits, contests, classes, correspondence courses, credit and non- 
credit courses obviously are adaptable to either purpose, depending on 
the subject matter involved and the use made of the information, stimu- 
lation, or direction. More specifically university extension offers educa- 
tional opportunity for persons not attending college but engaged in 
some occupation. It provides for students who have deficiencies in prep- 
aration, but who are able to do advanced work; it gives opportunity for 
professional persons and others to pursue specialized lines of study to 
keep abreast of new movements in their fields. The main purpose is 
well expressed by the phrase "continuing education." 

University extension courses are generally organized and offered as 
equivalents of courses given in residence. The classes are usually in 
one of three groups of curricula: the academic subjects of the colleges 
of arts and sciences 5 the courses in commerce and business 5 and the 
engineering and industrial subjects. But many less easily classifiable 
subjects such as teacher training, textiles, decoration, journalism, and 
literature are taught by mail and in extension classes, especially in the 
latter. As a rule, the extension courses reflect the campus program, 
especially when academic credit is involved. Some institutions, however, 
offer predominantly popular non-credit courses to groups interested 
primarily in study, rather than in routine academic progress. 

At first glance the very diversity of university extension as a whole 
seems to preclude unity and integration and to lack wholly satisfactory 
objectives. The subjects taught in organized courses range from astron- 
omy to domestic science, and the informal activities cover a still wider 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 257 

span from weighing and measuring infants to city and regional plan- 
ning. Nevertheless, there is a partial unity in that most of the courses 
are systematized in schoolroom fashion and most of the students belong 
to the fairly homogeneous school-circle group. The latter group is made 
up of persons pursuing academic interests ; and many of the older 
adults, even those who have long since left school, still are stamped 
with the academic coloring, motivated by vocational ends or the desire 
to obtain a diploma. University extension does not reach the vast 
majority of the total population 5 of those it does reach, the largest 
proportion develop little beyond the academic pattern-routine instruc- 
tion scholastic methods, segmented information, limited courses of 
study. The integration, such as it is, seems somewhat uninspiring and 
relatively sterile. 

But the modern university is relatively new and a generation is a 
short time for an educational ferment to spread. There are signs that 
some of our leaders and many of their following are actuated by high 
motives of public welfare, habituated to community service, trained by 
scientific discipline, capable of adjustment and of adaptation to new 
situations. They have achieved a philosophy of what the educational 
process for adults in a changing world should be. 

University extension, like other ventures in adult education, must 
develop its methods experimentally, at the same time retaining its close 
connection with the best in the institution it represents, which in turn 
must readjust itself to a changing world. Recent movements in higher 
education and recent changes in university extension include efforts to 
vitalize instruction, to break away from the limited vocational or 
economic motive, to modify or abandon many of the meticulous 
restrictions on students and courses of study, to widen opportunity for 
admission to college, to develop new types of courses crossing depart- 
mental lines and emphasizing fundamentals, especially in the social 
sciences, and to increase the community services of the university in 
such a way that the people of the commonwealth will have concrete 
evidence of the fruitfulness of a public institution devoted to adult 
education and the general welfare. 

An example of adjustment of extension work to present-day con- 
ditions is the new program recently developed by the University of 
Minnesota for high school graduates unable to attend college for finan- 
cial reasons. Through arrangement with local high schools, the Univer- 
sity is offering graduates an opportunity for group study of certain 
academic subjects, under the supervision of local school authorities. 
Successful completion of the specified subjects will entitle the student 



258 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

to enter second year courses when he becomes a resident student at the 
University. A full description o this program appears on p. 245. Dur- 
ing the past year, other state universities have initiated similar programs. 
The fundamental pattern of education as a constructive process for 
the individual and the group, if expanded consistently by the great 
institutions of higher learning as disinterested models for other con- 
structive agencies, will, perhaps, in another generation or two enable 
our civilization to avoid woeful failure in cfrises like the present. 

W. S. BITTNER, Secretary, 
National University Ex- 
tension Association. 



Following are some of the colleges and universities having university 
extension programs. All figures given, except where otherwise indicated, are 
for 1932-33. They are listed alphabetically by the name of the institution. 



UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA, Division of 
University Extension, Tucson, Ariz., 
M. P. Vosskuhler, dir.$ total registra- 
tion: 1,196, 1931-32; total no. 
courses. 91, 1931-32. 

Classes in junior college, advanced 
college and graduate work in arts, lan- 
guages, literature, education, science; 

Correspondence courses offered in 
junior college and advanced college 
work in arts, languages, literature, 
physical sciences, social scienceS5 educa- 
tion, applied arts, commerce, special vo- 
cational work, agriculture, history, math- 
ematics, philosophy, psychology; 

Informal and special types of uni- 
versity extension service include drama 
service, guides to reading, lyceum, pack- 
age libraries, speech, music and other 
contests, conventions and conferences, 
lantern slides, motion pictures, univer- 
sity news bureau, lecture service. 

UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS, General Ex- 
tension Service, Fayetteville, Ark., 
A. M. Harding, dir., total registra- 
tion: 2,295; tota l no - courses: 157. 

Classes in junior college and ad- 
vanced college work, arts, languages, 
literature, social sciences, education; 



Correspondence courses offered in 
high school subjects, arts, languages, lit- 
erature, social sciences, education, en- 
gineering; 

Informal and special types of uni- 
versity extension service include child 
welfare, club study courses, general in- 
formation, package libraries, parent- 
teacher aids, publications, speech, music 
and other contests. 

BIRMINGHAM SOUTHERN COLLEGE, Di- 
vision of University Extension, Birm- 
ingham, Ala., J. O. E. Bathurst, dlr.i 
total registration (night and extension 
students): 4.88, total no. courses of- 
fered to night and extension students: 
45- 

Formal types of courses representing 
all liberal arts departments on campus 
offered to night and extension students. 

BOSTON UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSI- 
NESS ADMINISTRATION, Evening Di- 
vision, 525 Boylston St., Boston, 
Mass., Leo Drew O'Neil, dir. and 
asst. dean, total registration: 2,036; 
total no. courses: 126. 

Courses in evening same as those of- 
fered day students for most part but 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 



259 



lead to B.B.A. degree; courses given by 
day faculty with some additional in- 
structors for certain technical courses. 

BROWN UNIVERSITY, Division of Uni- 
versity Extension, Providence, R. L, 
C. Emanuel Ekstrom, dir.i total reg- 
istration: 1,500-2,000; total no. 
courses: 40-50. 

Formal courses offered for credit by 
most of college departments; non-credit 
courses of lectures on current events, 
art, music, reviews of literature, etc. 

UNIVERSITY OF BUFFALO, Evening Ses- 
sion, 25 Niagara Square, Buffalo, 
N. Y., C. S. Marsh, dean, total reg- 
istration: 2,OH; total no. courses: 
294.. 

Formal courses for credit include arts 
and sciences, business, engineering, fine 
arts, social service, education, and jour- 
nalism; non-credit courses in child 
training, income tax review, etc. 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, University 
Extension Division, Berkeley, Calif., 
Leon J. Richardson, <ttr.; total reg- 
istration (night and ext. students), 
27,541; total no. courses, 1,316. 

Courses offered for credit on campus 
and wherever there is demand through- 
out state include high school, college 
entrance, junior and advanced college 
courses in arts, languages, literature, 
physical and social sciences, education, 
engineering, medical courses, law, ap- 
plied arts, commerce, and special voca- 
tional work; 

Correspondence courses offered in 
high school, college entrance, junior 
college and advanced college work in 
art, languages, literature, physical and 
social sciences, orientation courses, edu- 
cation, engineering, medicine, law, ap- 
plied arts, commerce, special vocational 
work; 



Informal and special types of service 
include child welfare, club study 
courses, guides to reading, lantern slides, 
motion pictures, radio, and art exhibits. 

CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 
Evening Session, Pittsburgh, Pa., Ros- 
coe M. Ihrig, dir.; total registration: 
2,087; total no. courses: 310. 

Credit courses include industrial 
courses, engineering, fine arts, general 
cultural courses, works management, in- 
dustrial education, vocational courses, 
etc.; all subjects carry credit; all sub- 
jects except vocational courses and col- 
lege preparatory subjects carry degree 
credit. 

CASE SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE, 
Evening Session, 10,900 Euclid Ave., 
Cleveland, Ohio, H. B. Dates, Mr. 

Courses include engineering and re : 
lated sciences given by Cleveland Col- 
lege of Western Reserve University with 
which School is affiliated; postgraduate 
courses toward M.S. degree offered in 
late afternoon or evening; two or three 
intensive conference schools of three 
days' duration for engineers in practice; 
voluntary vacation courses for unem- 
ployed alumni. 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, Home-Study 
Department, Chicago, 111., H. F. 
Mallory, sec.; total registration: 
6,605, I93 I "3^5 total no. courses: 
402, 1931-32. 

Credit courses in high school and 
college entrance subjects, junior and 
advanced college work and graduate 
courses include arts, languages, litera- 
ture, physical and social sciences, orien- 
tation courses, education, religion, ap- 
plied arts, commerce, and vocational 
work. 



a6o 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI, Evening 
and Extension Division, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, Vincent H. Drufner, <&r., total 
registration: 6,932; total no. courses: 
344- 

Courses for credit in commerce, en- 
gineering, applied arts, liberal arts, 
education, household administration ; 
graduate courses in law and education; 
non-credit discussion group courses in 
psychology, current economic and social 
problems, literature, biology, each con- 
tinuing for ten weeks, under direction 
of university faculty members; enroll- 
ment, 700, special work for business 
and professional groups, etc. 

CLEVELAND COLLEGE, see Western Re- 
serve University. 

UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, Division of 
University Extension, Boulder, Colo., 
Elmore Petersen, far*, total registra- 
tion: 4,975, 1931-32; total no. 
courses: 486. 

Credit courses in junior, advanced 
and graduate college work, including 
arts, languages, literature, physical and 
social sciences, education, engineering, 
applied arts, commerce, and special vo- 
cational work; 

Correspondence courses in high school 
subjects, college entrance, junior and 
advanced college work, arts, languages, 
literature, business, physical and social 
sciences, education, engineering, and 
applied arts; 

Informal and special types of uni- 
versity extension service include advis- 
ory and cooperative services, club study 
courses, community organization, drama 
service, general information, guides to 
reading, municipal reference and in- 
formation, package libraries, publica- 
tions, aids to public discussion, speech 
contests, conventions and conferences, 
lantern slides, and motion pictures. 



COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, University Ex- 
tension, New York, N. Y., James C. 
Egbert, dir.; total registration: resi- 
dent, 9,349; in Brooklyn, Newark, 
and elsewhere, 1,600; special (courses 
not given for credit), 425; home 
study, 4,000, total no. of courses: 
afternoon and evening, 568; in 
Brooklyn, Newark, and elsewhere, 
63; in cooperation with Teachers 
College, 1 6. 

Credit classes in high school, college 
entrance, collegiate and graduate work 
in arts, languages, literature, social sci- 
ences, engineering, postgraduate medi- 
cine, law, commerce, secretarial sub- 
jects, 

Home study courses in high school, 
college entrance and collegiate subjects: 
arts, languages, literature, social sciences, 
agriculture, and religion; 

Informal and special types of univer- 
sity extension service include lyceum: 
The Institute of Arts and Sciences (see 
p. 220). 

UNIVERSITY OF DENVER, Division of 
University Extension, Denver, Colo., 
E. G. Plowman, d,6an\ total registra- 
tion: 575; total no. courses: 14. 

Courses on campus and in Denver and 
vicinity in junior and advanced college 
work, also non-credit classes in sciences, 
art, music, economics, and other sub- 
jects; 

Correspondence courses offered in 
junior and advanced college work, arts, 
languages, literature, physical and social 
sciences, education, applied arts, com- 
merce ; 

Informal and special types of uni- 
versity extension service include advis- 
ory and cooperative services, club study 
courses, orchestra, institutes, guides to 
reading, speech, debating and other con- 
tests, conventions and conferences, 
radio broadcasts, forums on social, eco- 
nomic, scientific and philosophical sub- 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 



26l 



jects; conducts non-credit courses in in- 
ternational relations and art. 

COLLEGE OF CITY OF DETROIT, Eve- 
ning Session, Detroit, Mich., Don S. 
Miller, <&r., total registration: 4,905, 
1931-32; total no. courses: 250, 
1931-32. 

Formal courses include classes in 
banking, business, nursing, engineering, 
etc.; general academic courses, evening 
session emphasizes cultural rather than 
vocational courses, majority of courses 
offered for credit toward degree. 

EASTERN ASSOCIATION FOR EXTENSION 
EDUCATION, Columbia University, 
New York, N. Y., Thomas E. Power, 
sec. 

Serves as medium for interchange of 
policies, research and mutual coopera- 
tion, association intentionally regional 
in character, including in its member- 
ship area New England, New York, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia and 
the District of Columbia; holds annual 
conference and conducts such studies 
and research as seem pertinent; mem- 
bership, 15 institutions. 

EVANSVILLE COLLEGE, Extension Divi- 
sion, Evansville, Ind., Charles E. 
Torbet, chum., total registration: 88; 
total no. courses: 10. 

Formal courses offered for credit in- 
clude subjects taught in regular college 
sessions; classes held at convenient cen- 
ters in business section of city; non- 
credit courses given only when request 
made from considerable number of peo- 
ple for special lectures. 

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, General Ex- 
tension Division, Gainesville, Fla., B. 
C. Riley, deatt; total registration: 
6,540, 1931-32; total no. courses: 
165, 1931-32. 

Extension courses in junior and ad- 
vanced college work in arts, languages, 



literature, social sciences, education, ap- 
plied arts, commerce and special voca- 
tional work; 

Informal and special types of service 
include club study courses, drama, gen- 
eral information, package libraries, par- 
ent-teacher aids, publications, aids to 
public discussion, speech and music con- 
tests, lantern slides, talking picture ma- 
chine records for music appreciation 
study, and prints for picture study. 

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY, Extension De- 
partment, Fordham, N. Y., Charles 
J. Dean, S.J., deans Joseph A. Len- 
non, S.J., dean,) Teachers College; 
total registration. 8,078; total no. 
courses: 478. 

Classes offered through five main 
branches the undergraduate college, 
Teachers College, Graduate School, 
School of Business, and School of Social 
Service in accounting, art, banking, 
biology, business English, business law, 
chemistry, English and modern lan- 
guages, finance, mathematics, philosophy, 
physics, religion, marketing and adver- 
tising, sciences, sociology, etc.; 

Lectures in various branches of phi- 
losophy, history, literature, and science 
for students of Graduate School; ad- 
vanced courses in education for gradu- 
ates specializing in pedagogy. 

THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVER- 
SITY, Extension Division, Washington, 
D. C., Elmer Louis Kayser, <#r.,- total 
registration: 795- 

Evening courses in practically all sub- 
jects offered for credit to day students; 
courses organized occasionally for groups 
desiring preparation along special lines; 
all courses for credit open to students 
above twenty-one years of age prepared 
to pursue courses with advantage, 



262 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



UNIVERSITY SYSTEM OF GEORGIA, Divi- 
sion of General Extension, Athens, 
Ga., J. C. Wardlaw, dvr., total reg- 
istration: 2,000, 1932; total no. 
courses: 64., 1932. 

No night classes offered; credit 
classes in junior and advanced college 
courses; 

Correspondence courses in arts, lan- 
guages, literature, physical and social 
sciences, education, applied arts, com- 
merce, special vocational work, etc.j 

Informal and special types of univer- 
sity extension work. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY, Commission on 
Extension Courses, I93 2 ~33> Cam - 
bridge, Mass., Arthur F. Whittem, 
chmn., total registration: 1,456, total 
no. courses: 27. 

Courses offered in Cambridge and 
Boston in arts, languages, literature, 
physical sciences, history, government, 
economics, philosophy and psychology. 

HUNTER COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF 
NEW YORK, Evening, Extension, and 
Summer Sessions, Park Ave. and 68th 
St., New York, N. Y., A. Broderick 
Cohen, dir., total registration: 
16,153, 1931-32; total no. courses: 
1,060, 1931-32. 

Evening, extension and summer ses- 
sion courses leading to undergraduate 
degrees of A.B. and B.S. in education 
offered to all departments of regular 
day session; also courses leading to 
graduate degrees of A.M. and M.S. in 
education , 

Non-credit courses offered in art, 
education, English, music, physical edu- 
cation, romance languages, and speech; 

Special non-credit courses given in 
commercial and secretarial subjects, in- 
tenor decoration, training for teacher- 
clerks, and X-ray technique. 



INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Extension Divi- 
sion, Bloomington, Ind., R. E. 
Cavanaugh, dit.s total registration. 
10,286, total no. courses: 517, in 29 
cities. 

Credit courses in high school, college 
entrance, junior college, advanced col- 
lege and graduate work in arts, lan- 
guages, literature, physical and social 
sciences, orientation courses, education, 
applied arts, commerce and special vo- 
cational work; correspondence courses 
offered in same subjects; 

Informal and special types of univer- 
sity service include child welfare, club 
study courses, community organization, 
drama, guides to reading, health, mu- 
nicipal reference, advisory and coopera- 
tive services, package libraries, parent- 
teacher aids, publications, aids to public 
discussion, speech and music contests, 
conventions and institutes, lantern slides, 
motion pictures, sound pictures, art ex- 
hibits, welfare exhibits. 

IOWA STATE COLLEGE, Engineering Ex- 
tension Service, Ames, Iowa, D. C. 
Faber, dir.i total registration: 2,500; 
total no. courses: 15. 

Courses in education and engineer- 
ing; correspondence courses in educa- 
tion, informal and special courses in- 
clude institutes, short courses, municipal 
reference and information, package li- 
braries, publications, lantern slides, mo- 
tion pictures, and radio. 

STATE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA, University 
Extension Division, Iowa City, Iowa, 
Bruce E. Mahan, <&>., total registra- 
tion: 2,507; total no. courses: 261. 

Credit courses in medical work, cor- 
respondence courses in advanced college 
and graduate work, including art, lan- 
guages, literature, physical and social 
sciences, education, engineering, com- 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 



263 



mercej Saturday courses at University 
for non-resident students; 

Informal and special types of service 
include child welfare, club study 
courses, drama service, health, munici- 
pal reference and information, package 
libraries, parent-teacher aids, publica- 
tions, speech and music contests, con- 
ventions and conferences, lantern slides, 
motion and sound pictures, radio, art 
and welfare exhibits. 

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY, Evening 
Division, Baltimore, Md., Florence 
E. Bamberger, in charge College for 
Teachers; A. G. Christie, in charge 
Night Courses for Technical Work- 
ers; W. O. Weyforth, in charge, Eve- 
ning Courses in Business Economics; 
total registration: 2,337, total no. 
courses: 142. 

Courses offered for credit towards 
degree through three evening divisions 
include courses paralleling m subject 
matter those offered in daytime classes. 

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, Division of 
University Extension, Lawrence, 
Kan., Harold G. Ingham, dir. 

Credit courses in junior, advanced 
and graduate college work in arts, lan- 
guages, literature, physical and social 
sciences, education; postgraduate medi- 
cal and dental work; correspondence 
courses offered in high school, college 
entrance, junior and advanced college 
work, arts, languages, literature, physical 
and social sciences, education, engineer- 
ing, and commerce; 

Informal and special services in- 
clude advisory and cooperative service, 
child welfare, club study, community 
organizations, drama, guides to reading, 
health services, lyceum, package libra- 
ries, parent-teacher aids, publications, 
aids to public discussion, lantern slides, 
motion and sound pictures, radio, and 
art exhibits. 



UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY, Depart- 
ment of University Extension, Lex- 
ington, Ky., Wellington Patrick, dir.i 
total registration: 2,907; total no. 
courses. 150. 

Courses offered in junior and ad- 
vanced college work in arts, music, lan- 
guages, literature, social sciences, educa- 
tion, and commerce; correspondence 
courses in same subjects; 

Informal and special types of service 
include club study courses, drama, pack- 
age libraries, parent-teacher aids, publi- 
cations, aids to public discussion, speech 
and music contests, lantern slides, and 
motion pictures. 

LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY, General 
Extension Division, Baton Rouge, 
La., P. H. Griffith, dir. 9 total regis- 
tration: 1,745, 1931-3^; total no. 
courses: 48, 1931-32. 

Courses in advanced and graduate 
college work, social sciences, and educa- 
tion; 

Correspondence courses in arts, lan- 
guages, literature, social sciences, educa- 
tion; 

Informal and special types of service 
include advisory and cooperative serv- 
ices, child welfare, club study, commu- 
nity organization, drama, parent-teacher 
aids, speech and music contests, conven- 
tions and conferences, motion pictures; 

During 1932-33 experiment in com- 
munity education conducted: leadership 
guidance class of 50 members, including 
professional men, home makers, teachers, 
social leaders, etc.; 30 active members 
of group have been in contact with 
more than 500 rural people in 6 rural 
neighborhoods for purpose of arousing 
interest and perfecting organization and 
educational programs of community 
groups; general welfare movements have 
resulted with special group activities in 
agriculture and home making, athletics, 
dramatics, health, and guidance. 



264 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



UNIVERSITY OF LOUISVILLE, Division of 
Adult Education, College of Liberal 
Arts, Belknap Campus, Louisville, 
Ky., J. J. Oppenheimer, dir., total 
registration. 646, total no. courses. 
75- 

Formal courses directly related to vo- 
cational interests and problems; regular 
college courses; courses of cultural na- 
ture planned for people not primarily 
interested in college credit or vocational 
improvement, credit given properly 
qualified students for nearly all courses; 
short, non-credit lecture courses; coop- 
erates with local clubs and organizations 
in preparing and conducting courses and 
lectures j issues Atdt Education- Bul- 
letin, concerned primarily with the of- 
ferings of Division of Adult Education 
and the University, but also including 
other educational activities in state. 

MASSACHUSETTS DEPARTMENT OF EDU- 
CATION, Division of University Ex- 
tension, Boston, Mass., James A. 
Moyer, dir., total registration: 
30,970, 1931-32; total no. courses: 
300, i93*-32. 

Extension courses in junior, advanced, 
and graduate college work include arts, 
music, languages, literature, physical 
and social sciences, orientation courses, 
education, engineering, law, applied 
arts, commerce and special vocational 
work; 

Correspondence courses offered along 
same general line; 

Informal and special types of service 
include lantern slides, motion pictures, 
radio, courses in music appreciation and 
parent education. 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, Division of 
University Extension, Ann Arbor, 
Mich., W. D, Henderson, dir.> total 
registration: 3,047, total no. courses: 

9 6. 

Courses in junior, advanced and grad- 
uate college work in arts, languages, 



literature, physical and social sciences, 
education, engineering, commerce, spe- 
cial vocational work; 

Correspondence courses in junior col- 
lege work, arts, languages, literature, 
social sciences, and short story writing; 

Informal and special types of service 
include extension lectures, advisory and 
cooperative services, child welfare, club 
study courses, community organization, 
guides to reading, health services, mu- 
nicipal references and information, 
package libraries, parent-teacher aids, 
publications, conventions and confer- 
ences, lantern slides, and radio. 

UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, General 
Extension Division, Minneapolis, 
Minn., Richard R, Price, dir.i total 
registration: extension: 10,036; cor- 
respondence: 8,175; short courses: 
751, total no. courses: 782. 

Formal courses on campus and where- 
ever there is a demand throughout the 
state in junior and advanced college 
work in arts, music, languages, litera- 
ture, physical and social sciences, orien- 
tation courses, education, engineering, 
applied arts, and commerce; correspon- 
dence courses along same general lines; 

Informal and special types of service 
include club study, community organ- 
ization, drama, guides to reading, ly- 
ceum, municipal reference and infor- 
mation, speech and music contests, con- 
ventions and conferences, lantern slides, 
motion pictures, radio, and nursing; 
short courses of from four to eight 
weeks for practicing physicians and den- 
tists, for custodians and janitors of 
public buildings and for similar groups; 
one year full-time course in embalming 
and funeral directing; 

During 1933-34 offering opportunity 
to local high schools to organize gradu- 
ates for study correspondence courses 
(for further information see p. 245). 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 



265 



UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI, Division of 
University Extension, Columbia, Mo., 
Charles H. Williams, dir.-, total reg- 
istration: 2,256; total no. courses: 
1 60. 

Courses in junior, advanced and 
graduate college work in arts, languages, 
literature, social sciences, and educations 

Correspondence courses offered along 
same lines; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include municipal refer- 
ence and information, lantern slides, 
motion pictures, placement of teachers, 
and better homes service. 

UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA, Division of 
University Extension, Lincoln, Nebr., 
A. A. Reed, dir., total registration: 
4,180, total no. courses: 457. 

Courses in high school, college en- 
trance, junior and advanced college 
work in arts, languages, literature, physi- 
cal and social sciences, orientation, edu- 
cation, engineering, applied arts, com- 
merce; 

Correspondence courses in high school, 
junior college, college entrance, and 
advanced college work, arts, languages, 
literature, social sciences, education, en- 
gineering, applied arts, commerce; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include drama service, gen- 
eral information, guides to reading, 
publications, aids to public discussion, 
speech and music contests, conventions 
and conferences, lantern slides, motion 
pictures, radio, Regents' scholarship 
contests. 

UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO, Division 
of University Extension, Albuquer- 
que, N. M., J. T. Reid, dtr.-, total 
registration: 452; total no. courses: 
27. 

Extension and correspondence courses 
offered in junior, advanced, and gradu- 
ate college work in arts, languages, lit- 



erature, social sciences, education, and 
commerce , 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include club study courses, 
lyceum, package libraries, parent-teacher 
aids, speech, advisory and cooperative 
services, music contests, and radio. 

THE COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW 
YORK, Evening Session, 13 9th St. and 
Convent Ave., New York, N. Y., 
Paul H. Linehan, dir., total registra- 
tion: evening session: 14,142; after- 
noon division: 39845; total no. 
courses: evening session* 872; after- 
noon division: 239. 

Formal courses for credit cover full 
range of subjects offered to daytime 
students, leading to degrees in arts, 
business, education ancl technology; 
many non-credit courses offered; most 
of courses offered free of charge. 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY, University Ex- 
tension Division, Washington Sq. 
East, New York, N. Y., Paul A. Mc- 
Ghee, ex, sec.-, total registration: 
1, 8 60, total no. courses: 90. 

Following courses offered: non-credit 
courses given at Washington Square 
Center of University, parallel in con- 
tent and hours of study to courses within 
curriculum of Washington Square Col- 
lege of the University; lecture courses 
of more popular nature offering pos- 
sibility of orientation within various 
fields of modern thought and culture; 
evening college credit courses given in 
Newark, N. J., and Paterson, N. J., 
chiefly commercial in character, paral- 
leling those offered in School of Com- 
merce of New York University (a few 
liberal arts courses from the Washington 
Square College curriculum also offered) ; 
also a daytime liberal arts college credit 
program for an entering group in New- 
ark Institute of Arts and Sciences; 

Thirty-six non-credit courses offered 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



266 

at Washington Square Center, including 
such subjects as oriental literature, ab- 
normal psychology, history of art, phi- 
losophies of history, speech improve- 
ment, advanced typewriting, etc. 

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, Uni- 
versity Extension Division, Chapel 
Hill, N. C., R. M. Grumman, dir.; 
total registration: 3,363, 1931-32, 
total no. courses offered: 171, 1931- 
32- 

Courses in junior, advanced, and 
graduate college work in physical and 
social sciences, education, commerce. 

Correspondence courses in junior and 
advanced college work, arts, languages, 
literature, physical and social sciences, 
education, commerce, special vocational 
work; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include advisory and coop- 
erative service, short courses and insti- 
tutes, club study courses, drama, guides 
to reading, lyceum, municipal reference 
and information, package libraries, par- 
ent-teacher aids, aids to public discus- 
sion, publications, conventions and 
conferences, motion pictures, radio state- 
wide high school contests in debating 
and academic subjects. 

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA, Divi- 
sion of University Extension, Grand 
Forks, N. D., A. H. Yoder, dir. t 
total registration. 466, total no. 
courses: 145. 

Courses in high school, college en- 
trance, junior and advanced college 
work in arts, languages, literature, social 
sciences, education, commerce, 

Correspondence courses offered along 
same general lines; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include advisory and coop- 
erative services, community organization, 
drama, guides to reading, health services, 
lyceum, municipal reference and infor- 



mation, package libraries, parent-teacher 
aids, class in vocal music, publications, 
aids to public discussion, speech and 
music contests, conventions and confer- 
ences, lantern slides, motion pictures, 
radio, art exhibits, welfare exhibits, 
state-wide better magazine project, child 
welfare, club study. 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, College 
of Liberal Arts, Evanston, 111., S. N. 
Stevens, dtr. 

Formal courses offered by Univer- 
sity through Liberal Arts and Com- 
merce Schools at night, similar in con- 
tent to those offered in daytime, and 
carrying full credit. 

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, Extension 
Division, Columbus, Ohio, George 
W. Rightmire, fres. 

University renders educational, social, 
and technical service in agricultural field 
to people of rural communities through- 
out state reaching nearly eight hundred 
students enrolled in classes in various 
cities of Ohio in such subjects as mar- 
keting, banking, corporation law and 
practice, and other subjects. 

OHIO UNIVERSITY, Division of Univer- 
sity Extension, Athens, Ohio, Simeon 
H. Bing, dir.- 9 total registration: 
1,740, total no. courses: 167. 

Courses in arts, languages, literature, 
physical and social sciences, education, 
commerce, engineering; 

Correspondence courses in same sub- 
jects; 

Informal readers' advisory service 
and service to clubs. 

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, Division of 
University Extension, Norman, Okla., 
Louis B. Fritts, dir., total registra- 
tion: 7,280; total number courses: 

436- 

Formal classes in junior, advanced, 
and graduate college courses; 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 



267 



Correspondence courses in high school 
and college entrance work; college 
credit work in arts, languages, litera- 
ture, physical and social sciences, edu- 
cation, engineering, and commerce; 

Informal service includes advisory 
and cooperative work, child welfare, 
club study courses, community organiza- 
tion, guides to reading, health, talks 
and publications, municipal reference 
and information, package libraries, par- 
ent-teacher aids, publications, aids to 
public discussion, speech and music con- 
tests, conventions, conferences, lantern 
slides, motion pictures, radio broadcasts; 
postgraduate work in medicine and den- 
tistry. 

OREGON STATE SYSTEM OF HIGHER 
EDUCATION, General Extension Divi- 
sion, Central Office University of 
Oregon, Eugene, Ore., Alfred Pow- 
ers, eteani total registration: 4,688; 
total no. courses: 450. 

Courses offered in college entrance, 
junior, advanced, and graduate college 
work in arts and music, languages, lit- 
erature, physical and social sciences, edu- 
cation ; 

Correspondence courses in same sub- 
jects; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include club study courses, 
general information, guides to reading, 
parent-teacher aids, aids to public dis- 
cussion, lantern slides, motion pictures, 
and radio broadcasts. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE, Divi- 
sion of University Extension, State 
College, Pa., M. S. McDowell, Mr., 
Agricultural Extension; J. O. Keller, 
head y Engineering Extension; Harry 
B. Northrup, Mr., Mineral Industries 
Extension; A. S. Hurrell, Mr., 
Teacher Training Extension. 

Agricultural Extension, in addition to 
its regular activity consisting of dem- 



onstrations, etc., offers forty-odd cor- 
respondence courses in agriculture and 
home economics; total enrollment, 
4,875, 1931-32; 

Engineering Extension Department 
includes: extension evening schools with 
local teachers giving practical three- 
year courses in Allentown, Wilkes- 
Barre, Reading, Scranton, and Erie; 
extension evening class centers, with 
one-year programs, employing local 
teachers in smaller cities of state when- 
ever there is sufficient demand (24 cen- 
ters in 1930-31); cooperative evening 
schools, under local control, in several 
centers; correspondence courses in tech- 
nical and business subjects, high school 
or college entrance courses (with or 
without college entrance credit); col- 
lege-grade courses, supervised home 
study courses; training for executive 
groups; lectures and short courses; 3,392 
persons enrolled for 6,389 subjects, 

1931-32; 

Mineral Industries Extension offers 
classes and correspondence courses in 
technical subjects; some classes organ- 
ized under Smith-Hughes plan in coop- 
eration with State Department of Public 
Instruction, Mines, and Labor Industry; 
home study courses in mineral industry 
subjects; total enrollment, 1,584, 1931- 
32; 

Teacher training extension trains 
teachers in service; offers extension 
class instruction and over 100 home 
study courses; 6,753 persons enrolled 
for 9,108 subjects, 1931-32; instruc- 
tion also offered vocational teachers in 
industrial education; enrollment 1931- 
32, 533- 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA, Evening 
and Extension Schools, Philadelphia, 
Pa., Theodore J. Grayson, dir.- 9 total 
registration: 3,460; total no. courses: 
86. 

Evening School in Philadelphia and 
Extension Schools of Accounts and Fi- 



268 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



nance, located at Harrisburg, Reading, 
Scranton, and Wilkes-Barre, offer regu- 
lar courses leading to certificate of pro- 
ficiency upon completion of 48 credits 
of work, Evening School offers special 
courses for men and women interested 
in specializing in particular subjects; 
non-credit course for underwriters; 

Extension courses for teachers offered 
at centers within radius of approximately 
fifty miles from University, including 
classes in sociology, school management, 
mathematics, history, economics, psy- 
chology, geography, and English litera- 
ture, open to teachers and any other 
qualified persons. 

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH, Division 
of University Extension, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., F. W. Shockley, dvr. 

Formal classes offered at Downtown 
Division and wherever there is a de- 
mand throughout state in junior, ad- 
vanced, and graduate college work in 
arts, languages, literature, physical and 
social sciences, education, engineering, 
commerce and special vocational work; 

Informal and special types of uni- 
versity extension service include parent- 
teacher aids, publications, aids to public 
discussion, speech and music contests, 
conventions and conferences, and other 
advisory and cooperative services. 

POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF BROOK- 
LYN, Evening Session, 99 Livingston 
St., Brooklyn, N. Y., E. J. Streubel, 
deans total registration: 1,5185 total 
no. courses: 178. 

Formal courses for credit include 
undergraduate and graduate college 
courses in engineering and chemistry; 
special non-credit courses in automotive 
engineering and in Diesel engines. 



UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER, Extension 
Division, Rochester, N. Y., Earl Burt 
Taylor, dvr., total registration: 1,208; 
total no. courses. 97. 

Credit courses include subjects iden- 
tical with those given to daytime stu- 
dents, leading to degrees; graduate 
courses leading to master's degree; 

Informal non-credit courses include 
history, science, discussion groups; lec- 
ture series, parent education and child 
development courses, adult education 
courses with reference to technique; 
radio programs twice weekly. 

RUTGERS UNIVERSITY, Division of Uni- 
versity Extension, New Brunswick, 
N. J., N. C. Miller, dvr.i total reg- 
istration: 3,515; total no. courses: 
1 66. 

Formal class extension courses offered 
in junior, advanced, and graduate col- 
lege work, arts, languages, literature, 
physical and social sciences, engineer- 
ing, medicine, commerce, and special 
vocational work; 

Correspondence courses in high school 
subjects, arts, languages, literature, 
physical sciences, engineering, com- 
merce ; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include advisory and co- 
operative services, child welfare, club 
study, general information, guides to 
reading, aids to public discussion, con- 
ventions and conferences, and course in 
foreman executive training. 

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, 
University College, 1300 Transpor- 
tation Bldg., Seventh and Los An- 
geles Sts., Los Angeles, Calif , Ernest 
W. Tiegs, dean, total registration: 
6,677; tota l no - courses: 549. 

Formal courses for credit include 
practically all subjects in curriculum of 
day schools and colleges; work offered 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 



269 



in 4.3 different departments, including 
architecture, fine arts, sciences, com- 
merce and economics, engineering, Eng- 
lish, languages, history, education, 
mathematics, psychology, sociology, 
speech, non-credit courses in architec- 
ture and fine arts, chemistry, com- 
merce, economics, English, geology, and 
speech. 

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH DAKOTA, Divi- 
sion of University Extension, Ver- 
million, S. D., Garrett Breckenridge, 
Mr. 

Formal class extension courses offered 
in junior, advanced and graduate col- 
lege work, arts, languages, literature, 
social sciences, education, commerce; 

Correspondence courses in junior and 
advanced college work, arts, languages, 
literature, physical and social sciences, 
education, engineering, commerce, 

Informal and special types of univer- 
sity extension service include club study, 
community organization, drama, general 
information, guides to reading, pack- 
age libraries, aids to public discussion, 
speech and music contests, lantern slides, 
motion pictures, radio, and art exhibits. 

SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY, School of Ex- 
tension Teaching and Adult Educa- 
tion, Syracuse, N Y., D. Walter 
Morton, Mr.; total registration: 
1,817; total no. courses: 120., 

Formal classes on university campus 
in high school, college entrance, junior, 
advanced and graduate college work; 
correspondence courses in arts, lan- 
guages, literature, social sciences, and 
education; orientation courses in engi- 
neering, applied arts, commerce and 
business; offers non-credit American In- 
stitute of Banking courses, 

Has established undergraduate exten- 
sion centers, offering full freshman pro- 
gram to those students who because of 



financial conditions can not attend col- 
lege. 

UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, Division of 
University Extension, Knoxville, 
Tenn., F. C. Lowry, Mi.-, total reg- 
istration- 1,913, total no. courses: 
250. 

Courses in junior, advanced, and 
graduate college work in arts, languages, 
literature, physical and social sciences, 
education, engineering (non-credit), 
commerce and special vocational work; 

Correspondence courses in college en- 
trance, junior, and advanced college 
work, arts, languages, literature, social 
sciences, education, engineering, com- 
merce, and special vocational subjects; 

Informal and special types of univer- 
sity extension service include club study 
courses, community organization, gen- 
eral information, reading guides, pack- 
age libraries, parent-teacher aids, publi- 
cations, aids to public discussion, speech, 
music and other contests, conventions 
and conferences. 

TEXAS TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE, Ex- 
tension Department, Lubbock, Texas, 
J. F. McDonald, dir. t total registra- 
tion: 1,008, 1931-32. 

Formal class extension courses in 
junior, advanced, and graduate college 
work in arts, languages, literature, physi- 
cal and social sciences, education, engi- 
neering, applied arts, commerce, special 
vocational work; 

Correspondence courses offered in 
high school, college entrance, junior, 
and advanced college work, arts, jour- 
nalism, languages, literature, physical 
and social sciences, education, applied 
arts, commerce; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include advisory and coop- 
erative service, club study, general in- 
formation, package libraries. 



270 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



TEMPLE UNIVERSITY, Teachers College, 
Philadelphia, Pa., George E. Walk, 
dean-, total no. courses: 24. 

Formal classes offered for credit in 
methods for teachers of immigrants and 
native illiterates and course on immi- 
grant backgrounds, intended primarily 
to serve interests of teachers in evening 
public schools of Philadelphia. 

UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS, Division of 
University Extension, Austin, Texas, 
T. H. Shelby, dean, total registra- 
tion: 2,440; total no. courses: 219. 

Undergraduate grade courses offered 
in arts, languages and literature, com- 
merce, and teacher and foreman train- 
ing in trades and industries under Fed- 
eral Smith-Hughes law; advanced and 
graduate work in education; 

Correspondence courses offered in 
high school subjects, college entrance, 
junior, and advanced college work, arts, 
languages, literature, physical and social 
sciences, education, engineering, applied 
arts, commerce; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include advisory and coop- 
erative services, child health and wel- 
fare, club study courses, community 
organization, general information, 
guides to reading, health service, pack- 
age libraries, parent-teacher aids, publi- 
cations, aids to public discussion, public 
school contests in declamation, debate, 
essay writing, spelling, arithmetic, type- 
writing, journalism, music, art, drama, 
sport, conventions, lantern slides, mo- 
tion pictures, art exhibitions, school sur- 
veys. 

UNIVERSITY OF UTAH, Division of Uni- 
versity Extension, Salt Lake City, 
Utah, F. W. Reynolds, dir. 

Formal classes in junior college work 
in arts, languages, literature, social sci- 
ences, orientation courses, education, ap- 
plied arts, commerce; 



Correspondence courses in high 
school, college entrance and junior col- 
lege work, arts, languages, literature, so- 
cial sciences, education; 

Informal and special types of univer- 
sity extension service include speech and 
music contests, radio broadcasts, char- 
acter education. 

UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, Division of 
University Extension, Charlottesville, 
Va., G. B. Zehmer, <&r.j total regis- 
tration: 1,365, 1931-32; total no. 
courses: 138, 1931-32. 

Formal classes in junior and advanced 
college work in arts, languages, litera- 
ture, social sciences, education, engineer- 
ing, and commerce, 

Correspondence courses in equivalent 
junior and advanced college work in 
arts, literature, social sciences, and edu- 
cation; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include cooperative relation- 
ships with volunteer educational agen- 
cies, drama, library extension, publica- 
tions, aids to public discussion, high 
school literary and athletic contests, art 
exhibits, executive agent for Medical 
Society of Virginia in conducting lec- 
tures and clinics for practicing physi- 
cians. 

STATE COLLEGE OF WASHINGTON, Divi- 
sion of General College Extension, 
Pullman, Wash., Frank F. Nalder, 
dtr., total registration: 1,106; total 
no. courses: 146. 

Formal courses in junior, advanced, 
and graduate college work; 

Correspondence courses in arts, lan- 
guages, literature, social sciences, educa- 
tion, engineering, commerce; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include advisory and co- 
operative services, club study, drama, 
parent-teacher aids, motion pictures, 
radio broadcasts, reading. 



UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 



271 



UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, Extension 
Service, Seattle, Wash., H. E. Smith, 
dir., total registration: 3,641, total 
no. courses: 351. 

Formal classes in junior, advanced, 
and graduate college work, arts, lan- 
guages, literature, physical and social 
sciences, education, commerce; 

Correspondence courses in high school 
college entrance, junior, and advanced 
college work in arts, languages, litera- 
ture, physical and social sciences, educa- 
tion, commerce. 

WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY, University 
College, St. Louis, Mo., Frank M. 
Debatm, dean, total registration: 
2,540; total no. courses: 250. 

Courses on campus in high school, 
college entrance, junior, advanced and 
graduate college work including arts, 
languages, literature, physical and social 
sciences, education, engineering, applied 
arts, commerce, and special vocational 
work; college has non-credit courses in 
advanced English for educated foreign- 
ers, social hygiene, clothing design, in- 
surance, retail merchandising, etc., ad- 
ministrative supervision and control of 
the University's curricula leading to the 
Bachelor of Science degree in education 
and Bachelor of Science degree in jour- 
nalism; 

Informal and special types of univer- 
sity extension service include lyceums, 
conventions and conferences. 

CLEVELAND COLLEGE OF WESTERN RE- 
SERVE UNIVERSITY, Extension Divi- 
sion, Cleveland, Ohio, A. Caswell 
Ellis, dtr. } total registration: 3,214 
college students and 6,154 short- 
course students; total no. courses of- 
fered: 361 college-grade and 169 
non-credit short courses. 

Formal courses for credit in arts and 
sciences, engineering, and business ad- 



ministration paralleling those given in 
usual standard college; short non-credit 
courses in pure and applied arts and 
sciences and in parent education, group- 
study courses, institutes, exhibits, and 
radio courses, courses in high school 
subjects, college entrance, junior and 
advanced college work, arts, languages, 
literature, physical and social sciences, 
education, engineering, commerce, spe- 
cial vocational work; also non-credit 
courses in same subjects; 

Informal and special types of univer- 
sity extension service include child wel- 
fare, club study courses, community or- 
ganization, drama, guides to reading, 
health programs, lyceum, package libra- 
ries, parent-teacher aids, publications, 
aids to public discussion, speech and 
music contests, conventions and confer- 
ences, lantern slides, motion and sound 
pictures, radio, special work with un- 
employed. 

WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY, Extension 
Division, Morgantown, West Va., 
Richard Aspinall, univ. agent; total 
registration: 1,320; total no. courses: 
50. 

Courses in engineering; university 
maintains extension school of mines in 
two or three different sections of state 
during the year. 

COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY, Col- 
lege of Liberal Arts, Williamsburg, 
Va., K. H. Hoke, dean-, total regis- 
tration: 1,165; total no. courses. 355. 

Courses in junior, advanced, and 
graduate college work in arts, languages, 
literature, social sciences, education, 
commerce ; 

Informal and special types of exten- 
sion service include drama service, 
speech, music, and other contests. 



272 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, University 
Extension Division, Madison, Wise., 
Chester D. Snell, <z?<?0#, total regis- 
tration: 24,300, 1931-32; total no. 
courses: 1,050, 1931-32. 
Credit courses in junior and ad- 
vanced college work at Extension Cen- 
ter in Milwaukee and m other towns 
throughout state in arts, languages, lit- 
erature, social sciences, orientation 
courses, education, engineering, medi- 
cine, commerce and special vocational 
work 5 

Correspondence courses in high school 
subjects, college entrance, junior and 
advanced college work, arts, languages, 
literature, physical and social sciences, 
education, engineering, commerce, spe- 
cial vocational work; also non-credit 
courses in same subjects; 

Informal and special types of univer- 
sity extension service include: child wel- 
fare, club study courses, community or- 
ganization, drama, guides to reading, 
health programs, lyceum, package li- 
braries, parent-teacher aids, publications, 
aids to public discussion, speech and 
music contests, conventions and confer- 
ences, lantern slides, motion and sound 
pictures, radio, special work with unem- 
ployed. 

WITTENBERG COLLEGE, Night and 
Extension Division, Springfield, Ohio, 
H. J. Arnold, dtr., total registration. 

5 i6. 

Formal courses in regular college 
credit work including biography, educa- 
tion, English, political science, sociology, 
psychology, and public speaking; col- 
lege maintains branch at Dayton, Ohio, 
which offers regular two-year program 
of liberal arts subject for credit; 

Limited number non-credit courses 
including journalism, psychology, pa- 
rental education; sponsors free-time 
school for unemployed residents of 
community, charging registration fee of 
$i and $.50 for each additional course. 



See also the following organization 
listed under National Organizations: 
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY EXTENSION ASSO- 
CIATION 

Also the following articles: 
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION, p. I. 
THE ARTS IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 33. 
Music IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. 115. 
VISUAL EDUCATION, p. 273. 

READING LIST 

Bittner, W. S. and H F. Mallory. Uni- 
versity Teaching by Mail. Macmillan, 
1933. 384 p. 

Records the results of a two-year 
survey of university and college cor- 
respondence instruction. Most of the 
study is confined to the work of in- 
stitutions that are members of the 
National University Extension Asso- 
ciation. 

Hall-Quest, A. L. The University 
Afield. Macmillan, 1926. 292 p. 

Historical and statistical study of 
university extension in the United 
States Shows how vocational inter- 
ests and our system of university 
"credits" have made university ex- 
tension here widely different from 
the cultural tradition of the move- 
ment m England. 

National University Extension Associa- 
tion. Proceedings of Annual Conven- 
tions. Bloomington, Indiana Univer- 
sity Press. 

Thompson, Clem O. The Extension 
Program of the University of Chi- 
cago. University of Chicago Press, 
1933, i88p. ^ 

William Rainey Harper, the first 
president of the University of Chi- 
cago, was largely responsible for the 
successful initiation of the university 
extension movement in the United 
States. The history of the extension 
program of the University is, to a 
great extent, the history of the move- 
ment in this country. 



VISUAL EDUCATION 

With the belief steadily growing in educational circles that visual 
aids should supplement aural instruction, the increase of the use of 
motion pictures, slides, and other aids to visual instruction is not 
surprising. 

The extension departments of colleges and universities are most 
active in experimenting with the use of visual education material among 
adults. More than fifty such institutions have reported that they use 
some form of visual education in their extension work, among them the 
State College of Washington, Indiana University, University of Mis- 
souri, University of California, University of Colorado, University of 
Florida, Iowa State College, University of Minnesota, North Dakota 
Agricultural College, University of Oklahoma, and the University of 
Wisconsin. The visual education collection of most of these institutions 
consists of slides and films, some of them made under the direction of 
members of the teaching staff, but most of them copies of films pro- 
duced by both commercial and non-commercial organizations. Films are 
supplied to responsible borrowers, either for a small rental fee, or at 
cost of transportation. 

Most of the larger public libraries maintain special departments 
where files of photographs and pictures, as well as slides, and in some 
instances, films, are available to the public. In many cases these institu- 
tions have lending collections for the use of accredited organizations and 
individuals. A movement to promote better commercial films, endorsed 
by a number of the national women's organizations, has the support of 
librarians, to the extent that the American Library Association has 
appointed a committee to preview films and report on them to interested 
librarians throughout the country. 

Teaching by visual methods has been adopted by thousands of state 
and county agricultural and home demonstration agents in the United 
States working in cooperation with the Federal Department of Agri- 
culture. Taking photographs for lantern slides and film strips is a part 
of the program in many states. Carefully planned exhibits frequently 
manned by a lay person qualified to demonstrate some method of work 
or some form of handicraft, have proved to be of great value in forward- 
ing extension work. 

273 



274 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

Notable progress in the planning and producing of educational 
motion pictures has been made by the University of Chicago, by Yale 
University, and by the University Film Foundation, a non-profit making 
educational institution affiliated with Harvard University. A descrip- 
tion of the films produced by these institutions is given below. 

A number of commercial firms have also made educational films, 
chiefly to give publicity to their products, and are offering them to any 
responsible group who will pay carrying charges on them or a small 
fee for their vise. These films contain little or no "sales talk" and many 
of them are highly recommended by the extension departments of 
colleges and universities. 

Many national organizations have picture files, posters and other 
exhibit material, and in some cases slide and film libraries, depicting 
work in their particular fields. In most instances they are glad to lend 
material for the publicity given the organization or the field in which 
it is active. 

During the last three years the use of visual aids for educational 
purposes has increased. College and university extension departments 
almost without exception report a greater demand for all types of 
visual material. Those in charge of exhibits in libraries, museums, and 
other public institutions are employing all manner of ingenious methods 
to keep their displays interesting at a minimum cost, and in many cases 
a record number of visitors has been reported. One major experiment 
in visual education the making of sound films by the University of 
Chicago has been started since 1929. 

D.R. 

The following institutions and organizations are among the national 
agencies now offering visual aids, or conducting programs in visual education. 
They are listed alphabetically by name of agency. Unless otherwise indi- 
cated, figures are for 1932-33. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION, 520 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRI- 
NO. Michigan Ave,, Chicago, 111., CULTURE, Extension Service, Wash- 
Carl H. Milam, sec. ington, D. C., C. W. Warburton, 

Subcommittee previews and recom- 
mends moving pictures suitable for en- Lends lantern slides and film strip 
dorsement on part of local libraries series to state extension workers, schools, 
throughout country; for further infor- and other adult groups ; arranges with 
mation concerning general adult edu- commercial firms for sale of lantern 
cation program of Association see p. 316. slide and film strip series at contract 



VISUAL EDUCATION 



275 



prices, during 1932, 5,501 film strips 
purchased by county agents, schools, and 
other organizations; 351 series of glass 
lantern slides distributed, only charge 
for borrower being cost of transporta- 
tion both ways 5 1,248 shipments of 
motion pictures made to extension 
workers, schools, and other organiza- 
tions; also cooperated with state exten- 
sion divisions in staging and taking 894 
field and 361 laboratory photographs 
and in preparing film strips from local 
illustrations at contract prices; catalog 
supplied upon request; for further de- 
scription of work of Department see p. 
344- 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COM- 
MERCE, Bureau of Mines, Washing- 
ton, D. C., Scott Turner, dir. 

Lends free, except for cost of trans- 
portation, films covering sixty subjects 
pertaining to mineral and allied indus- 
tries, including mining, milling, and 
metallurgical operations involved in 
production of silver, copper, lead, iron, 
and other metals and In production and 
preparation of non-metallic minerals 
and petroleum; films made in coopera- 



tion with industrial concerns and ex- 
pense paid by them; many subjects 
available in both 35 mm. and 16 mm. 
widths, films used extensively by edu- 
cational institutions, engineering and 
scientific societies, civil and business as- 
sociations, clubs, churches, miners' local 
unions, and service schools of Army 
and Navy; pictures showed during past 
year on 34,638 occasions to total of 
2,996,000 persons. 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, 
Motion Picture Bureau, 347 Madison 
Ave., New York, N. Y., and 19 So. 
La Salle St., Chicago, 111., A. L. 
Frederick, sec^ motion 'picture bureau. 

Film library includes thousands of 
1 6 mm. and 35 mm. silent films as 
well as collection of 35 mm. sound 
films, religious, educational, industrial, 
scenic, patriotic, and comedy pictures, 
annual registration fee of $2 charged 
all organizations using material; during 
1932, 90,000 reels sent to schools and 
colleges, churches, Y.M.C.A.'s, granges, 
women's clubs, etc.; for further infor- 
mation concerning general program of 
the Association see p. 346. 



The following colleges and universities, or organizations affiliated with 
colleges and universities, are among those offering visual instruction or visual 
equipment. They are listed alphabetically by the name of the university* 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, Extension 
Division, Visual Instruction, 301 
California Hall, Berkeley, Calif., B. 
B. Rakestraw, asst. dir. 

Makes available Chronicles of Amer- 
ica Photoplays, films on science, geog- 
raphy, history, hygiene and physiology, 
agriculture, literature, industry, busi- 
ness, etc.; has library of 330 subjects 
in 1 6 mm. size, 650 subjects in 35 mm. 
size, and 4,000 slides; lends films to 
organizations in bordering states, rentals 
range from $.50 to $2.50 a reel for 
one day's use, and from $l to $2.50 



a set for one week's use; films lent to 
schools, organizations, and individuals; 
for further information concerning 
program of Division, see University Ex- 
tension. 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, University of 
Chicago Press, Chicago, 111., Donald 
Bean, mgr. 

Producing educational talking motion 
pictures to be used as integral part of 
new educational plan of University; 
four films now available: The Molecu- 
lar Theory of Matter, Electrostatics, 



276 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Energy and Its Transformations, Oxi- 
dation and Reduction; similar talking 
picture courses of twenty films each are 
planned for biological sciences, social 
sciences, and humanities; physical sci- 
ence series, now in preparation, to in- 
clude twenty films when completed; 
films issued in 16 mm. sound-on-disc 
and 35 mm. sound-on-film ; films avail- 
able to other colleges, schools, and adult 
study groups; printed outline for study 
in pamphlet form accompanies each 
film. 

UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Extension Division, 
Boulder, Colo., Lelia Trolinger, sec.> 
bureau of visual i 



Supplies both 35 mm. and 16 mm. 
silent motion picture films, lantern 
slides, and filmstrips including Chron- 
icles of America photoplays, several 
Eastman films, miscellaneous educational 
and commercial films, and large group 
of slides and filmstrips; has library of 
approximately 150 35 mm. films and 
IO,OOO slides; also 500 16 mm. films 
(combined service for Colorado and 
Kansas); for enrollment fee of $10, 
lends schools as many glass lantern 
slides of industrial and scenic subjects 
as desired during school year; lends 
slides anywhere within reasonable dis- 
tance at rental of 20 for $.50 and sets 
varying from $.50 to $2, without pay- 
ment of enrollment fee, films and film- 
strip rentals vary with number used, 
type of enrollment, and with subject 
matter of films; films borrowed by 
churches, schools, granges, and various 
clubs, during past year circulated 466 
separate bookings of 35 mm. films, 
3,972 for 1 6 mm. films, 13,970 lantern 
slides and 3,470 filmstrips; for further 
information about program of Division, 
see University Extension. 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, General Extension 
Division, Gainesville, Fla., Bernice 
Ashburn, m charge. 

Lends about 20,000 lantern slides an- 
nually to schools, churches, women's 
clubs, parent-teacher associations, veter- 
ans' hospital, furnishes projectors; for 
further information about program of 
Division, see University Extension. 

UNIVERSITY FILM FOUNDATION, 40 Ox- 
ford St., Cambridge, Mass., John A. 
Haeseler, far, 

Non-profit-making institution collab- 
orating with faculty and staff of Har- 
vard University for purpose of develop- 
ing the motion picture as an instrument 
of science, art, and knowledge, and to 
prepare suitable films for use of educa- 
tional institutions and organizations; has 
released films on social sciences, bio- 
logical and natural sciences, the fine arts; 
films available for purchase in 16 mm. 
and 35 mm. size, some 35 mm. films 
for rental, catalog supplied on request. 

INDIANA UNIVERSITY, Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, Bloomington, Ind., Ford 
L. Lemler, sec. 

Films on agriculture, biology, his- 
tory and civics, health, literature, sci- 
ence, geography, travel, etc.; Chronicles 
of America Photoplays and University 
of Chicago films available; over 1,000 
reels and 30,000 slides; both 16 mm. 
and 35 mm. films; annual enrollment 
fee within state of $5 for use of slides 
and $12 for use of films, charge of 
$i per reel or slide set for one day's 
use; transportation costs plus regular fees 
charged for use outside state, 15,000 
visual units lent to churches, schools, 
C.C.C. camps, parent-teacher groups, 
Y.M.C.A.'s, Kiwanis and Rotary clubs, 
etc. during past year. 



VISUAL EDUCATION 



277 



IOWA STATE COLLEGE, Visual Instruc- 
tion Service, Ames, Iowa, H. L. 
Kooser, m charge. 

Motion picture library includes 
Chronicles of America Photoplays, 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture subjects, University of Chicago 
sound films, subjects from educational 
library of Eastman Teaching Films, 
Inc., and many others, including geo- 
graphical and scientific topics; library 
includes 1,500 films, over 300 sets of 
slides and 150 film slides; furnishes 
borrowers with projectors only if in- 
struction in operating can be given or 
if operator is experienced; rates for 35 
mm. films: minimum of $1.50 for one 
or two reels; for 16 mm. films, mini- 
mum of $i for one or two reels; fee 
for lantern slides, $.75 per set plus 
postage, and for film slides, $.25 per 
subject, plus postage; during past year 
material supplied for more than 6,000 
showings to schools, churches, county 
agents, Y.M. and Y.W.C.A. groups, 
parent-teacher associations, community 
groups, etc. 

MASSACHUSETTS DEPARTMENT OF EDU- 
CATION, Bureau of Visual Instruction, 
Division of University Extension, 217 
State House, Boston, Mass., Helen B. 
Garrity, sec. 

Supplies Chronicles of America, East- 
man Teaching Films, Bureau of Mines, 
and other films, provides both 16 mm. 
and 35 mm. sizes; library of 577 reels 
and 2,570 slides; furnishes borrowers 
with projectors when desired; lends ma- 
terial outside of state; rental fee of $1 
to $5 per reel for films and $.02 per 
slide, with minimum charge of $ I ; 1 1 8 
films and 1 00 slides lent to churches, 
650 films, 1,260 slides lent to schools, 
and 100 films and 296 slides lent to 
other organizations during 1932; for 
further information about program of 
Division, see University Extension. 



UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Minneapolis, 
Minn., H. B. Gislason, for. 

Makes available Chronicles of Amer- 
ica, Eastman, Ufa. and Harvard-Pathe 
films; has library of 700 to 800 reels, 
4,000 glass and 200 film slides; 35 
mm, and 16 mm. sizes; lends films out- 
side of state when requested; rental 
charges $.50 to $5 a subject per day 
for films, and $.75 a set a week for 
slides; furnishes films to schools, 
churches, parent-teacher associations, 
community social gatherings, neighbor- 
hood houses, and state hospitals for the 
insane, deaf, and feeble-minded. 

UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI, Visual Edu- 
cation Service, Columbia, Mo., Mar- 
garet Kimes, sec. 

Has library of 1,800 films, both 16 
mm. and 3 5 mm. ; will furnish material 
outside state; rentals are $.35 per reel, 
$10 for one year's service for films, $5 
for one year's service for slides; schools, 
parent-teacher groups, churches, fann- 
ers' meetings use films, about 2,000 
films, 32,887 slides borrowed during 
1932-33. 

UNIVERSITY OF STATE OF NEW YORK, 
Visual Instruction Division, State Ed- 
ucation Department, Albany, N. Y., 
A. W. Abrams, for. 

Circulates slides in New York State 
only for use in connection with free 
instruction, slides on wide range of sub- 
jects, including geography, history, lit- 
erature, biology, and industry; has 
14,000 titles; furnishes for nominal 
sum pamphlets giving descriptive study 
notes to accompany showings; 1,054,230 
slides lent during year 1932-33; charges 
no fees, but requires borrowers to pay 
transportation charges both directions; 
lends slides to universities and colleges, 
teacher-training institutions, elementary 



278 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



and high schools, libraries, state insti- 
tutions, organizations, and individuals. 

NORTH DAKOTA AGRICULTURAL COL- 
LEGE, Visual Instruction Service, State 
College Station, Fargo, N. D., W. C. 
Palmer, dir. 

Most of visual material on agricul- 
tural subjects; has library of 75 35 mm. 
films, 200 sets of slides; furnishes bor- 
rowers with projectors; does not lend 
films out of state, rentals are $.50 per 
reel and $.50 per set of slides; farmers' 
clubs, churches, schools, etc. borrow 
films. 

UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, Bureau of 
Visual Education, Department of 
Public Relations, Norman, Okla., 
T. M. Beaird, Mr. 

Chronicles of America films, photo- 
plays, and others; has 803 reels, 30,000 
glass slides, and 100,000 film slides, 35 
mm. films only; furnishes borrowers 
with projectors in many instances; sup- 
plies material to borrowers out of state; 
rentals range from $.25 to $3 per reel 
per day; $15 to $25 per year for slide 
service; material lent to clubs, colleges, 
churches, chambers of commerce, etc. 

OREGON STATE SYSTEM OF HIGHER ED- 
UCATION, Department of Visual In- 
struction, Corvallis, Ore., U. S. Burt, 
dir. 

Furnishes films and slides on agricul- 
ture and home economics, art and 
architecture, civics and social welfare, 
geography, history, health, literature, 
science, and religion; each slide set ac- 
companied by lecture prepared by spe- 
cialist in particular subject; supplies 
both 35 mm. and 1 6 mm. films; has 
library of 300 films and 770 sets of 
slides; rental charge for films from $.25 
up; service fee of $.25 for glass slides; 
offers free advice to those interested in 



visual aid equipment, maintains close 
contact through correspondence and 
visits of field representatives with all 
leading projection companies; experi- 
ments with new and special types of 
equipment to determine its adaptability 
for use in state, material lent outside 
of state; 1,259 films and 285 slide sets 
lent during 1932-33 to churches, lodges, 
granges, homes, motion picture clubs, 
parent-teacher associations, communities, 
Y.M.C.A.'s, etc.; estimated audience at 
showing of visual material, 280,000. 

UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, Madison, Wise,, 
J. E. Hansen, chief. 

Supplies films on various educational 
subjects and for entertainments; pro- 
vides 600 1 6 mm. films and 50,000 
slides, furnishes borrowers with pro- 
jectors for entertainment films; rates for 
films are $i per reel and $.01 per 
slide, films lent to churches, parent- 
teacher organizations, luncheon clubs, 
and to organizations outside of state; 
about 125,000 slides and 5,000 reels 
of films lent during 1932-33. 

YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS FILM SERVICE, 
New Haven, Conn., J. Irving Greene, 
dir. of distribution. 

Produces The Chronicles of America 
Photoplays, historic series of motion 
pictures based on events in American 
history, made under direction of mem- 
bers of departments of history and edu- 
cation of Yale University, supervised 
and controlled by a committee of Uni- 
versity Council, experts in fields of his- 
tory and drama aided in formulating 
outline of series and in checking each 
film in detail, series of fifteen indi- 
vidual productions released to date, de- 
picting events in American history from 
Columbus' discovery to meeting of Lee 
and Grant at Appomattox; films avail- 
able to groups at reasonable rental fee. 



VISUAL EDUCATION 279 

See also following organizations listed READING LIST 

under National Organizations: ^ VT TT . , _ , TT . 

Freeman, F. N. Visual Education. Uni- 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF VISUAL IN- versity of Chicago Press, 1924. 388 p. 

STRUCTION An elaborate record of the experi- 

NATIONAL SOCIETY OF DAUGHTERS OF mental phases of educational films, 

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION reporting experiments by F. C. Mc- 

THE RELIGIOUS MOTION PICTURE FILM Cluskey, James, Reeder, Hollis, 

FOUNDATION Hoefer, Keith, H. Y. McCluskey, 

Rolfe, Shaw, Walker, Beglmger, 

See also the following articles: ^Tv m f ' n -D- r T 

Hollis, A. P. Motion Pictures for In- 

LIBRARIES AND ADULT EDUCATION, p. struction. Century, 1926, 450 p. 

70. A thorough discussion of the mo- 

MUSEUMS IN ADULT EDUCATION, p. tion picture film as a teaching in- 

105. strument, plus a comprehensive list 

UNIVERSITY EXTENSION, p. 254. of educational films. Bibliography. 



VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS 

From a legal standpoint adult vocational education would begin at 
twenty-one years of age, but for practical purposes it includes all types 
of training given to people who have definitely left school to go to 
work. This group includes all those in part-time continuation schools, 
apprentice schools, public and private evening schools, unemployment 
relief classes, courses for foremen, police colleges, and the like. For the 
purposes of this article, however, all full-time training is excluded, even 
when taken by men and women over twenty-one years of age, as is often 
the case in the professional schools. 

In its aggregate a tremendous amount of vocational training is given 
to adults in one form or another and under a variety of public and 
private auspices. City, state, and national governments foster extensive 
programs. Employers 5 associations and trade unions offer up-grading 
courses to the workers. Welfare organizations provide opportunities for 
re-orientation and job preparation. It is possible, in a brief space, to 
mention only some of the numerous and varied types of training, and 
to give a few outstanding examples. The extent to which training has 
been carried on in the adult field is indicated by the fact that approxi- 
mately five years ago nearly ninety per cent of the trade and industrial 
programs for which Federal funds were used consisted of part-time and 
evening work, only about ten per cent of the money being applied to 
pre-employment day schools. However, with the increasing number of 
adolescents staying in school the percentage of funds allotted to day 
schools has gradually increased to about twenty per cent. 

The Federal Board for Vocational Education, now a division of the 
Department of the Interior, Office of Education, reports that in the year 
ended June 30, 1932, over 400,000 adults were enrolled in evening 
vocational classes, under state and local supervision, including 89,000 
fanners, 159,000 trade and industrial workers, and 152,000 home 
makers j enrollment of employed youths and adults under state and 
local programs in part-time classes totaled in the same year 367,000. 

The transition from school to work is accomplished through 
continuation schools. Under the impetus of the Smith-Hughes Law and 
of a growing conviction of the importance of part-time education, half 

280 



VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS 28 1 

the states of the Union have adopted continuation school laws which 
require at least four hours of school between fourteen and sixteen years 
of age, and in some cases eight hours between sixteen and eighteen 
years, with various combinations between these extremes. Wisconsin 
laws provide for a greater amount of schooling than those of any other 
state. In that state half-time schooling is required between fourteen 
and sixteen years of age, and eight hours between sixteen and eighteen. 
In lieu of the latter, employers may set up apprentice classes in their 
plants, supervised by the state, in which case the boys have to attend 
only four hours. To carry out this law there has been erected in Mil- 
waukee the great Milwaukee Vocational School, an outstanding example 
of the possibility of developing the part-time idea to its fullest. For the 
younger group the half-time schedule is used not so much for coordina- 
tion with the work in which the pupil happens to be engaged as for an 
intensive tryout to help him discover the kind of work he would most 
like to do and for which he has the greatest capacity. 

In New York State there are 130,000 part-time pupils attending 
continuation schools, and for the most part they are taking tryout or 
extension courses in the various vocations. The East Side Continuation 
School in New York City, with its 12,000 pupils, represents a great 
diversity of endeavor. In addition to the twenty-seven industrial, com- 
mercial, and home making occupations taught to the fourteen to seven- 
teen-year-old boys and girls on a part-time basis, a still wider range of 
opportunity is open to men and women of any age, for the full forty 
hours a week if they choose to give that much time. As they are all 
unemployed, and are seeking further training in their occupations, or 
wish retraining in some other line of work, they usually spend their 
mornings canvassing the possibilities of obtaining jobs, and spend the 
afternoons (twenty hours a week) in school. Within the limits of their 
resources, all fifteen continuation schools in New York City are open 
to adults on full time. 

The compulsory part-time program has been a stimulus to more 
closely knit coordination of school subject matter with the type of work 
being done on the job, especially for the older pupils who have oppor- 
tunity to exercise some degree of skill. Although the number of strictly 
cooperative pupils (those spending half time in school and half time at 
work, with the two activities closely coordinated) is still small, the 
cooperative plan is the most effective kind of vocational education. Some 
notable examples are the school at Beverly, Massachusetts, cooperating 
with the United Shoe Machinery Company j the school at Southbridge, 
Massachusetts, cooperating with the American Optical Company, and 



282 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

the Lindbergh School in Detroit. During the depression continuation 
school enrollment has dropped rapidly as young people have found it 
difficult or impossible to find work. They have remained in full-time 
school, crowding both academic and trade high schools. 

Obviously, the apprentice program is the oldest type of vocational 
education. When the railroads began to expand and to become a vital 
factor in our industrial economy, they were confronted with the neces- 
sity of training foremen, especially for their maintenance shops, and 
out of this need grew a new apprenticeship where practical skills were 
learned in the shop under the supervision of a foreman-teacher, and 
the related technical information, principally mathematics and drawing, 
was acquired during four or eight hours a week in the company class 
room. There has been a great deal of this type of instruction in manu- 
facturing plants and it has been extremely effective. However, economic 
considerations always control in the conduct of business. The larger 
concerns that have the resources to carry on an apprentice program find 
that they do not necessarily exercise a holding power on those they have 
trained, and that other concerns draw off workers just at the time when 
they have become really competent. 

The interests of young workers seem best met in an arrangement 
whereby the public assumes the cost of school training and establishes 
relations with employers which enable the worker to acquire manual 
skill on the job. Many such apprenticeship programs are effectively 
being carried on, the school work being done either during the day on 
the employer's time, or in the evening on the worker's own time. One 
of the best examples is the Washburne School in Chicago where, in 
normal times, two thousand boys spend one day of eight hours every 
other week in related technical instruction in fifteen different trades, 
principally the metal and building trades. In New York City, appren- 
tices in eleven of the building trades attend evening schools through an 
arrangement with employers and unions. 

The Smith-Hughes Act requires that pupils in all schools for voca- 
tional agriculture shall engage in farming under the supervision of their 
agricultural teachers for a period of at least six months. Even with 
generally lowered returns from the farm, the labor income amounted 
in 1931-32 to $9,400,000. This type of cooperative instruction leads 
directly to the interest of the more mature farmers, 87,138 of whom 
attended 2,975 schools for instruction in farm organization and man- 
agement, soil maintenance and improvement, marketing, and similar 
subjects. 

Curiously enough, evening trade school attendance has been lower 



VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS 283 

during the period of unemployment when there should be greater op- 
portunity for it. "Experience has shown," reports the Federal Board 
for Vocational Education, "that such attendance is best during periods 
of greatest business and industrial activity. Evening classes are organ- 
ized primarily to provide training which will be of immediate use. 
Where there is little opportunity to use it, the demand for it decreases. 
It is probable also that many adults who would ordinarily attend eve- 
ning classes have enrolled in part-time classes which have been opened 
to them." 

Vocational home making classes for adults enrolled 152,444 women 
in 1932. Among the subjects most frequently taught are home manage- 
ment, care of children, effective uses of available resources in supplying 
the material wants of the family, and development of desirable home 
relationships. 

The extent to which evening vocational education for adults may be 
carried is indicated by the fact that in the New York City industrial 
area there are twelve local engineering colleges and technical institutes 
of which nine offer evening instruction, four Young Men's Christian 
Association evening schools offering technical instruction, twenty-five 
evening public trade and vocational schools and thirfy-three other eve- 
ning trade and vocational schools. The enrollment in technical subjects 
reached a peak in 1930 of 12,340 students. 

The Young Men's Christian Association and the Knights of Colum- 
bus conduct numerous courses for adults. The Young Men's Christian 
Association alone reports approximately 90,000 students throughout the 
United States attending colleges of engineering and commerce, law 
schools, business and technical schools. 

Throughout the country, in the more progressive manufacturing and 
business concerns, there are training programs of great significance. 
These are planned to give employees the benefit of instruction carried 
on in close relation to the activities of the job. Courses for apprentices 
have already been mentioned. These are often supplemented by other 
important features such as office training courses, foreman training 
courses, night schools, clubs, and scholarships. The extent to which train- 
ing of this kind is carried is indicated by the lecture and home study 
courses which some chain barber shops give to their workers. Physiology 
and hygiene constitute the major subjects. 

On the other hand, employees' organizations have realized the im- 
portance of giving members an opportunity to make themselves more 
efficient The International Typographical Union conducts extensive 



284 HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

correspondence courses, while the local compositors' union conducts a 
day school of its own. 

Municipal governments have been concerned about the efficiency of 
at least those workers upon whom protection of life and property de- 
pends. They have therefore set up training courses for policemen and 
firemen. The "police college" in New York City and the firemen's 
courses in many municipalities are outstanding, 

FRANKLIN J. KELLER, Director, 

National Occupational Conference. 



Following are some of the organizations conducting vocational education 
programs. The list is arranged alphabetically by state and city. 



FRANK WIGGINS TRADE SCHOOL, Los 
Angeles, Calif., Howard E. Campion, 
prin. 

Offers vocational courses for both 
men and women in day and evening 
classes, in more than thirty trades. 

THE ATLANTA OPPORTUNITY SCHOOL, 
Board of Education, Atlanta, Ga., 
Willis A. Sutton, suft. of school. 

Vocational training provided for 
working people and for those tempo- 
rarily unemployed; classes arranged to 
meet needs of individual students and 
include evening classes, full-time classes 
which prepare student for definite semi- 
skilled or skilled trade, cooperative part- 
time classes attended by students who 
work and go to school in alternate 
shifts; subjects include arithmetic, Eng- 
lish, shorthand, sewing, trades, draw- 
ing, electricity, sheet metal, etc. 

MASSACHUSETTS STATE DEPARTMENT 
OF EDUCATION, Division of Voca- 
tional Education, State House, Bos- 
ton, Mass., M. Norcross Stratton. 

Intensive training course of thirty 
hours' duration conducted at Worcester, 
Mass., for twenty-two selected drill 
masters from fire departments of va- 
rious cities, at the request of National 



Fire Protection Association, Massachu- 
setts Fire Chiefs' Club, Massachusetts 
Farm Bureau Federation, and affiliated 
organizations; objective is to develop 
ability as instructors of firemen by act- 
ing as conference leaders in discussions 
of fire fighting problems, in teaching 
technical content of fireman's job and 
in performance of drill evolutions; for 
further information concerning program 
of Department see p. 164. 

LOWELL INSTITUTE SCHOOL, Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Charles F. Park, fa. 

Free evening school for young men 
under the auspices of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology offering three 
courses of instruction: mechanical 
course, electrical course, and building 
course, instruction given by members 
of staff of Institute; advanced courses 
offered graduates and properly qualified 
graduates of other schools. 

HADLEY VOCATIONAL SCHOOL, St. Louis, 
Mo., F. J. Jeffrey, asst. suft., In 
charge, vocational education. 

Day and evening school for adults 
offering approximately twenty specific 
vocational courses in industrial and com- 
mercial subjects including required ap- 



VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS 



prenticeship courses in building trades, 
supervised by education committees of 
trade organizations. 

BURGARD VOCATIONAL SCHOOL, Buffalo, 
N. Y., William P. Kamprath, pin. 

Open four nights a week for trade 
extension training for adults m printing 
trades, automobile mechanics and elec- 
trical repair work, aircraft metal and 
machine work, welding trades, aviation 
trades, other vocational high schools in 
city offering similar training in other 
trades. 



EAST SIDE CONTINUATION SCHOOL, Oli- 
ver, Oak, and James Sts., New York, 
N. Y., Franklin J. Keller, frin. y on 
leave of absence, Jacob Simonson, 
acting 



Courses open to adults in machine 
shop, printing, wood-working, Spanish, 
French, radio, typewriting, beauty cul- 
ture, home making, maid service, power- 
machine operating, novelty and hand 
sewing, garment design, electric wiring, 
civil service, English for foreigners, 
English, trade drawing, refrigeration,* 
commercial art, plumbing, mathematics, 
sheet metal, auto mechanics, 'jewelry, 
bookkeeping. 

MECHANICS INSTITUTE, 20 W. 44th St., 
New York, N. Y., Louis Rouillion, 
dir. 

Free courses to men and boys em- 
ployed during the day in architectural 
drafting, estimating for builders, archi- 
tectural design, architectural lettering, 
structural drafting, building superinten- 
dence, blue print reading for builders, 
drafting for ornamental iron workers, 
drafting for bronze workers, plumbing, 
sanitation, heating and ventilating, me- 
chanical drafting, lettering for me- 



chanical draftsmen, freehand drafting, 
freehand drawing, applied design, ap- 
plied design for printers, applied design 
for jewelers, pen and ink drawing, 
sketching, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, 
trigonometry, workshop mathematics, 
use of slide rules, mathematics for elec- 
tricians, physics, electricity, alternating 
currents, radio; total enrollment for all 
courses, 3,988. 

POLICE ACADEMY OF THE POLICE DE- 
PARTMENT OF THE CITY OF NEW 
YORK, Police Headquarters Annex, 
400 Broome St., New York, N. Y., 
John F. O'Ryan, police com., 240 
Centre St. 

Curriculum includes all typical as- 
pects of police work, identification, de- 
tection and conviction, diagnosis, prog- 
nosis, prevention, and therapy; designed 
to encourage careful objective study of 
facts. 



ROCHESTER ATHENAEUM AND MECHAN- 
ICS INSTITUTE, 5 5 So. Plymouth Ave., 
Rochester, N. Y., F. V. Woodward, 
sec. to the fres. 

Development work being done in two 
fields: personnel system being expanded 
to make guidance continuous and in- 
creasingly effective; curriculum design 
procedure used through which objective, 
activity analyses and testing program are 
employed to motivate student and co- 
ordinate instruction. 

STATE SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, Wahpeton, 
N. D., E. F. Riley, fres. 

Day and evening trade school offering 
courses throughout entire year for which 
there is sufficient demand; about fifteen 
trade courses given, including commer- 
cial subjects, offers courses of three, six, 
nine and twelve months' duration. 



a86 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



FENN COLLEGE AND NASH JUNIOR COL- 
LEGE, 2200 Prospect Ave., Cleveland, 
Ohio, C. V. Thomas, dir. 

College includes Day Cooperative 
School of Engineering, Day Cooperative 
School of Business Administration, Eve- 
ning Division with six-year professional 
courses, three-year vocational junior 
college courses in business and in me- 
chanical engineering, structural and civil 
engineering, etc., and many practical 
unit technical courses 5 Nash Junior Col- 
lege offers equivalent of first two years 
of liberal arts with emphasis on guid- 
ance, orientation, present-day problems; 
also maintains Day and Evening Pre- 
paratory Division; day colleges use co- 
operative plan, with students alternating 
work and classes on five-week schedule, 
in order to maintain close relationship 
between occupation and education; ap- 
proximately 800 day students and 1,300 
evening students. 

EMPLOYEE; TRAINING PROGRAM, Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, E. L. Heusch, sufv. 
of industrial education. 

Employee training for workers in in- 
dustry, established in over eighty cen- 
ters of state under auspices of State 
Board for Vocational Education; all 
classes under public supervision and con- 
trol even though actual instruction is 
given in plants for skilled workers em- 
ployed by local boards; training given 
in textile and paper mills, machine 
shops, oil refineries, and factories pro- 
ducing furniture, shoes, sporting goods, 
radios, and musical instruments. 

THE FRANKLIN INSTITUTE OF THE 
STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA, 15 So. Sev- 
enth St., Philadelphia, Pa., Howard 
McClenahan, sec, and dir. 

Organized in 1824 for promotion of 
mechanic arts; sponsors lectures and 
meetings; maintains technical library; 



issues monthly journal; attendance, 
1,500. 

WISCONSIN INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION, 
Madison, Wise., E. E. Gunn, Jr., 
state sufv. 

State-wide program of adult trade ex- 
tension training including training in 
vocational schools of thirty cities in 
barbering, carpentry, electricity, fore- 
manship, furniture, painting and dec- 
orating, plumbing, pulp and paper man- 
ufacturing, and sales work; itinerant in- 
structors work directly with apprentices 
in industry in each of towns visited and 
these apprentices attend vocational 
schools for related instruction; in- 
structor teaches journeymen from com- 
munity and nearby territory in trade ex- 
tension courses; each of cities in circuit 
has vocational school which serves needs 
of specific vocational training for com- 
munity on both day and night school 
bases. 

MILWAUKEE VOCATIONAL SCHOOL, 1015 
No. Sixth St., Milwaukee, Wise., 
R. L. Cooley, Mi ., W. F. Rasche, 
frin. 

Academic and vocational courses for 
adults in day and evening classes; vo- 
cational courses, both preparatory and 
occupational extension in character, 
given in commercial, home making, and 
industrial fields, ranging from two 
weeks to six years; continuous coopera- 
tion with representatives of labor and 
management maintained in order to 
keep curriculum abreast of changes in 
industry; 9,759 enrolled in day school, 
7,675 in evening school. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL CONFERENCE 
NATIONAL PERSONNEL SERVICE 



VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS 



NATIONAL VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AS- 
SOCIATION 

SOUTHERN WOMEN'S EDUCATIONAL AL- 
LIANCE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF IN- 
TERIOR, OFFICE OF EDUCATION 

Also the following related articles: 

ADULT EDUCATION UNDER PUBLIC 
SCHOOL AUSPICES, p. 158. 

SPECIAL SCHOOLS AND INSTITUTES FOR 
ADULTS, p 216. 

TRAINING BY CORPORATIONS, p. 231. 

VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF ADULTS, p. 
288. 

VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION OF PHYS- 
ICALLY HANDICAPPED ADULTS, p. 
294. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

American Vocational Association. Adult 
Education Bulletin No. I. Minne- 
apolis, Minn, 1928. 70 p. 

A preliminary report outlining 
some of the main issues and features 
of the problem of adult education 
and its relation to vocational educa- 



287 



tion. Includes an analysis of the pub- 
lic library in adult education. 

Evans, O D. Educational Opportunities 
for Young Workers. Macmillan, 
1926. 380 p. 

Deals mainly with continuation 
and evening high schools. These 
schools adapt themselves to the ex- 
pressed desire of their students and 
stress vocational training, social-civic 
relations, health, and culture in the 
order named. 

Lee, E A., ed., Objectives and Prob- 
lems of Vocational Education. Mc- 
Graw-Hill, 1928. 4.51 p. 

Chapters written by men and 
women who speak with authority in 
this field. 

Vocational Survey Commission, Voca- 
tional Education and Guidance in 
New York City. Report No. I. 
New York City Board of Education, 
1932. 90 p. 

A report of progress and a state- 
ment of policies of the New York 
Commission that successfully com- 
bines the two aspects of the complete 
problem of vocational adjustment. 



VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF ADULTS 

Much adult education is vocational. If directed toward occupations 
already overcrowded or occupations for which the individual has not 
the requisite physical or mental ability, a great deal of it is likely to be 
wasted. Hence the interest of adult educators in vocational guidance. 

The tendency among corporations to reduce overhead by means of 
mergers has resulted not infrequently m the discharge of older workers. 
The growing practice among corporations of refusing to employ per- 
sons over forty years of age threatens to leave such persons permanently 
unemployed unless they can be adjusted to new occupations. Hence the 
interest of society at large in the vocational guidance of adults. 

Adult vocational guidance is offered by evening vocational schools 
which employ vocational counselors 5 by clinics maintained by the Young 
Men's Christian Association and other social agencies, often in coopera- 
tion with employment offices $ and by consulting psychologists. The pro- 
cedures usually include one or more (seldom all) of the following: 
physical and psychological examinations, counseling, instruction in occu- 
pational opportunities, instruction in how to get a job, placement, and 
follow-up. One axiom accepted by practically all is that the counselor 
should relieve no individual of the responsibility of making his own 
decision. The reputable vocational guidance worker, therefore, does not 
truly "guide" j he provides information but insists that the individual 
make his own choice. Numerous charlatans operate in the field. The 
astrologers, palmists, graphologists, phrenologists, and character analysts 
still offer to prescribe the right occupations for all who will pay their 
fees. Some call themselves psychologists, and may be confused with 
reputable consultants. 

Aptitude tests and vocational interest blanks are the most recent 
devices employed in the attempt to diagnose individual differences in 
occupational fitness. Aptitude tests have been devised for several occu- 
pations. Although they give promise of great future usefulness, they 
are still largely experimental and of doubtful validity except in the case 
of those who make extremely high or low scores. The interest blanks aim 
to compare the interests of the individual with those of successful 
people engaged in various occupations. In the hands of skilled psycholo- 

288 



VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF ADULTS 289 

gists such devices may prove useful tools, not so much for what they 
prove as for what they suggest 5 in the hands of laymen they are likely 
to be worse than useless because of the many false conclusions which 
may be drawn from them by one who does not understand their 
limitations. 

The problem is further complicated by the great number of occupa- 
tions and by the absence of adequate, accurate information concerning 
them. The United States Census of 1930 reports more than 25,000 
occupational designations, which it classified in 557 groups. Some of them 
have been carefully studied and the opportunities in them described in 
various publications. Others appear never to have been the subject of 
investigation. Bibliographies are limited in scope. There has been no 
central source from which counselors and others could obtain complete 
information regarding the available material on any occupation, or to 
which they might look for an aggressive program of occupational studies 
and research. In many cases rather mediocre material has been prepared 
by persons of excellent intentions but inadequate resources. The rapidity 
with which occupations change makes the problem still more difficult. 
The best informed counselor can not predict when some unanticipated 
invention will throw hundreds of men and women out of work. The 
complexity of the problem and its great social importance make the 
most careful study of possible solutions imperative. To undertake and 
encourage such study the American Association for Adult Education 
has recently organized the National Occupational Conference, described 
on p. 337. 

Nearly every professional association and labor union is concerned 
about the vocational readjustment of its own members, and the voca- 
tional guidance of those who seek to enter the occupation. Several have 
published bulletins describing occupational opportunities in their own 
fields. They speak with the authority of intimate knowledge and make 
accessible much valuable information. Their estimates of supply and 
demand have been received with some skepticism since an inquiring 
economist revealed that virtually every occupational group which has 
made a study has reported its own field greatly overcrowded. 

Many national organizations, whose primary interests lie in other 
fields, are partially concerned with the vocational guidance of adults. 
Among these may be mentioned the American Association of University 
Women, the American College Personnel Association, and the Ameri- 
can Council on Education, all of whom are interested in the vocational 
adjustment and readjustment of college graduates j the American Fed- 



29O HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

eration of Labor, through the Workers Education Bureau of America ; 
the American Foundation for the Blind, which conducts a campaign 
designed to open more occupations to the blind, and endeavors to con- 
vince employers that blind people can do satisfactory work in many 
occupations 5 the American Library Association, whose Board of Educa- 
tion for Librarianship has made studies of librarianship as a profession 
and whose constituent members are continually being called upon by 
the public to recommend books on vocational guidance j the American 
Vocational Association, which devotes part of its annual convention to 
guidance problems $ the Federal Board for Vocational Education, now 
a division of the Department of the Interior, Office of Education, which 
publishes a great deal of occupational information 5 the National 
Council of Jewish Women, which provides a special officer to encourage 
and assist in the development of vocational guidance work for Jews 5 
The National Education Association, which encourages study of the prob- 
lem through many of its departments 5 the National Federation of Busi- 
ness and Professional Women's Clubs, which has studied the earnings 
of women j the National Research Council, which has published pam- 
phlets describing opportunities for careers in research 5 the National Ur- 
ban League, which seeks better opportunities for Negroes $ the Society 
for the Promotion of Engineering Education, which has made ex- 
haustive studies of engineering as a vocation and has published several 
reports; the Southern Woman's Educational Alliance, which has devel- 
oped guidance programs in rural areas 5 the United States Office of 
Education, through its specialist in adult education; the Y.M.C.A. and 
Y.W.C.A., which have been mentioned above. 

ROBERT HOPPOCK, Assistant to the Director, 
National Occupational Conference. 

An organized local program for the vocational guidance of adults is 
rarely found. A few, that have been pioneers in the field, are described 
below. They are listed alphabetically by state and city. 

BUREAU OF VOCATIONAL SERVICE, 426 adjustment j supported by Community 
South Spring St., Los Angeles, Calif., Chest and individual subscriptions. 

Winifred M. Hausam, ex. Mr. -, Tr ^ 

PASADENA VOCATION BUREAU, 314 East 

Free vocational counsel to women in Union St., Pasadena, Calif., Winifred 
all occupations; placement service, spe- M. Hausam, ex. dir. 
cializmg in professional and business Free vocational counseling and place- 
vacancies; work with special cases car- men t for girls and women; supported 
ried out in cooperation with other social by Community Chest and individual 
agencies, emphasis upon occupational re- subscription. 



VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF ADULTS 



291 



WESTERN PERSONNEL SERVICE, 30 
North Raymond Ave., Pasadena, 
Calif., Winifred M. Hausam, Mr. 

Organized specifically to meet basic 
needs in vocational guidance for adults 
in Western states; serves as center for 
coordinating occupational research, as in- 
stitute for improving personnel methods 
in educational and social service organi- 
zations, and as service bureau for com- 
munity employment planning; provides 
educational institutions with current in- 
formation on occupational changes, 
training opportunities, and placement 
outlets; offers social agencies professional 
assistance in developing vocational coun- 
seling and placement, provides technical 
assistance for community employment 
planning; supported by institutional 
memberships and individual sponsors. 

WOMEN'S EDUCATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL 
UNION, 264. Boylston St., Boston, 
Mass., Lucy O'Meara, d%r^ appoint- 
ment bureau. 

In addition to placement service offers 
free vocational information and coun- 
seling; publishes pamphlets on occupa- 
tional information for women and on 
results of research in this field; cooper- 
ates with deans and appointment officers 
of colleges; staff members on request 
visit colleges, schools, other organiza- 
tions, and give information about occu- 
pational opportunities for women. 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION, 
Boston, Mass., Wilman E. Adams, 
gen* sec. 

Five lectures on vocational adjust- 
ment, battery of seven tests, group 
conferences with local business men, 
physical examination, counseling with 
volunteers who have had four one-hour 
training periods in counseling technique ; 
fee one dollar. 



THE PROSPECT UNION EDUCATIONAL 
EXCHANGE, 678 Massachusetts Ave., 
Cambridge, Mass., William F. 
Stearns, dir. 

Provides educational guidance, assist- 
ing men and women in finding the op- 
portunities which will best meet their 
needs; gives vocational information to 
help individual determine his fitness for 
various occupations; issues impartial re- 
ports on educational opportunities for 
adults m Greater Boston, assuring pro- 
tection against fraudulent or incompe- 
tent schools; publishes: Educational Op- 
portunities of Greater Boston^ issued 
annually; Recreation in and about Bos- 
ton > Qppwtumties for Scientific Analy- 
sis in Guidance in Greater Boston. 

MINNESOTA PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OF- 
FICES, under the direction of the 
Tri-City Committee on Employment 
Stabilization, University of Minne- 
sota, Minneapolis, Minn., William T. 
Stead, ex. sec., Tri-City Committee. 

Conducts research on occupational 
trends; offers free testing, guidance ser- 
vice and placement to applicants in 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Duluth; co- 
operates with relief agencies, employee 
organizations, etc., to bring about im- 
provements in occupational adjustment 
of citizens in three cities. 

PLACEMENT SERVICE FOR HANDICAPPED 
PEOPLE, 208 Citizens Aid BIdg., 
Minneapolis, Minn., John W. Cur- 
tis, sec. 

Advises handicapped people concern- 
ing suitable work and refers candidates 
for placement to appropriate training 
courses; service originated and adminis- 
tered for purpose of aiding handicapped 
in securing suitable employment where 
native capacity, trained ability, and per- 
sonality enable them to compete on eco- 
nomic basis with so-called normal or 



292 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



able-bodied workers; analyzes job with 
respect to individual worker. 

UNIVERSITY TESTING BUREAU, Univer- 
sity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 
Minn., E. G. Williamson, dtr. 

Organized primarily to serve univer- 
sity students, but is authorized to pro- 
vide occupational testing and guidance 
service for adults at small fee. 

WOMAN'S OCCUPATIONAL BUREAU, 1 1 8 
South Eighth St., Minneapolis, 
Minn., Katherine Woodruff, far. 

Free vocational counseling and place- 
ment to girls and women in all profes- 
sions and occupations, in 1932, 11,546 
individuals were given 30,178 office in- 
terviews, 1,4.27 placed in paying posi- 
tions, and 788 destitute and deserving 
girls given opportunity of supporting 
themselves by part-time work in experi- 
mental club house operated by Bureau; 
publishes booklets on nursing, social 
work, physical education, library work, 
advertising and public relations. 

ADJUSTMENT SERVICE, 17 East 4.2nd 
St., New York, N. Y., J. H. Bentley, 
Mr. 

Seeks to help men and women pre- 
viously maladjusted vocationally or who, 
because of changing conditions, will be 
unable again to procure employment in 
former occupations to find field of 
work suited to their abilities and inter- 
ests, in which there is some probability 
of securing employment; also tries to 
help these persons enter some program 
of education or training to fit themselves 
for new field of work; staff of unem- 
ployed persons, after intensive training 
period, gives, scores, and interprets 
standardized tests, and counsels appli- 
cant; collects information on occupa- 
tional trends, educational and avoca- 
tional opportunities in New York City; 



offers free vocational, avocational, and 
educational counseling to unemployed 
adults. 

SCHOOL OF EDUCATION, New York Uni- 
versity, Washington Sq., New York, 
N. Y., Anna Y. Reed, in charge, adult 
education course. 

In cooperation with the National Per- 
sonnel Service offers courses on counsel- 
ing, guidance, and personnel service, for 
educational and vocational counselors, 
club leaders, social workers, etc., courses 
deal with all phases of counseling in- 
cluding those which carry over into the 
adult field, counseling for character and 
personality development as well as for 
vocational guidance. 

VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE CLINIC, Psy- 
chological Clinic, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., Mildred 
Sylvester, dir. 

Staff of psychologists considers writ- 
ten requests for examination from 
adults, clinic undertakes examination 
and counseling of those whose problems 
lend themselves to treatment by avail- 
able methods. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

AMERICAN COLLEGE PERSONNEL , ASSO- 
CIATION 

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION 

AMERICAN VOCATIONAL ASSOCIATION 

FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDU- 
CATION 

INSTITUTE OF WOMEN'S PROFESSIONAL 
RELATIONS 

NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL CONFERENCE 

NATIONAL VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AS- 
SOCIATION 

PERSONNEL RESEARCH FEDERATION 

ROTARY INTERNATIONAL 

SOUTHERN WOMAN'S EDUCATIONAL AL- 
LIANCE 



VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF ADULTS 



293 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF IN- 
TERIOR, OFFICE OF EDUCATION 
YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 
YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIA- 
TION 

And the 

EMPLOYMENT STABILIZATION RESEARCH 
INSTITUTE, p. 245. 

Also the following articles. 

TRAINING BY CORPORATIONS, p 231. 

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ADULTS, 
p. 280. 

VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION OF PHYS- 
ICALLY HANDICAPPED ADULTS, p. 
294. 

READING LIST 

Allen, Frederick James. Practice in 
Vocational Guidance. McGraw-Hill, 
1927. 306 p. 



Reprints of magazine articles on 
the assembling and disseminating of 
occupational information, tests and 
measurements, placement and follow- 

U P' 
Allen, F. J. Principles and Problems in 

Vocational Guidance. McGraw-Hill, 
1927. 390 p. 

Includes reprints of eleven articles 
on vocational guidance in colleges. 

American Council on Education. Meas- 
urement and Guidance of College 
Students. Baltimore, Williams and 
Wilkins, 1933. 199 p. 

A report of the Committee on 
Personnel Methods; discusses record 
cards, achievement tests, personality 
measurement, vocational monographs 
and character development. 

Kitson, Harry D. How to Find the 
Right Vocation. Harper, 1921. 202 p. 
The technique of vocational guid- 
ance reduced to simple terms for the 
lay reader; sane and readable. 



VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION OF PHYSICALLY 
HANDICAPPED ADULTS 

Successful rehabilitation work involves the practice of the best prin- 
ciples of vocational guidance that have thus far been developed. One 
must not be contented with the mere giving of advice, but must follow 
through to the point at which the handicapped person can satisfy society 
that he is able to function as a self-supporting member. 

During the last twenty years the laws governing workmen's com- 
pensation have been developed sufficiently to give the injured workman 
reasonable assurance that he will be supported financially during the 
period of convalescence and that to some extent his loss of earning 
capacity through disability will be offset over a limited period of time 
by the payment of compensation. Benefits from such laws are short 
lived, however, unless a way is found to help the individual to return 
to employment from which he can earn a livelihood. Satisfactory voca- 
tional rehabilitation, therefore, becomes a most desirable social and 
economic objective. 

Statistics are available at the Federal Board for Vocational Educa- 
tion, now a division of the Department of the Interior, Office of Educa- 
tion, in Washington and in every State Rehabilitation Bureau showing 
the economic and social values involved in rescuing men and women 
from the possibility of becoming dependent and nonproductive by help- 
ing them to become useful, independent, and capable of supporting 
themselves and their families. A bulletin issued in January, 1933, by the 
Federal Board for Vocational Education shows that 298,000 persons in 
the United States become permanently disabled each year through acci- 
dent and disease. One in every five of this number, or approximately 
79,000 men and women, will be unable to return to his job or to enter 
his chosen vocation. Many handicapped persons are unable of them- 
selves to reestablish themselves in remunerative employment. The same 
bulletin presents figures which justify vocational rehabilitation work 
economically. Experience has shown that rehabilitation of the individual 
is effected at an average cost of less than $300. To maintain a dependent 
person at public expense costs from $300 to $500 a year. The average 
age of rehabilitated persons is thirty-two years. At this age the average 
work-life expectancy is thirty-six years. The weekly wage of the re- 

294 



VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 295 

habilitated person frequently exceeds his wage prior to his injury. Fre- 
quently the increased earning capacity of the rehabilitated person during 
the first year after his rehabilitation exceeds the cost of rehabilitation. 
These facts prove the contention of authorities that this work is not a 
charitable undertaking but rather an enterprise satisfying all the condi- 
tions of a sound economic investment. It is a necessary part of the rapidly 
growing movement looking to the education and reeducation of adults 
to meet changing economic conditions. 

In 1920 the Congress of the United States passed an act, first known 
as the Industrial Rehabilitation Act, and later as the Civilian Rehabilita- 
tion Act, which provides for promotion by the Federal Government of 
vocational rehabilitation of certain persons disabled in industry or other- 
wise incapacitated. This act does not provide for direct organization or 
immediate provision of vocational rehabilitation by the Federal Gov- 
ernment, but it does provide financial assistance to the states, which, in 
turn must assume direct responsibility within their jurisdictions for the 
rehabilitation of individuals. The act of 1920, operative for four years, 
has been amended periodically since that time to extend the provisions 
and benefits of the original act. Up to the present time forty-five states 
have accepted the provisions of the Federal act and are now carrying 
on rehabilitation programs. In most states the work comes under the 
supervision of the State Board for Vocational Education. 

In carrying through a rehabilitation program with the individual, 
the case method is used, for the work can not be done in groups. Each 
disabled person presents his own set of needs. The problems of each 
must be analyzed and studied independently and intensively. The pro- 
cedure accepted by State Rehabilitation Bureaus and some of the private 
organizations engaged in rehabilitation work includes the following 
separate and distinct steps: survey including complete analysis of all 
influencing factors 5 decision as to suitable vocational objective j prepara- 
tion, when necessary, for the job selected ; supervision during the entire 
period of rehabilitation j placement in employment 3 and follow-up in 
employment until reasonable permanency of employment is assured. 

Mention should be made also of the many social and welfare organ- 
izations throughout the country of both private and public nature, which 
are carrying on rehabilitation work independently and in cooperation 
with state and Federal bureaus. Some of these national organizations are 
listed below. 

EDGAR. B. PORTER, Rehabilitation Assistant, 

Rehabilitation Bureau, New York State 
Education Department. 



296 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



As the procedure adopted by state rehabilitation bureaus in all cases fol- 
lows the outline given above, to avoid unnecessary repetition no notes are 
appended to the directory of state bureaus which follows: 



ALABAMA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Montgomery, 
Ala., E. H. Gentry, sufv. 

ARIZONA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, Arizona State Bldg., Phoenix, 
Ariz., H. V. Bene, sufv. 

ARKANSAS STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Little Rock, 
Ark., Ashley S. Ross, sufv. 

CALIFORNIA STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, State Library Bldg , Sacra- 
mento, Calif., H. D. Hicker, chief. 

COLORADO STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Agricultural College, 
Fort Collins, Colo., Dorsey F. Rich- 
ardson, SUfV. 

CONNECTICUT STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, Room 319, 165 Capital 
Ave., Hartford, Conn., E. P. Chester, 
sufv. 

FLORIDA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Tallahassee, Fla., 
Claude M. Andrews, sufv. 

GEORGIA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Atlanta, Ga., 
Roland Bower, sufv. 

IDAHO STATE REHABILITATION BUREAU, 
State Capitol, Boise, Idaho, Mile T. 
Means, sufv. 

ILLINOIS STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, 406 Centennial Bldg., Spring- 
field, 111., Russell R. Clark, sufv. 

INDIANA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State House, Indianapolis, Ind , 
Slater Bartlow, sufv. 

IOWA STATE REHABILITATION BUREAU, 
State Capitol, Des Moines, Iowa, Wil- 
lis W. Grant, sufv. 

KENTUCKY STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Frankfort, Ky , 
Homer W. Nichols, Mr. 

LOUISIANA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, Baton Rouge, La., E. G. 
Ludtke, sufv. 



MAINE STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Augusta, Me., 
E. E. Roderick, sufv. 

MARYLAND STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, 2 E. 25th St , Baltimore, Md., 
R. C. Thompson, sufv. 

MASSACHUSETTS STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, 20 Somerset St., Boston, 
Mass., Herbert A. Dallas, sufv. 

MICHIGAN STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Lansing, Mich., 
John J. Lee, sufv . 

MINNESOTA STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, Room 331, State Office 
Bldg., St. Paul, Minn,, Oscar Sulli- 
van, dir. 

MISSISSIPPI STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, Old Capitol Bldg., Jackson, 
Miss., George Armstrong, sufv. 

MISSOURI STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, 1706 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo., 
Julia Alsberg, sufv. 

MONTANA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Helena, Mont., 
Leif Fredericks, agewt. 

NEBRASKA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, no Plant Industry Bldg., Ag- 
ricultural College Campus, Lincoln, 
Nebr., J, R. Jewell, sufv. 

NEVADA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Carson City, 
Nev., Marion G. Bowen, sufv. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE STATE REHABILITA- 
TION BUREAU, State Capitol, Con- 
cord, N. H., Wallace D. Black, sufv. 

NEW JERSEY STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, State Dept. of Labor, Wal- 
lach Bldg., Trenton, N. J., Charles 
R. Blunt, Mr. 

NEW MEXICO STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, Central School, Albuquer- 
que, N. M., Margaret M. Lane, asst. 
sufv. 



VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION 



297 



NEW YORK STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, Education Bldg., Albany, 
N, Y., R. M. Little, chief. 

NORTH CAROLINA STATE REHABILITA- 
TION BUREAU, State Departments 
Bldg., Raleigh, N. C., H. L. Stanton, 
supv. 

NORTH DAKOTA STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, University Station, P.O. 
Box BB, Grand Forks, N. D., Ed- 
ward Erickson, dir. 

OHIO STATE REHABILITATION BUREAU, 
60 1 State Office Bldg., Columbus, 
Ohio, Marlow B. Perrin, chief. 

OKLAHOMA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Oklahoma City, 
Okla., John Vaughan, Mr. 

OREGON STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, 400 Salmon St., Portland, Ore., 
E. E. Bragg, dir. 

PENNSYLVANIA STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, 406 South Office Bldg., 
Harrisburg, Pa., M. M. Walter, dir. 

RHODE ISLAND STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, State Capitol, Providence, 
R. I., Emerson L. Adams, dir. 

SOUTH CAROLINA STATE REHABILITA- 
TION BUREAU, Room 309, State Of- 
fice Bldg., Columbia, S. C , P. G. 
Sherer, su<pv. 

SOUTH DAKOTA STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, State Capitol, Pierre, S. D,, 
Mary E. Jamieson, supv. 

TENNESSEE STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, New Memorial Bldg., Nash- 
ville, Tenn., R. L. Bynum, stvpv* 

TEXAS STATE REHABILITATION BUREAU, 
State Capitol, Austin, Texas, J. J. 
Brown, supv. 

UTAH STATE REHABILITATION BUREAU, 
State Capitol, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
Mosiah Hall, supe. 

VIRGINIA STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, Room 520, State Office Bldg., 
Richmond, Va., R. N. Anderson, 
sufv. 

WASHINGTON STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, State Capitol, Olympia, 
Wash., J. W. Kelly, svfv. 



WEST VIRGINIA STATE REHABILITATION 
BUREAU, State Capitol, Charleston, 
West Va., T. P. Hill, asst. dir. 

WISCONSIN STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Madison, Wise., 
W. F. Faulkes, sufe. 

WYOMING STATE REHABILITATION BU- 
REAU, State Capitol, Cheyenne, Wyo., 
E F. McGraw, sufv. 

See also the following listed under 
National Organizations: 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF WORKERS 
FOR THE BLIND 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION TO PROMOTE 
THE TEACHING OF SPEECH TO THE 
DEAF 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF ORGANIZA- 
TIONS FOR THE HARD OF HEARING 

AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND 

AMERICAN REHABILITATION COMMIT- 
TEE, INC. 

BRAILLE INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDU- 
CATION 

NATIONAL REHABILITATION ASSOCIATION 

NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR THE PREVEN- 
TION OF BLINDNESS, INC. 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE 
INTERIOR, OFFICE OF EDUCATION. 



READING LIST 

Anderson, Roy N. The Disabled Man 
and His Vocational Adjustment. In- 
stitute for the Crippled and Disabled, 
1932. 102 p. 

A study of over 4,000 orthopedic 
cases classified by specific disability 
showing results gained in the reha- 
bilitation of disabled persons, in terms 
of fields of service, stability of em- 
ployment, and susceptibility to second 
accidents. 

Federal Board for Vocational Education. 
Vocational Guidance in Rehabilita- 
tion Service. Bulletin No. 148, Vo* 



298 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



cational Rehabilitation Series No. 20, Sullivan, Oscar M., and Kenneth O. 

Washington, D. C. ? Superintendent Snortum. Disabled Persons, Their 

of Documents, June, 1930. Education and Rehabilitation. Apple- 

An analysis of the use of the ton-Century, 1926. 552 p. 
methods of vocational guidance in re- Treats of the various phases of re- 
habilitation work with disabled per- habilitation service and services re- 
sons. Contains bibliography. lating to rehabilitation. 



WORKERS' EDUCATION 

Although workers' education is part of the inclusive field of adult 
education, it has developed around the needs and desires of a particular 
group industrial workers. It may be distinguished from adult educa- 
tion in general by the cultural validity which it has placed upon the 
workers' experience and by its relation to the interests and problems of 
workers in modern industrial society. Workers' education may be further 
distinguished by its relation to the labor movement of which it is the 
cultural expression and upon which it rests. Workers' education has 
formulated a definite aim, it has evolved a method of instruction appro- 
priate to its task, it has created its own facilities, and it has developed 
materials to serve the growing needs of the movement. 

Worker's education in the United States may be said to have had 
its inception early in the I9th century, shortly after the first federated 
movement of wage earners was launched in 1828. Among the first 
demands of these wage earners were free libraries for the benefit of 
mechanics and workingmen. In the mechanics' institutes and lyceums, 
we have the first examples of a technique for the cultural education of 
wage earners and their children. During the igth century there was 
increasing evidence of a desire on the part of wage earners to share in 
a wider cultural development, and their desire was in the main focused 
on the development of free public schools. 

By the close of the century, however, there was a new direction 
given to the movement which led to the establishment in New York 
City of such institutions as the Bread Winners' College and the People's 
Institute, which sought to bring together the "world of culture and the 
world of labor." By 1900 the first resident labor college was established 
in this country at Trenton, Missouri, by the founder of Ruskin College 
in Oxford, England. Six years later the Rand School of Social Science 
was organized in New York City under the auspices of the Socialist 
Party as a school for workers. In 1913, the National Women's Trade 
Union League established the first training school for women, organizers 
in the city of Chicago. Three years later the International Ladies' Gar- 
ment Workers' Union set up a permanent educational department and 
made the first appropriation for the education of its membership. It 

299 



3OO HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 

represents the pioneer effort on the part of an international union to 
provide for the education of its members. Projects for the education of 
workers began to develop sporadically in a few industrial centers and in 
1918 the American Federation of Labor appointed a committee to study 
and report on workers' education. This report was made and adopted at 
the convention of the Federation the following year. 

The modern workers' education movement as a democratic educa- 
tional movement may be said to have begun in 1921 with the estab- 
lishment of the Workers Education Bureau of America in April of that 
year. This Bureau, which was established by a group of teachers and 
trade unionists, was created to serve as a clearing house of information 
and guidance for the growing movement of workers' education. The 
activities of the Bureau are described on p. 345. In June, 1921, the first 
summer school for women workers was established on the campus of 
Bryn Mawr College. (For a fuller treatment of this topic see the article 
on Schools for Women Workers in Industry.) In October of the same 
year Brookwood opened its doors as the first coeducational resident labor 
college to train workers to work in the workers' movement. In recog- 
nition of the services of the Bureau, the American Federation of Labor 
adopted a plan providing for the support of the Bureau in part on the 
basis of a per capita tax of one-half cent per member per year. In 1926 
this amount was doubled to one cent per member. Up to the time 
of the depression approximately one-half of the budget of the Bureau 
came from trade union sources. 

The workers' educational movement in the United States has de- 
veloped a variety of different techniques for the education of labor. One 
of these is the study class, composed of from ten to twenty-five members 
of a single union or a group of unions who meet regularly one evening 
every week in a union hall, public library, or public school building for 
a period of ten to twenty weeks, under the leadership of an instructor. 
The non-resident trade union college is a group of such study classes, 
linked together somewhat informally under the direction of a board of 
control, appointed or elected by a central labor union. At one time it was 
conservatively estimated that thirty thousand workers were studying 
in these spontaneous informal groups. Exact figures are not possible to 
obtain at present, but the number is probably less than that now as a 
result of the depression. 

Another form of educational enterprise is the resident labor college. 
In addition to Brookwood, already mentioned, Commonwealth College 
was established at Mena, Arkansas, in 1925 as a non-sectarian, non-fac- 
tional school for workers. The college, which is coeducational, is located 



WORKERS > EDUCATION 30 1 

in a cooperative community in which provision is made for regular work 
by means of which students may earn their maintenance. The number 
of students has averaged about thirty-five each year, and both a three- 
year course and a one-year labor course are provided. The Vineyard 
Shore School for Women Workers in Industry, a residence school, is 
described in the article on Schools for Women Workers in Industry. 

The workers' education movement has developed several other 
activities, which are indigenous both to this country and to the develop- 
ment of the labor movement. Among these are labor institutes, week-end 
conferences, and art workshops. Labor institutes have been set up at 
state universities under the joint auspices of state universities and the 
several state federations of labor. The initial effort was at Rutgers Uni- 
versity the state university of New Jersey in 1931. The institute lasts 
for five days and is focused upon a single labor problem. The worker 
students are either sent by their local unions or pay their own expenses, 
which are nominal in amount. Similar institutes of equal or shorter dura- 
tion have been held in a half-dozen other sections of the country, in 
cooperation with the state federations of labor, with marked success. 
Annual labor institutes are also held under the auspices of the National 
Women's Trade Union League. 

Week-end conferences are called by workers' educational groups or 
labor unions in industrial centers to consider labor questions, and have 
proved useful media for the consideration of economic problems. An 
effort is made to secure the point of view of both employers and em- 
ployees at these conferences. Four sessions are held on Saturdays and 
Sundays, with a summary at the close to bring the discussion to a focus. 
The Labor Chautauqua has similarly provided a new use for an old 
American institution, combining as it does entertainment and education. 
It has been employed effectively in isolated mining communities. Art 
workshops have been established in Chicago, New York, and other 
cities. The first, in New York City, was inaugurated in 1929 to provide 
an opportunity for leisure-time activities for women workers engaged 
in monotonous occupations, and has more than justified its promise. 
(See p. 37 for a detailed description of the work of the shop.) While 
these art workshops represent a departure from the customary forms 
of workers' education, they derive their impetus from the cultural 
desires of industrial workers. 

The only survey of workers' education courses offered in this country 
was that made by the Workers Education Bureau of America, covering 
the period from 1920 to 1927, the results of which were published in 
1929 under the title, What Do Workers Study? The report, which 



302 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



covered all types of workers' education referred to in this article, showed 
that 1,277 courses were being given in the following subjects: language 
and expression, economics, sociology, labor and trade unionism, 
psychology, politics, government law, history (other than labor and 
economics), the arts, science and mathematics, health, women's interests, 
geography, and philosophy. 

A study of the effect of workers' education upon the later activities 
of student workers was undertaken in the years 1926-1927 by the Bryn 
Mawr Summer School under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation. 

The modern workers' education movement completes in 1933 twelve 
years of activity which is appropriately focused at the National Conven- 
tion of the Workers Education Bureau of America. In these twelve years 
it has evolved from a vague aspiration into a tangible movement 5 it has 
a respectable past achievement j it has a future bright with promise. 

SPENCER MILLER, JR., Secretary, 
Workers Education Bureau of America. 



Following are examples of some of the adult education activities being 
conducted by or for workers' groups. The list is arranged alphabetically by 
state and city. 



COMMONWEALTH COLLEGE, Mena, Ark., 
Charlotte Moskowitz, ex. sec. 

"Non-factional, non-sectarian school, 
encouraging its students to cooperate 
with their fellows in those various eco- 
nomic, political, and cultural activi- 
ties which may be inclusively described 
as the labor movement"; believes in 
new type of education to help men and 
women improve their lot as workers and 
build a better social order; two-year 
curriculum includes labor orientation 
course, courses in social studies, research 
or field projects under individual fac- 
ulty supervision; students and teachers 
active in organizing educational activi- 
ties in locality surrounding college; 55 
students enrolled. 

SKYLINE, Rich Mountain, Ark., William 
E. Zeuch, ed. dir. 

A resident camp school for adults; 
school year divided into quarters of 
twelve weeks each, first two devoted to 



supervised study, last two to reading and 
research; courses include mathematics, 
modern literature, English, history of 
civilization, fifteen hours manual work 
weekly required of all students. 

THE DEPARTMENT OF WORKERS' EDU- 
CATION, 301 California Hall, Berke- 
ley, Calif., J. L. Kercehn, <&>., work- 
er? ed,. 

Department administered by Joint 
Committee on Workers' Education rep- 
resenting State Federation of Labor and 
Extension Division of University of 
California; educational work conducted 
by means of classes, correspondence 
courses, lectures, discussion, reading, etc. ; 
study classes, usually free, formed in 
local unions throughout state; six to 
eight weeks' courses planned and ad- 
ministered by Department of Workers' 
Education in labor history and law, 
economic problems of worker, unem- 
ployment problems, etc.; Department 



WORKERS EDUCATION 



33 



conducts week-end conferences and sum- 
mer schools (see Occidental College be- 
low) . 

SUMMER SCHOOL FOR INDUSTRIAL 
WORKERS, Occidental College, Los 
Angeles, Calif., Lucy Adams, dvr. 

Managed by California Association 
for Adult Education with the coopera- 
tion of the Board of Trustees of Occi- 
dental College, the Extension Division 
of the University of California, Scripps 
College, the State Federation of Labor 
of the State of California, and other 
groups; "provides opportunity for work- 
ers in industry to study the social and 
economic problems of present-day in- 
dustrial society, to train themselves in 
clear thinking, and to develop a desire 
for study as a means of understanding 
and enjoyment of life", courses offered 
in American history, English, literature, 
economics, and government; opportu- 
nity for work m art and dramatics, phys- 
ical training and swimming; admits both 
men and women having three years of 
wage-earning experience, and at least 
sixth-grade education, limited number 
of scholarships available to women. 

THE DENVER LABOR COLLEGE, 210 
W. 1 3th Ave., Denver, Colo,, John 
R. Lawson, dean. 

Open to public and every member of 
organized labor; unions support college; 
classes two evenings a week in public 
speaking, parliamentary law; history of 
American labor movement, etc.; forum 
one evening a week; nominal fee for 
courses; no tuition for unemployed. 

WOMEN'S TRADE UNION LEAGUE, New 
Bedford, Mass., Sarah Burches, Mr. 

Affiliated with American Federation 
of Labor; offers yearly educational pro- 
gram to provide training of students 
drawn from industrial groups in New 



Bedford; 1933-34 program includes 
classes in labor history, government, and 
social psychology. 

FARMER-LABOR EDUCATIONAL BUREAU, 
Labor Temple, St. Paul, Minn., 
W. H. Pusch, sec. 

Outgrowth of cooperation between 
various farmer and labor groups; classes 
are devoted to mutual problems. 

LABOR INSTITUTE, Rutgers University, 
New Brunswick, N. J. 

Three- to five-day institute, conducted 
by University in cooperation with New 
Jersey Federation of Labor and Work- 
ers Education Bureau, held annually 
during summer; lectures and discussion 
forums on some general topic such as 
labor and world economic problems; 
registration, 1933, included 75 workers 
from 38 different trades within state. 

BROOKWOOD LABOR COLLEGE, Katonah, 
N. Y., Tucker Smith, fres. 

Six months' residence course which 
trains workers for more effective activ- 
ity in the labor movement; College pro- 
vides experienced teachers for local 
study groups; helps start local classes; 
prepares pamphlets and books written 
specially for workers; conducts labor 
chautauqua which tours industrial cen- 
ters; holds institutes at Brookwood and 
in industrial centers during spring and 
summer. 

LABOR TEMPLE SCHOOL, 242 E. I4th 
St., New York, N. Y., G. Francis 
Beck, Mr. 

Offers industrial workers opportunity 
for study and education at nominal fee; 
conducts classes nightly, except Satur- 
days, in literature, philosophy, history, 
psychology, art, dancing, economics 5 no 
vocational classes; staff members and 



304 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



speakers from other organizations con- 
duct "Our Own Times Forum" weekly 
on Thursday evenings; enrollment, all 
classes, 35,000. 

NEW YORK WOMEN'S TRADE UNION 
LEAGUE, 247 Lexington Ave., New 
York, N. Y., Bertha R. Paret, sec. 

Yearly educational program prepared 
after consultation with students and in- 
structors to provide training desired by 
students drawn from industrial groups 
mainly in New York City; 1932-33 pro- 
gram included social philosophy, public 
speaking, courses in labor movement, 
current events, imperialism, modern lit- 
erature, pottery, workers 7 dance theater; 
publishes Monthly Bulletin for mem- 
bers, membership, 600. 

RAND SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE, 15 
E. 1 6th St., New York, N. Y., Jacob 
Bernstein, sec. 

Non-resident school offering instruc- 
tion in modern socialism; provides so- 
cialists with facilities for study to make 
them more effective workers in and for 
the movement; evening courses in cur- 
rent events, music appreciation, sociol- 
ogy, leadership training, Russian, con- 
temporary civilization, etc. 

AMALGAMATED CLOTHING WORKERS, 
Y.W.C.A., Cincinnati, Ohio, Matilda 
Lobrum, sec. 

Most of educational work conducted 
through discussions, lectures and fo- 
rums, in connection with trade union 
meetings and trade union problems; 
class led by worker who has attended 
Bryn Mawr Summer School. 

WOMEN'S TRADE UNION LEAGUE, 3310 
No. Fairhill St., Philadelphia, Pa., 
Edith Stern, fres. 

Affiliated with American Federation 
of Labor j offers yearly educational pro- 



gram to provide training of women 
workers from industries in Philadel- 
phia; 1933-34 program includes classes 
in labor problems, economics, current 
events, and organization problems. 

LABOR COLLEGE, 454 Center Ave., 
Reading, Pa., Raymond V. Mood, 
for. 

Conducted for purpose of helping 
workers to understand their problems in 
shops and factories, instructors selected 
from Reading School District teachers 
or approved by city Director of Eve- 
ning Schools; School District exercises 
general supervisory powers, classes held 
two evenings a week in high school 
building; courses 1933-34 include The 
New Deal, Economic and Social His- 
tory of the United States up to the Civil 
War, History of the Labor Movement, 
etc., payment of fee of $3 entitles stu- 
dent to enroll in any or all courses. 

HIGHLANDER FOLK SCHOOL, Monteagle, 
Tenn., Myles Horton, Mr. 

Five months' resident course offered 
to limited number of workers or stu- 
dents interested in labor problems; 
courses in labor economics, sociology, 
psychology, geography, and Revolu- 
tionary literature; evening classes; also 
year-round community program con- 
sisting of workers' classes, music, dra- 
matics, library service, and recreation; 
regular courses supplemented by indi- 
vidual conferences and study of indus- 
trial conflicts; attendance, 15. 

See also the following agency listed 
under National Organizations: 

WORKERS EDUCATION BUREAU OF 
AMERICA 

And the following article: 

SCHOOLS FOR WOMEN WORKERS IN IN- 
DUSTRY, p. 306. 



WORKERS EDUCATION 



305 



READING LIST 

Curoe, P. R. V, Educational Attitudes 
and Policies of Organized Labor in 
the U. S. Teachers College, Colum- 
bia University, 1926. 201 p. 

Survey of the labor unions' aims 
for education. Contains criticisms and 
a constructive program. Of interest m 
connection with the history of work- 
ers' education in America. 

Hader, J. J., and E. C. Lindeman. 
What Do Workers Study? Workers 
Education Bureau Press, 1929. 66 p. 
An analysis of the content of work- 
ers' education in the United States 
and Great Britain for the years 1920 
to 1927 inclusive, with some com- 
parative notes on workers' education 
in Germany. 

Hansome, Marius. World Workers' Ed- 
ucational Movements. Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 1931. 594 p. 



The author draws parallel evidence 
from different countries and includes 
institutions with cooperative empha- 
sis, those with trade-union emphasis, 
with political emphasis, cultural em- 
phasis, and integrative emphasis. In- 
cludes chapters on the problems of 
workers' education and the social im- 
plications 

Hodgen, M. T. Workers' Education in 
England and the United States. Dut- 
ton, 1925. 312 p. 

The development of workers' edu- 
cation in England and the United 
States from 1750 to 1925. The au- 
thor seeks to establish the position 
that workers' education is a discipline 
for a specific purpose, that is, to 
teach the social sciences to men and 
women who seek to use that knowl- 
edge for class, and possibly for social, 
advancement. 



SCHOOLS FOR WOMEN WORKERS IN INDUSTRY 

The first of the schools for women workers in industry was started 
in the summer of 1921 when Bryn Mawr opened its campus and build- 
ings to a group of women workers recruited from all parts of the country 
for a two months 5 summer session. Similar summer schools for workers 
were started at Wisconsin University in 1925, at Barnard College, and 
in the South in 1927. The Vineyard Shore School was opened in 1929 
at West-Park-on-Hudson, New York, as an all-year-round resident 
school for a group of more advanced student workers. Four of these 
schools now are associated and operate as the Affiliated Schools for 
Workers. The Southern Summer School works closely with the Affiliated 
Schools. 

Admission requirements are practically the same for all the schools. 
Students are required to have at least a sixth-grade and, in some in- 
stances, an eighth-grade education, and to have worked in industry for 
at least two years. The six to eight weeks' courses are based on a con- 
sideration of economic problems. These are approached in a variety of 
ways but always with a view to relating them to the vital interests of 
the students. In so far as possible, students are selected from the natural 
leaders among workers those with the most force, intelligence, and 
capacity for learning. The schools try to develop in the students a sense 
of responsibility for social action, presenting the history and philosophy 
of the various systems and discussing the merits of each in an atmosphere 
which allows freedom of expression. 

The technique of teaching is carefully adjusted to the limitations of 
time and to the fact that many of the students are too handicapped by 
lack of previous schooling to follow and understand the university exten- 
sion and public school courses which they would like to take, and at the 
same time are too mature and intelligent to be held by the subject matter 
of courses for beginners. 

At the close of school the workers return to communities all over 
the country to face actual difficulties in the economic world. Their par- 
ticipation in local community activities after the study at the summer 
school is important. Here they have an opportunity to try to interpret 
in terms of experience the knowledge secured at the school. Many stu- 
dents in searching for the next important step after leaving summer 

306 



SCHOOLS FOR WOMEN WORKERS 307 

school give their attention to the organization of workers' classes. Stu- 
dents enter classes conducted by their union groups, labor colleges, the 
industrial departments of the Young Women's Christian Association, 
and the Women's Trade Union League $ they attend schools conducted 
by their political groups. In this further study the educational office of 
the Affiliated Schools works with local projects, serving as a source for 
materials, curricula, and information about available teachers. Through 
this educational work the students gain interest and understanding which 
form the basis for effective local programs. 

HILDA W. SMITH, Director, 
The Affiliated Schools for Workers. 



A list of the summer schools for women workers in industry follows. 
It is arranged alphabetically by state and city. 



BARNARD SUMMER SCHOOL FOR WOMEN 
WORKERS IN INDUSTRY, Barnard Col- 
lege, New York, N. Y. 

Barnard Summer School transferred 
for 1933 to the country, using buildings 
and equipment at Vineyard Shore 
School, and combining with Vineyard 
Shore in use of funds; students in resi- 
dence for eight weeks' term; instruction 
given in social science, science, and Eng- 
lish; health and recreation program in- 
cluded; enrollment, 30, 

VINEYARD SHORE SCHOOL, West-Park- 
on-Hudson, N. Y., Hilda W. Smith, 
<&r., 302 E. 25th St., New York, 
N. Y. 

School primarily for students who 
have attended one or the other of the 
Summer Schools for Women Workers 
in Industry; eight months' courses to 
women workers in industry based on 
same general outlines as courses at sum- 
mer schools, but of a more advanced na- 
ture; enrollment, 30. 

SOUTHERN SCHOOL FOR WOMEN WORK- 
ERS IN INDUSTRY IN NORTH CARO- 
LINA, Weaver College, N. C., Louise 



Leonard McLaren, 
Heights, Md. 



Linthicum 



School conducted for six weeks' pe- 
riod annually in various places in moun- 
tains of western North Carolina; stu- 
dent body made up of young women, 
ages 18-35, ^h minimum of sixth- 
grade education, from textile, tobacco, 
hosiery, and other industries, purpose of 
school cc to give women in industry an 
opportunity through study and discus- 
sion to develop a deeper appreciation 
of life and a clearer understanding of 
their part and responsibilities as indus- 
trial workers"; curriculum includes eco- 
nomics, English (oral and written), 
health classes, dramatics; cooperates 
closely with Affiliated Schools for 
Women Workers in Industry; supported 
by gifts from interested persons; Work- 
ers' Education Committees in twelve 
southern communities working to secure 
funds and students for summer schools 
and to promote local program of work- 
ers' education; enrollment, 25. 

SUMMER INSTITUTE FOR OFFICE WORK- 
ERS, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, 
Eleanor G. Coit, dir* 

Two weeks' session in July, 1933, 
sponsored by the Affiliated Schools for 



308 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Women Workers; students meet cost of 
room and board, tuition free; curricu- 
lum stresses present economic and social 
order and position of office worker in 
relation to it; economics and English 
literature, English composition, and 
modern history, enrollment, 25. 

BRYN MAWR SUMMER SCHOOL FOR 
WOMEN WORKERS IN INDUSTRY, Bryn 
Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa., 
Hilda W. Smith, dir. 

First resident summer school for in- 
dustrial workers in United States 
(founded 1921); students representing 
many different trades and backgrounds, 
recruited from important industrial cen- 
ters in this country and abroad; students 
must be from 20 to 35 years of age, 
with two years' experience in industry 
and school preparation through sixth 
grade, supplemented by further study; 
purpose of school is to offer students 
opportunities "to study liberal subjects, 
to train themselves in clear thinking, and 
to stimulate an active and continued in- 
terest in the problems of our economic 
order"; conducted in spirit of impar- 
tial inquiry, with freedom of discussion 
and teaching; subjects offered include 
economics, English composition, public 
speaking, literature, general science, so- 
cial history, and corrective gymnastics, 
control of school vested in Board of 
Directors, composed of an equal number 
of women m industry, together with 
representatives of summer school fac- 
ulty and others interested in workers' 
education; enrollment, 100* 

SUMMER SCHOOL FOR WORKERS IN IN- 
DUSTRY, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wise., Alice Shoemaker, 
Mr. 

School conducted for six weeks dur- 
ing summer for purpose of giving work- 



ers opportunity to enrich their lives 
through study of their industrial and 
social problems and responsibilities; cur- 
riculum includes economics, English, 
history, physical education, main fea- 
ture of program in 1933 was study of 
Recovery Act; school open to men and 
women over eighteen years of age, with 
eighth-grade education or its equivalent, 
who have worked in industry at least 
two years, enrollment, 37. 

See also the following organizations 
listed under National Organizations: 

THE AFFILIATED SCHOOLS FOR WORK- 
ERS 
WORKERS EDUCATION BUREAU 

READING LIST 

Hill, H. D. Effect of the Bryn Mawr 
Summer School as Measured in the 
Activities of Its Students. Affiliated 
Schools for Workers and American 
Association for Adult Education, 
1929. 133 p. 

A survey to ascertain the worth of 
the summer school experiment in 
terms of the students' subsequent lives 
and activities. 

Levine, Louis. The Women's Garment 
Workers- A History of the Interna- 
tional Ladies' Garment Workers' 
Union. Heubsch, 1924. 608 p. 

The first union in the American 
labor movement to organize depart- 
ments of research and investigation 
and to carry on special educational 
activities. 

Smith, H. W. Women Workers at the 
Bryn Mawr Summer School. Affili- 
ated Schools for Workers and Ameri- 
can Association for Adult Education, 
1929. 346 p. 

A history of the first eight sum- 
mers in the development of a summer 
school for women workers in industry. 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS WITH 
ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS 



An effort has been made to include here all of the organizations meeting 
the requirements outlined in the preface. Certain agencies, such as those in 
the fields of health and public administration, whose primary interest is not 
adult education have been omitted or have been mentioned briefly, for the 
reason that these fields have been covered fully in other recently issued 
directories, such as the Social Work Yearbook (Russell Sage Foundation, 
1933) and Organizations in the Field of Public Administration (Chicago, 
Public Administration Clearing House, 1932). 

Foundations and trust funds have been omitted from this list inasmuch 
as they do not actually engage in adult education. 

Membership figures, unless otherwise stated, refer to individual members. 

The list is arranged alphabetically by name of organization. 



THE ACADEMY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, 
Fayerweather Hall, Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York, N. Y., Ethel War- 
ner, for. 

Membership. 6,520 

Program As non-partisan organization 
aims to educate public opinion on most 
important movements of foreign poli- 
tics, international relations, and ques- 
tions of current interest in the United 
States, promotes discussions of these 
problems through meetings and publi- 
cations. 

Publications: Political Science Quar- 
terly, and Proceedings of Semi-Annual 
Meetings, both included in annual dues 
of $5- 

THE AFFILIATED SCHOOLS FOR WORK- 
ERS, 302 East 35th St., New York, 
N. Y., Hilda W. Smith, dir. 

Program; Coordinates work under sep- 
arate boards of directors for Summer 
Schools for Workers at Bryn Mawr 
College, Barnard College, the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, and at the Vineyard 



Shore School, cooperates with the 
Southern Summer School for Women 
Workeis in Industry in North Carolina; 
organizes local committees in fifty-six 
industrial centers to assist in recruiting 
students for affiliated schools, raising 
scholarship funds, and conducting local 
evening classes for workers; cooperates 
in other cities with gioups conducting 
workers 7 classes and acts as a resource on 
educational programs. 
Publications* Annotated List of Material 
for Workers' Classes, $.15; Education 
That Changes Lives: The Story of Five 
Schools, fiee; Carter, Jean, This Amer- 
ica A Study of Literature Interpreting 
the Development of American Civiliza- 
tion, $.25; Carter, Jean, Mastering the 
Tools of the Trade, $.25; Haber, Wil- 
liam, Unemployment: A Problem of In- 
security, $.35 to workers, $.50 to others; 
Hill, Helen D., The Effect of the 
Bryn Mawr Summer School as Measured 
in the Activities of its Students, free, 
Plunder, Olga L., Monograph on Meth- 
ods of Teaching English to Workers' 
Classes, $.25; Smith, Hilda W., Women 



309 



3io 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Workers at the Bryn Mawr Summer 
School, $1.50. List of publications on 
request. 

THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL 
AND SOCIAL SCIENCE, 34.57 Walnut 
St., Philadelphia, Pa., Ernest M. Pat- 
terson, pres. 

Membership: 9,000 

Program: Provides national forum for 
discussion of political and social ques- 
tions j seeks to secure and present re- 
liable information upon controversial 
matters j assists public in forming an in- 
telligent and accurate opinion; carries 
out program through meetings and pub- 
lications. 

Publications: The Annals, issued bi- 
monthly, free to members, $2 paper, 
$2.50 cloth; special volumes issued in- 
clude Prisons of Tomorrow, $2.50; The 
Modern American Family, $2, National 
and World Planning. List of publica- 
tions on request. 

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF TEACHERS OF 
SINGING, 45 West 45th St., New 
York, N. Y., Walter L. Bogert, sec. 

Membership 32 (limited to 40) 
Program: Organized in 1922 to estab- 
lish a code of ethical principles, to fur- 
ther knowledge and culture, and to pro- 
mote cooperation and good fellowship j 
holds series of discussions of technique 
of singing in its various branches. 
Publications: Advice to Students; Rea- 
sons for Studying Singing; an Outline 
of Theory; Qualifications for Teachers; 
Code of Ethics and Practice; and others, 

AMERICAN ALUMNI COUNCIL, Ohio 
State University, Columbus, Ohio, 
John B. Fullen, sec. 

Membership: 350 

Program: Promotes alumni education 

through membership; through Alumni 



Features Service distributes to various 
member magazines series of articles on 
contemporary thought by experts in va- 
rious fields. 

Publications: Shaw, W, B., Alumni and 
Adult Education: An Introductory Sur- 
vey, Undertaken by the American Asso- 
ciation for Adult Education, in Coop- 
eration with the American Alumni 
Council, boards $.50. List of publica- 
tions on request. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR ADULT 
EDUCATION, see p. 29. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, Smithsonian 
Institution Building, Washington, D. 
C., Henry B. Ward, perm, sec. 

Membership: 1 8, 8 00 
Program Through meetings and publi- 
cations promotes cooperation among 
men and women of science and all those 
interested in progress of knowledge and 
education, gives wide publicity to papers 
and discussion at meetings through news- 
papers and other periodicals; prepares 
and publishes reading lists on various 
divisions of science for distribution by 
American Library Association. 
Publications- Science, weekly, $6 (free 
to members on payment of $5 annual 
dues). 

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF MU- 
SEUMS, Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington, D. C., Laurence Vail Cole- 
man, Mr. 

Membership 909 individuals; 208 in- 
stitutions. 

Program: Promotes cooperation both 
within and without the museum pro- 
fession in improving the educational and 
other activities of museums; assists those 
who seek aid in founding and adminis- 
tering new museums of desirable type; 
studies museum conditions and methods 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



and distributes reports of results to mem- 
bers and others, has organized and built 
museums embodying new ideas, such as 
Trailside Museums in Palisades Inter- 
state Park and in several national parks. 
Publications The Museum News, bi- 
weekly, $4, distributed to members and 
libraries only, Publications of the 
American Association of Museums: New 
Series, papers on museum methods, ed- 
ucation, etc.; Handbook of American 
Museums, $5, Manual for Small Mu- 
seums, $5, A Bibliography of Museums 
and Museum Work, $5; Directory of 
Museums in South America, $3. List of 
publications on request. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY 
WOMEN, 1634. 1 St., N.W., Washing- 
ton, D. C., Kathryn McHale, <hr. 

Membership: 600 branches, 40,608 in- 
dividual members, 

Program: Bases program upon educa- 
tional needs in keeping with expressed 
aim of "an increasingly conscious and 
concerted effort to maintain high stand- 
ards in education nationally and lo- 
cally"; program is threefold: regular 
monthly branch meetings to keep mem- 
bers informed of local and national ac- 
tivities, open forum discussions or study 
groups (1,374 in 1931-32) m educa- 
tional trends, parent education and child 
development, international relations, 
arts, socio-economic problems, etc.j pro- 
motes community educational activities 
related to these studies, such as educa- 
tional and vocational guidance projects, 
tested playthings exhibits, improvement 
of rural schools, studies and surveys of 
public educational needs, clinics, nur- 
sery schools, libraries, recreational ac- 
tivities for children, 
Publications: See list of publications is- 
sued each fall; moderately priced study 
outlines available on educational trends, 
fine arts, hygiene and health, parent ed- 
ucation and child development, inter- 



national relations, and socio-economic 
field. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF WORKERS 
FOR THE BLIND, State Office Bldg., 
Hartford, Conn., Stetson K. Ryan, 
sec. 

Program Includes study, inauguration, 
and promotion of projects pertaining to 
social and economic welfare of the blind 
and nearly blind; also conservation of 
vision and prevention of blindness 
projects. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION TO PROMOTE 
THE TEACHING OF SPEECH TO THE 
DEAF, 1537 35th St., N.W., Wash- 
ington, D. C., Josephine B. Timber- 
lake, ex. sec. 

Membership. 1,500 teachers and others 
interested in teaching of speech to deaf. 
Program- Arranges courses of lectures 
for teachers of lip reading at Univer- 
sity of Chicago and other institutions; 
controls Volta Bureau, a research and 
service agency which serves as the sec- 
retariat for the Association and for the 
American Federation of Organizations 
for the Hard of Hearing. 
Publications. Auditory Outlook, month- 
ly, $2; Volta Review, monthly, $3. 

AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION, 1140 
North Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., 
Olive G. Ricker, ex. sec. 

Program, Organized primarily to serve 
professional interests of members ; broad- 
casting series of programs arranged by 
Council on Education and Admission to 
the Bar on "The Lawyer and the Pub- 
lic," in cooperation with the National 
Advisory Council on Radio in Educa- 
tion. For further information see Or- 
ganizations in the Field of Public Ad- 
ministration, referred to in the note 
prefacing this section. 



312 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



AMERICAN CHILD HEALTH ASSOCIA- 
TION, 450 Seventh Ave., New York, 
N. Y., Samuel J. Crumbine, M.D., 
gen. ex. 

Program- Promotes education of pa- 
rents, teachers, and other adults in the 
field of child health through publica- 
tions, consulting and advisory service. 
For further information see Organiza- 
tions in the Field of Public Adminis- 
tration and Social Work Year Book, re- 
ferred to in the note prefacing this 
section. 

THE AMERICAN CHORAL AND FESTIVAL 
ALLIANCE, INC., 362 Commonwealth 
Ave., Boston, Mass., Emma R. Fisher, 
fres. 

Program- Encourages active participa- 
tion throughout country in musical 
events; promotes musical festivals as 
pivotal point in which thousands par- 
ticipate under direction of trained 
graduates of public schools, colleges, 
conservatories and private studios, unit- 
ing American choral conductors in five- 
year program "to uplift and ennoble 
choral singing and conducting"; 
stresses folk-dance and folk-song par- 
ticipation as an educational folk meas- 
ure; gives information and advice to 
groups interested in choral singing. 
Publications* Occasional brochures. 

AMERICAN Civic ASSOCIATION, 901 
Union Trust Bldg., Washington, 
D. C., Harlean James, ex. sec. 

Program- Furnishes information on 
which to build local civic improvement 
programs, maintains standing commit- 
tees on national parks, roadside improve- 
ment, regional planning, etc.; holds 
traveling annual meeting to provide 
members with opportunity to study ap- 
plication of planning principles. 
Publications. James, Harlean, Ameri- 
can Civic Annual, $3; Civic Comment, 
five times a year. 



AMERICAN COLLEGE PERSONNEL ASSO- 
CIATION, Teachers College, Columbia 
University, New York, N. Y., Esther 
Lloyd- Jones, sec. 

Membership 90 

Progfam- Disseminates information on 
conferences and other reports on guid- 
ance and placement of college students 
and alumni; members discuss techniques 
and problems connected with adjust- 
ment of students and alumni to college 
and training, and to community life, 
encourages research on personnel prob- 
lems by members. 

Publications. Annual publication of 
Proceedings, published in monograph 
form, or as an issue of the Personnel 
Journal. 

AMERICAN COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC 
POLICY, II West 42nd St., New 
York, N. Y., John W. Herring, ex. 
Mr. 

An organization composed of national 
leaders of social, civic, and research 
agencies; recommends reading material 
and study programs to both agencies and 
individuals. 

AMERICAN COUNCIL, INSTITUTE OF PA- 
CIFIC RELATIONS, see Institute of 
Pacific Relations. 

AMERICAN COUNCIL ON EDUCATION, 
744 Jackson Place, Washington, 
D. C., C. R. Mann, Mr. 

Membership. Constituent, 24 national 
educational associations, associate, 21 
other national and Regional educational 
associations; institutional, 250 colleges 
and universities. 

Program: Serves as national voluntary 
cooperative agency for all fields of edu- 
cation; devises and manufactures tools 
for educational processes, including per- 
sonnel record cards, intelligence tests, 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



313 



objective type tests, etc.; conducts na- 
tional testing programs; organizes and 
conducts research in special fields, such 
as school finance, modern language 
teaching, state administration of educa- 
tion, job anal/sis, and occupational 
training and adaptation, maintains com- 
mittees on standards, graduate instruc- 
tion, problems and plans for research 
in education, Federal legislation, etc.; 
operates Cooperative Test Service; par- 
ticipates in work of National Commit- 
tee on Education by Radio. 
Publications. Handbook of American 
Universities and Colleges, $4, series of 
pamphlets on supplementary materials 
of instruction under general title, 
Achievements of Civilization, $.10 and 
$.15; the Educational Record, quar- 
terly, $2; Measurement and Guidance 
of College Students, $2; State Support 
of Education, $2; Research Problems in 
Educational Finance, $i. 

AMERICAN COUNTRY LIFE ASSOCIATION, 
105 East 22nd St., New York, N. Y., 
Benson Y. Landis, ex. sec. 

Membership: 800 

Program: Acts as clearing house of in- 
formation on rural affairs, including 
education; assists lay and professional 
leaders in consideration of their goals, 
methods and programs; forums and 
sections on adult education at annual 
conferences. 

Publications: Adult Education and 
Rural Life: Proceedings of 1932 An- 
nual Meeting, University of Chicago 
Press, $2; Rural America, monthly, $2 
peryr. 

AMERICAN FARM BUREAU FEDERATION, 
58 East Washington St., Chicago, 
111., M. S. Winder, ex. sec. 

Membership: 2,500,000 

Program: Maintains information and 

service bureaus for members 5 state fed- 



erations and county and community 
farm bureaus work in cooperation with 
county agents, frequently as agencies 
through which extension work of the 
U. S. Bureau of Agriculture and col- 
leges of agriculture is carried on; pro- 
gram of community federations includes 
home improvement, school cooperation, 
health and safety, recreation, coopera- 
tive credit, electrification, etc., regional 
training schools and leadership confer- 
ences held for state and county officers, 
at which problems of leadership, com- 
munity organization, etc., are discussed; 
Home Bureaus, cooperating with state 
and county home demonstration agents, 
promote programs in child health, dairy 
and home improvement, recreational 
activities, etc. 

Publications- News Letter, bi-weekly, 
$i; Bureau Farmer, monthly, $.50. 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF ARTS, Barr 
Building, Washington, D. C., F. A. 
Whiting, pres. 

Membership: 500 chapters; 3,300 indi- 
viduals. 

Program- Serves as national headquar- 
ters for arts in America; circulates 
traveling art exhibitions to museums, 
colleges, art associations, clubs, libraries 
and fairs; sends out lectures illustrated 
by lantern slides, especially prepared by 
experts for this purpose; sends out illus- 
trations and articles to aid in prepara- 
tion of talks and articles on art topics; 
acts as clearing house for information 
on matters of art; advises in regard to 
specific art educational problems, and 
conducts special art-educational proj- 
ects; at present conducting art educa- 
tion projects in Virginia, Georgia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, and 
Iowa. 

Publications: The American Magazine 
of Art, $5 per yr.; The American Art 
Annual, $10 per yr. 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR, see 
Workers Education Bureau of Amer- 
ica. 

AMERICAN FEDERATION OF ORGANIZA- 
TIONS FOR THE HARD OF HEARING, 
IS37 35th St., N.W., Washington, 
D. C., Betty C. Wright, ex. sec. 

Membership , 2,800 individuals, 79 lo- 
cal organizations. 

Program. Helps to establish lip read- 
ing classes for adults in public schools 
and elsewhere, maintains correspondence 
club for hard of hearing; gives infor- 
mation on lip reading, reliable hearing 
aids, quack devices and treatments, and 
suitable vocations for hard of hearing, 
helps form local groups, who in turn, 
try to provide for lecture courses in 
cooperation with universities where 
members hear with aid of wiring equip- 
ment; lip reading instruction. 
Publications: Auditory Outlook, official 
organ, monthly, $1.50. 

AMERICAN FOLK DANCE SOCIETY, U. S. 
Section International Commission on 
Folk Arts, 65 East 56th St., New 
York, N. Y., Elizabeth Burchenal, 
chmn* 

Program Maintaining and developing 
a national center and service for folk 
arts in the United States; carries on 
Folk Institute which includes laymen's 
folk dancing, folk programs providing 
contact with folk groups and leadership 
training; maintains reference service for 
leaders; publishes collections of folk 
dance material for adult education. 
Publications: Burchenal, Elizabeth, 
American Country Dances, $1.50, pa- 
per; Folk Dances and Singing Games, 
$1.50, paper; Folk Dances from Old 
Homelands, $1.50, paper, Dances of 
the People, $2, paper; Folk Dancing as 
a Popular Recreation, $.50, paper, and 
others. 



AMERICAN FOUNDATION FOR THE 
BLIND, 125 East 46th St., New 
York, N. Y., Robert B. Irwm, ex. 
dir. 

Program Collects and disseminates in- 
formation regarding all phases of work 
for the blind; supplies information de- 
signed to give public better appreciation 
of needs and capacities of blind for 
purpose of providing broader vocational 
opportunities; distributes free radios to 
blind persons unable to buy them; main- 
tains reference library; provides field 
workers to assist local organizations. 
Publications. Outlook for the Blind, 
five times a year, $2. List of publica- 
tions on request. 

AMERICAN GUILD OF ORGANISTS, INC., 
217 Broadway, New York, N. Y., 
Charles Henry Doersam, warden. 

Membership 5,000 
Program Advances cause of worthy 
church music through membership by 
stressing responsibilities, duties, and op- 
portunities as conductors of musical 
worship, raises standard of efficiency of 
organists by examinations in organ play- 
ing, in the theory of music, and in 
general musical knowledge; provides 
members with opportunity for meeting 
for the discussion of professional topics. 

AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, 450 
Seventh Ave., New York, N. Y., 
Stewart Roberts, pres. 
Program: Collects and correlates facts 
relating to heart disease and dissemi- 
nates information on its findings and 
the methods to be employed for pre- 
vention. For further information see 
Social Work Year Book, referred to in 
note prefacing this section. 

AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCI- 
ATION, 620 Mills Bldg., Washington, 
D. C , Alice L. Edwards, ex. sec. 

Membership: 9,714 

Program: Makes available to groups 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



315 



services of a field worker in child de- 
velopment and parental education, pre- 
pares bibliographies and other materials 
for use of individuals and groups, state 
and local associations encourage work 
in parent education through programs of 
adult education and through home eco- 
nomics courses in the schools. 
Publications McGinnis, Esther, Home 
Economics and Education for Family 
Life, $.30; Richardson, Anne E. and 
Mabel L. Miller, Child Development 
and Parental Education in Home Eco- 
nomics, $.30; Journal of Home Eco- 
nomics, monthly, $3 per yr. 

THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR THE 
DEAF-BLIND, Northwestern Univer- 
sity, Evanston, 111., Robert N. Gault, 
Mr.-gen. 

An organization for scientific research 
that relates ultimately to the education 
of the deaf, the blind, and the deaf- 
blind; organized 1933. 

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS, 
The Octagon, 1741 New York Ave., 
Washington, D. C., Charles Butler, 
chmn.) Committee on Education, 56 
West 45th St., New York, N. Y. 

Membership. 3,3 1 8 

Program: Sponsois summer courses at 
Harvard University and the University 
of Oregon, under grant made by the 
Carnegie Corporation of New York, for 
college teachers of art appreciation, with 
stipulation that teachers shall give course 
in art appreciation at their colleges dur- 
ing ensuing year? sends out lecturers in 
different parts of the country to visit 
colleges to address students and to urge 
faculties to further the teaching of art 
and art appreciation. 
Publications: Committee on Education, 
The Significance of the 'Fine Arts, Mar- 
shall-Jones, $2.75, library edition 
$7.50; Opdyke, George, Art and Na- 
ture Appreciation, Macmillan, $3.50. 



AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF BANKING, 22 
East 40th St., New York, N. Y., 
Harold Stonier, nat'l educ. dir. 

Membership. 65,000 
Program: Section of the American Bank- 
ers Association; works through chapters 
and study groups located in the larger 
cities and towns throughout United 
States; offers courses on subjects deal- 
ing with bank administration, including 
credits, investments, trust functions, 
and bank management; requires class 
work two nights a week for four years 
to obtain the Institute Standard Certifi- 
cate; advanced courses offered there- 
after; in addition to formal training 
progiam, offers, through chapters, 
courses in broader economic phases of 
banking and finance; forum, debate, 
and public speaking activities part of 
work of many chapters; local groups 
carry on public education program by 
giving talks on current economic sub- 
jects to schools, colleges, clubs, etc. 
Publications. List of publications on re- 
quest. 

AMERICAN LEGION, Indianapolis, Ind., 
Frank E. Samuel, natfL adj. 

Membership: i,000,OOO 
Pt o gram- Fosters patriotic service to 
community, state, and nation; state and 
community program carried on by 58 
local, state, and territorial departments 
and 10,709 local posts; National Ameri- 
canism Commission responsible for edu- 
cational program which includes pro- 
motion of citizenship schools for for- 
eign born, playgrounds and recreation 
for community, "safety first" pro- 
grams, flag education, cooperation with 
libraries, other public institutions and 
with parent-teacher associations, etc.; 
participates in American Education 
Week and in National Constitution 
Week, National Child Welfare Divi- 
sion supplies field consultants, partici- 
pates in local conferences on child wel- 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



3l6 

fare, and prepares educational material 
for use by local groups. 
Publications. American Legion Monthly, 
$1.50. List of publications on request. 

AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION, 520 
North Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111., 
Carl H. Milam, sec. 

Membership- 13,300 
Program- As national organization of 
librarians, gives information, service, 
and advice to libraries and state library 
extension agencies desiring assistance in 
extension of their educational work with 
adults; cooperates with national institu- 
tions, associations, and organizations 
having educational interests in common 
with it; conducts or assists in investi- 
gations and studies which promise to be 
of use to libraries, on such subjects as 
readable books, reading habits, etc.; 
provides information on the possibili- 
ties of self -improvement through good 
reading, and on the usefulness of public 
libraries in promoting adult education 
through reading; 

Members of Association through local 
public libraries give consulting and ad- 
visory service supplemented by suitable 
books; furnish complete information 
concerning local educational opportu- 
nities for adults available outside the 
library; supply books and other printed 
material for adult education activities 
maintained by other organizations; in 
large public libraries readers' advisory 
service, in charge of specially trained 
personnel, offers advice in choice of 
books, and compiles reading lists for in- 
dividuals and organizations on request. 

State library extension agencies serve 
as central lending libraries, supplement- 
ing resources of public libraries of 
state; give direct service in adult edu- 
cation to persons without local public 
library service; cooperate with other 
organizations in state-wide adult edu- 
cation projects. 



Publications: Libraries and Adult Edu- 
cation, Macmillan, $2.50, Reading with 
a Purpose series, sixty-seven titles (avail- 
able in many libraries at nominal price), 
single copy, cloth, $.50, paper, $.35, 
also quantity rates, Waples, Douglas, 
and R. W. Tyler, What People Want 
to Read About, published jointly with 
the University of Chicago Press, $3.50, 
Felsenthal, Emma, Readable Books in 
Many Subjects, $.40. List of publica- 
tions on request. 

AMERICAN MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION, 
20 Vesey St., New York, N. Y., John 
G. Goetz, man. dir. 

Membership- 4,400 executives repre- 
senting about 1,500 industrial and com- 
mercial corporations. 
Program. Provides for discussion of im- 
portant developments m management 
practice and theory through conferences, 
discussion at conventions, publications; 
affords opportunity for interchange of 
information on business management 
and for contacts with leaders in man- 
agement movement in America and 
abroad. 

Publications List of publications on re- 
quest. 

AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 535 
North Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., 
Olin West, sec. and gen. man. 

Program: Furthers the science and art 
of medicine; aids in the betterment of 
public health by serving as clearing 
house of information on the subject. 
For further information see Social 
Work Year Book, referred to in note 
prefacing this section. 

AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE LI- 
BRARY ASSOCIATION, 67 Wall St., 
New York, N. Y., Henry H. Doug- 
las, In. 

Program. Furnishes a comprehensive li- 
brary service to American seamen, sup- 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



317 



plying crews' libraries and technical 
books to American Merchant Marine 
shops, lighthouses, lightships, and U. S. 
Coast Guard Despatch offices at import- 
ant ports; gives help and information 
about educational opportunities available 
to seamen on ship and ashore. 
Publications- Seamen's Handbook for 
Shore Leave. 

AMERICAN MUNICIPAL ASSOCIATION, 
850 East 58th St., Chicago, 111., Paul 
V. Betters, Mr. 

Membership: 25 state leagues of mu- 
nicipalities. 

Program. Furnishes informational and 
other services designed to assist state 
leagues of municipalities to perform 
their functions more effectively; pro- 
motes organization of leagues in states 
where none exist, recommends cur- 
ricula, organization, methods of teach- 
ing, and faculty for state schools train- 
ing various types of municipal officials. 
Publications. American Municipal As- 
sociation News, quarterly; series of re- 
ports on municipal problems; weekly 
and monthly informational bulletins. 

AMERICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON 
INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL CO- 
OPERATION, 405 West 1 1 7th St., 
New York, N. Y., James T. Shotwell, 
chmn. 

Membership* Representatives of 27 or- 
ganizations. 

Program: Represents the League of Na- 
tions Organization for Intellectual Co- 
operation in the United States; work of 
the Committee in adult education re- 
stricted to acting as liaison and infor- 
mation center with respect to the inter- 
national aspect of adult education; 
concerned with the general facilitation 
of international understanding. 



AMERICAN NATIONAL RED CROSS, iyth 
and D Sts. N.W., Washington, D. C., 
John Barton Payne, chmn. 

Program Carries out obligations im- 
posed on the Government by the Inter- 
national Red Cross treaty, gives relief 
in disasters, renders personal service to 
National Defense forces and veterans; 
provides instructors for classes in first 
aid and life-saving and home hygiene 
and care of sick. For further informa- 
tion see Social Work Year Book, re- 
ferred to in note prefacing this section. 

AMERICAN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY 
ASSOCIATION, 175 Fifth Ave., New 
York, N. Y., Eleanor Clarke Slagle, 
sec.-tt eas. 

Membership: 900 

Program' Interested in all phases of 
treatment by occupation and in particu- 
lar in standards set up and maintained 
for education of occupational therapists; 
promotes use of occupation as treatment 
under medical supervision; encourages 
high standards in training of occu- 
pational therapists; recommends re- 
educational activities and advises as to 
treatment by occupation, maintains na- 
tional directory of qualified occupational 
therapists. 

Publications- Occupational Therapy, and 
Rehabilitation, official organ. 

AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ASSO- 
CIATION, P.O. Box 362, Ann Arbor, 
Mich., Elmer D. Mitchell, sec. 

Membership: 7,000 

Program: Serves as clearing house for 
information in fields of health and 
physical education; disseminates infor- 
mation to general public; activities car- 
ried on through various sections on 
camping, dancing, recreation, etc.; 
holds annual convention. 
Publications: Journal of Health and 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Physical Education, ten issues a year, 
$2, The Research Quarterly, $3. 

AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIA- 
TION, 205 Bennett Hall, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., 
Harold W. Dodds, chmn. Subcommit- 
tee on Political Education of Com- 
mittee on Policy, Princeton Univer- 
sity, Princeton, N. J. 

Membership: 1,888 

Program. Holds ten or twelve confer- 
ences annually in which academic per- 
sons meet and discuss current problems 
with politicians and public officials for 
mutual understanding; sponsors jointly 
with National Advisory Council on 
Radio in Education series of weekly 
programs on "You and Your Govern- 
ment" to interest citizens in government 
by giving accurate and impartial broad- 
casts on government problems. 
Publications* You and Your Govern- 
ment series, National Municipal League, 
$.15- 

AMERICAN PRISON ASSOCIATION, 135 
East 1 5th St., New York, N. Y., 
E. R. Cass, gen. sec. 

Membership: 565 prison wardens and 
others interested m prison administra- 
tion. 

Program Activities carried on chiefly 
through sections on education, crime 
prevention, case work, etc.; committee 
on education attempts to stimulate de- 
velopment of better educational pro- 
grams in prisons; sections meet annually 
at Prison Congress. 

Publications Congress Proceedings, an- 
nually, $3. 

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIA- 
TION, 450 Seventh Ave., New York, 
N. Y., Kendall Emerson, acting sec. 

Program* Carries on educational, field, 
employment, informational, research. 



and other services designed to protect 
and promote public and personal health. 
For further information see Social 
Work Year Book, referred to in note 
prefacing this section. 

AMERICAN REHABILITATION COMMIT- 
TEE, INC., 28 East 2 1st St., New 
York, N. Y., Grace Maxon Heagen, 
ex. sec. 

Membership: 15 

Program Assists handicapped adults to 

overcome detrimental mental attitudes 

essential to employment of any kind, 

conducts curative workshop; methods of 

training used include, assembling elec- 

tric appliances, packing, folding, gluing, 

spring making, soldering, inserting, 

printing, etc. 

Publications: Rehabilitation Review, 

monthly, $2. 

AMERICAN TURNERBUND, Suite 3209, 
Grant Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa., George 
Seibel, 



Membeishif 59,766 
Program Local branches hold debates 
and classes in German, dramatics, choral 
singing and instrumental music, swim- 
ming, fencing, and gymnastics. 

AMERICAN UNITARIAN ASSOCIATION, 25 
Beacon St., Boston, Mass., Gertrude 
H. Taft, sec., deft, religious educa- 
tion. 

Program* Function of Department is to 
assist ministers and members of church 
"to establish concept of liberal church 
as constant educational adventure"; is- 
sues study outline including reading 
suggestions, suggestions for conducting 
meetings, etc., intended to cover year's 
study by classes of adults or young peo- 
ple, including such subjects as com- 
parative religion, religion and art, 
modern philosophy and psychology, 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



practical psychology and personal adjust- 
ment, the community, etc. 
Publications- Sharp, Waitstill H., 
Courses in Adult Education (Religious 
Education Bulletin, No. 24.) free upon 
request. 

AMERICAN VOCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 
INC., Topeka, Kan., C. M. Miller, 
sec. 

Membership: 9,778 

Program Provides national forum for 
the discussion of vocational education 
questions; makes limited number of 
studies in field of vocational education 
and disseminates results to members and 
general public, cooperates with Na- 
tional Association of State Directors of 
Vocational Education and with the af- 
filiated state and provincial vocational 
education associations, majority of 
members working under Federal Smith- 
Hughes Vocational Education Act. 
Publications: News Bulletin, quarterly. 

ASSOCIATION FOR CHILDHOOD EDUCA- 
TION, 1 20 1 Sixteenth St., Washing- 
ton, D. C., Mary E. Leeper, ex. sec. 

Membership- 2,500 contributing mem- 
bers; 20,000 branch members. 
Program- Provides research and infor- 
mational service to teachers of young 
children and to parents, standing com- 
mittee on parent education. 
Publications- Childhood Education, 
monthly during school year, $2.50; 
Educational Bulletins, several each year, 
$.25 to $i. 

ASSOCIATION FOR PERSONALITY TRAIN- 
ING, 65 East 96th St., New York, 
N. Y., Blanche C. Greenburg, sec. 

Membership- 205 

Program: Promotes education and ad- 
justment of the whole man, emotional, 



intellectual, physical and spiritual; con- 
ducts course of lectures at New York 
University; arranges single lectures and 
courses of lectures for Y.W.C.A. and 
Y.M.C.A., Y.W.H.A. and Y.M.H.A. 
groups, churches, schools, settlements, 
volunteer groups, community centers 
in and out of New York City, con- 
ducts clinical meetings, lecture discus- 
sions, symposia, round tables, lecture 
courses, maintains lecture bureau, acts 
as a coordinating agency; develops 
counseling service for adults, offers 
information and advisory service; en- 
courages research and studv in industrial 
units and educational organizations. 
Publications Current Information Bul- 
letin, $.25; Tead, Ordway, Adjusting 
Personality to the "Good Life", $.10; 
Board, Samuel S , Personality Difficul- 
ties of the College Graduate, $.105 
Bergen, Harold S., How Personality In- 
fluences Selection and Placement, $.10; 
Wile, Ira S., The Bases of Personality 
Adjustment, $.10, CunlifTe, R. B., 
Guidance as Education, $.10. List of 
publications on request. 

ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF NEGRO 
LIFE AND HISTORY, 1538 Ninth St., 
N.W., Washington, D. C., Carter G. 
Woodson, Mr. 

Program- Collects sociological and his- 
torical data; publishes books on Negro 
life and history, promotes study of the 
Negro through clubs and schools; at- 
tempts to bring about harmony between 
the races by interpreting the one to the 
other j conducts home study department 
offering courses in Negro life and his- 
tory; collects manuscripts on the Negro 
which are made accessible to public in 
Library of Congress; branches in vari- 
ous cities including Philadelphia, Kan- 
sas City, Petersburg and Cleveland. 
Publications: Journal of Negro History, 
quarterly, $2.50 per yr., single copies 
$.50. List of publications on request. 



320 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



ASSOCIATION OF THE JUNIOR LEAGUES 
OF AMERICA, INC., The Waldorf- 
Astoria, New York, N. Y., Mrs. 
DeForest Van Slyck, ex. dir. 

Membership. 25,000 individuals, 131 
constituent leagues. 

Program Serves as information center 
for all branches of League work, aims 
to develop members, help them find 
place in community, and continue edu- 
cation to attain intelligent citizenship 
and participation in community work 5 
sponsors courses for members on social 
welfare, citizenship, education, etc., 
through lecture series, round tables, lun- 
cheons, field trips; carries on program 
through three branches: social welfare, 
children's theaters, and art. 
Publications Junior League Magazine, 
monthly, $2.50. 

ASSOCIATION OF URBAN UNIVERSITIES, 
25 Niagara Square, Buffalo, N. Y., 
C. S. Marsh, sec.-treas. 

Membership. 34 institutions. 
Program. Promotes study and carries on 
research in problems of particular in- 
terest to urban universities, including 
university extension; devotes one half- 
day session of annual meeting to discus- 
sions of problems of adult education. 
Publications. Minutes of annual meet- 
ings, $i. 

BAPTIST, NORTHERN CONVENTION, The 
American Baptist Publication Society, 
1701-1703 Chestnut St., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., Mrs. W. E. Chalmers, Mr. 
adult work. 

Program: Promotes study of religious 
subjects among local churches; issues 
publications for use of study groups and 
classes; provides for leadership training 
of adults through summer assemblies, 
home correspondence courses, and insti- 
tutes; promotes parent education by 
publications and by suggestions for 



leaders of groups; social education de- 
partment issues and circulates leaflets on 
many types of social problems. 
Publications- Murphy, Lois B., Toward 
Racial Understanding; Geer, Owen M., 
What Can We Do About the Depres- 
sion ? ; Books for Parents, free. List of 
publications on request. 

BRAILLE INSTITUTE OF AMERICA, INC., 
741 North Vermont Ave., Los An- 
geles, Calif., J. Robert Atkinson, 
mce-pres. and mgr. 

Program: Furnishes literature in raised 
type for blind and partially blind, pro- 
vides instruction for adult blind in 
reading and writing Braille, in type- 
writing and other vocational subjects, 
and in mastery of any subject or method 
that is designed to facilitate and develop 
their education, and aid their well- 
being, maintains national lending ref- 
erence library of business j'ournals, 
guides and books on vocations, trades 
and professions; provides, through en- 
dowments and gifts from public, schol- 
arships in vocational and higher 
education in branches of trades and 
professions found practical for blind. 
Publications: Craig, Alice Evelyn, The 
Speech Arts, 5 v. $15; Bleyer, Willard 
G., Newspaper Writing and Editing, 4 
v. $11.50; Fernald, James C., English 
Synonyms, Antonyms and Prepositions, 
9 v. $26; Read, G. H., The New Sales- 
manship, $1.50. List of publications on 
request. 

THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION, 722 
Jackson Place, Washington, D. C., 
Harold G. Moulton, fres. 

Program: Conducts research in current 
economic and governmental administra- 
tive problems; cooperates with National 
Advisory Council on Radio in Educa- 
tion in broadcasting series of programs 
on current economic problems; arranges 
periodic public lectures, delivered in its 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



own building, on timely issues of eco- 
nomic and political bearing; catalog 
of publications on request. For further 
information see Organizations in the 
Field of Public Administration, referred 
to in note prefacing this section. 

BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, see 
National Bureau of Economic Re- 
search, 

BUREAU OF PERSONNEL ADMINISTRA- 
TION, Graybar Bldg., room 1745, 
420 Lexington Ave., New York, 
N. Y., Henry C. Metcalf, fa. 

Program: Through research, conference, 
counsel, training, and publication helps 
develop for the common benefit of 
employers, managers, workers, and the 
public integrated thinking and con- 
structive direction of the basic policies, 
principles, and operating techniques of 
business administration and manage- 
ment. 

CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Wash- 
ington, D. C., D. A. Skinner, sec. 

Membership: 1,426 commercial organ- 
izations and trade associations. 
Program: Maintains service departments 
dealing with all major branches of 
American commerce and industry; civic 
development department studies and 
gives information on such questions as 
housing, city planning and zoning, etc. 
For further information see Organiza- 
tions in the Field of Public Adminis- 
tration referred to in note prefacing this 
section. 

CHAUTAUQUA INSTITUTION, Chautauqua, 
N, Y., Arthur E. Bestor, fa. 

Program:^ Founded in 1874; has never 
had any connection with any other or- 
ganization of similar name; ten weeks' 



321 

summer school each year at Chautauqua 
Institution on Lake Chautauqua, N. Y., 
offers cultural courses for credit, courses 
without credit, musical program of sym- 
phony concerts, operas, chamber music, 
series of addresses by nationally known 
speakers, dramatic performances, etc.; 
Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Cir- 
cle offers year-round directed home 
reading course. 

Following organizations conduct pro- 
grams in coopeiation with Chautauqua 
Institution. Chautauqua Woman's Club 
(1,300 members representing 38 states 
and 12 foreign countries), Y.W C.A., 
Women's Christian Temperance Union, 
Daughters of American Revolution, 
King's Daughters and Sons, Members of 
Reading Circle, Foreign Policy Associa- 
tion, Bird and Tree Club, Business and 
Professional Women's Club, and a num- 
ber of religious denominations. 
Publications. Chautauquan Daily, 50 is- 
sues, $2.25; Chautauquan Weekly, 44 
issues, $1.50, three or four titles (such 
as Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens) 
published and offered at cost to reading 
groups. List of publications on request. 

CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA, 
221 West 57th St , New York, N. Y., 
Sidonie Matsner Gruenberg, dir. 

Membership: 1,400 members; 5>50O 
subscribers. 

Piogram- Carries on parent education 
program covering entire range of child- 
hood and family relationships, through 
study groups at headquarters and lead- 
ership training for professional, lay, and 
prospective leaders; makes available con- 
sultation service by psychiatrist for con- 
sideration of individual problems; offers 
lectures and conferences open to public; 
maintains reference and circulating li- 
brary of books and periodicals in parent 
education and related fields; on the sus- 
taining program schedule of the Na- 
tional Broadcasting Company; study 



322 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



groups in many localities, organized by 
local schools, churches, and clubs, affili- 
ated with Association for purpose of 
securing help in organizing, planning 
program, securing study material and 
occasional leadership, study group work 
with Negroes a special project for num- 
ber of years. 

Publications Child Study. A Journal 
of Parent Education, $ I , Fisher, Doro- 
thy Canfield and S. M. Gruenberg, 
Our Children, Viking, $2.75, Gruen- 
berg, S. M., Outlines of Child Study, 
Macmillan, $1.25; Gruenberg, B. C., 
ed., Guidance of Childhood and Youth, 
Macmillan, $1.50. List of other publi- 
cations on request. 

THE CHRISTIAN SCIENCE BOARD OF 
DIRECTORS, The Mother Church, 
The First Church of Christ, Scien- 
tist, 107 Falmouth St., Boston, Mass. 

Program' Carries on active program of 
denominational education, issues The 
Christian Science Monitor, international 
daily newspaper with a planned educa- 
tional program including news on po- 
litical, social, and ecenomic events, and 
trends m science, theology, and medi- 
cine, for the purpose of bringing about 
an informed public opinion based on 
knowledge of world conditions. 

CHURCH OF THE BRETHREN, 22 South 
State St , Elgin, 111., Ruf us D. Bow- 
man, gen. sec. 

Program. Adult committee composed of 
representatives of the National Coun- 
cils of Men's Work and Women's 
Work, the General Mission Board, and 
Board of Christian Education, commit- 
tee, working in an advisory relationship 
to boards and other church groups, con- 
ducts program of parent education, 
community service and religious educa- 
tion. 



CHURCH OF THE UNITED BRETHREN 
IN CHRIST, The Board of Christian 
Education, 1442 U. B. Bldg., Day- 
ton, Ohio, Martin I. Webber, dir. y 
adult work and, leadership training. 

Membership- 250,000 
Program. Conducts extensive educational 
service for adults including publication 
of study outlines and suggestions for 
programs; sponsors Indiana Central 
Camp Conference and Leadership 
School, Indiana Central College, Indian- 
apolis, held annually since 1926, for 
purpose of training leaders for the 
whole program of Christian education 
in the local churches; school offers 
courses in psychology, parent education, 
vocational guidance, recreational lead- 
ership, organization and administration, 
and religious subjects, attendance, about 
100, sponsors Otterbein Camp Confer- 
ence and Leadership School, Westerville, 
Ohio, offering courses in same subjects 
as Indiana Conference; attendance, 100. 
Publications Webber, Martin I., Thir- 
teen Party Plans for Adults, $1.25; 
Webber, Martin L, Adult Christian 
Education in the Local Church, $.10. 

CITIZENS' COUNCILS FOR CONSTRUCTIVE 
ECONOMY, see National Municipal 
League. 

COLLEGE ART ASSOCIATION, 137 East 
57th St., New York, N. Y., Audrey 
McMahon, e#. sec., Frances Pollak. 

Program: Sponsors traveling exhibitions 
of original works of art, ancient, medi- 
aeval and modern art, painting and 
sculpture, drawings, graphic and applied 
art, which are sent to over 400 mu- 
seums, universities, and colleges; circu- 
lates Carnegie Corporation Art Teach- 
ing Equipment Sets, gives scholarships 
and fellowships in accordance with vari- 
ous grants. 

Publications The Art Bulletin, quar- 
terly, sent to members only; Parnassus, 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



323 



monthly October to May, $35 Eastern 
Art, annual devoted to oriental art, $10 
to $15; Art Index, $10. 

COMMISSION ON INTERRACIAL COOPERA- 
TION, 703 Standard Bldg., Atlanta, 
Ga., Will W. Alexander, ex. dir. 

Membership. 115 

Program. Encourages white and colored 
persons to cooperate toward solution of 
mutual social problems; holds annual 
meeting, attended by college presidents, 
public school administrators and others 
for discussion of problems of race rela- 
tions; state and local committees work 
on definite projects such as betterment 
of schools, libraiies, public health, etc.; 
committees hold state and regional meet- 
ings at regular intervals. 
Publications List of publications on re- 
quest. 

COMMISSION ON JEWISH EDUCATION, 
Merchants Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio, 
Emanuel Gamoran, ed. dir. 

Membership of constituency 55,000 
Program: Commission's program con- 
ducted under joint auspices of The 
Union of American Hebrew Congre- 
gations and The Central Conference of 
American Rabbis j plans graded pro- 
grams for congregations, based on re- 
ligious subjects; has stimulated interest 
in Jewish adult education through pub- 
lication of books and articles on the 
subject; issues syllabi and bibliographies 
on teacher training. 

Publications: The Jewish Teacher, 
teachers' magazine, Levinger, Lee, Jr., 
A History of the Jews in the United 
States, $2; Enelow, H. G., Adult Edu- 
cation in Judaism, $.25; Gamoran, 
Emanuel, Jewish Education in the 
United States, $.25; and Teacher 
Training for Jewish Schools, $.75. List 
of publications on request. 



CONGREGATIONAL EDUCATION SOCIETY, 
14 Beacon St., Boston, Mass., John 
L. Lobinger, dir.> adult work. 

Program. Department of Adult Work 
and allied departments prepare and issue 
reading lists on parent education, race 
relations, health, etc., and outlines for 
study programs at conferences and 
through correspondence, department of 
leadership training, department of social 
relations, and department of missionary 
education and world friendship also 
make provision for adult education in 
their programs by suggesting study pro- 
grams for adult groups and by distrib- 
uting timely reading suggestions, dis- 
cussion outlines, etc. 

Publications: Church and Society, 
monthly, $.50 per year; program book- 
lets for adult groups, series of twelve 
booklets, $.10 each, Books for Adult 
Study, annotated reading list, free 5 
Petty, 0. A., Religious Leaders and 
Adult Education, $.05. List of publi- 
cations on request. 

COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS, 45 
East 65th St., New York, N. Y., 
Walter H. Mallory, ex. dir. 

Membership: 500 

Program: Encourages scientific study of 
international relations; provides con- 
tinuous conference on international 
aspects of America's political, economic, 
and financial problems; holds round 
table meetings and dinners for distin- 
guished American and foreign guests to 
discuss international problems; maintains 
reference library; prepares annual sur- 
vey of foreign relations of the United 
States. 

Publications* Foreign Affairs: An Amer- 
ican Quarterly Review, edited by Ham- 
ilton Fish Armstrong, $5; Lippmann, 
Walter, The United States in World 
Affairs; Annual Survey of American 
Foreign Relations, $3; The Political 



3*4 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



Handbook of the World; Parliaments, 
Parties, and Press, issued annually, 
$2.50; individual volumes on special 
international questions. List of publica- 
tions on request. 

DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVO- 
LUTION, THE NATIONAL SOCIETY OF, 
Memorial Continental Hall, Wash- 
ington, D. C, Mrs. John M. Beav- 
ers, corres. sec. gen. 

Membership. 165,000 
Program Carries on program of patri- 
otic education; provides information for 
immigrant on how to become an Ameri- 
can citizen; works with naturalization 
courts, evening schools, citizenship 
classes, etc., sponsors radio broadcasts; 
preserves historic spots; works to pro- 
mote showing of better films in com- 
munity theaters by issuing monthly 
guides to better films and by maintain- 
ing Reviewing Committee in Holly- 
wood. List of publications on request. 

THE ENGINEERING FOUNDATION, 29 
West 39th St., New York, N. Y., 
Alfred D. Flinn, dir. 

Membership Joint research body of 
American societies of Civil, Mining 
and Metallurgical, Mechanical, and 
Electrical Engineers. 
Program: In present economic emer- 
gency promoting after-college education 
for engineers and making available edu- 
cational facilities for engineers who have 
grown into profession without college 
education; cooperates with Society for 
Promotion of Engineering Education, 
principally through educational research 
committee, composed of representatives 
of constituent and other engineering 
organizations. 

Publications: Engineering: A Career 
A Culture, $.15; Objective Type Tests, 
McGraw-Hill, $2.75. 



EVANGELICAL SYNOD OF NORTH AMER- 
ICA, 1720 Chouteau Ave., St. Louis, 
Mo., H. L. Streich, supv. adult work. 

Program- Board of religious education 
cooperates with local churches in carry- 
ing on study programs in various phases 
of religious education and in parent 
training, social hygiene, and social wel- 
fare, local and national; works chiefly 
through adult departments and classes 
in Bible school, through Women's 
Union (90,000) and Brotherhood 
(25,000) ; Union and Brotherhood use 
study courses and reading courses pre- 
pared by headquarters, and representa- 
tives attend conferences and institutes at 
which methods and techniques are dis- 
cussed. 

Publications: Streich, H. L., Monthly 
Program for Women's Organizations, 
$.05, and Monthly Activity Program 
for Men's Organizations, $.05; Streich, 
H. L., Evangelical Standard for Adult 
Christian Education m the Local 
Church, $.05. 

FARMERS' EDUCATIONAL AND COOPERA- 
TIVE UNION, Kankakee, 111., E. E. 
Kennedy, sec. 

Membership: 272,000 
Program: Promotes scientific farming 
and marketing through teaching the 
principles of cooperation; holds local 
and national meetings for discussion and 
practical demonstration of cooperating; 
local, county and state units maintain 
cooperatives for buying, selling and 
credit; 5,000 locals in 26 states. 
Publications: Proceedings. 

FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL EDU- 
CATION, see United States Department 
of the Interior, Office of Education. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES OF 
CHRIST IN AMERICA, 105 East 22nd 
St., New York, N. Y., F. Ernest 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



325 



Johnson, ex. sec., and Benson Y. 

Landis, assoc. sec. 

Membership 25 Protestant constituent 
bodies, with their memberships. 
Progtam: Works toward improvement of 
social relationships, including interracial, 
international, and economic relations; 
not administrative organization, holds 
conferences of local church leaders to 
stimulate intelligent discussion of social, 
economic, and political questions from 
point of view of Christian ethics; spon- 
sors series of radio broadcasts. 
Publications: Federal Council Bulletin, 
monthly, September to May, $i; In- 
formation Service, weekly except during 
August, $2; Johnson, F. E., ed., The 
Social Work of the Churches, cloth, 
$1.25; paper, $l; Landis, B. Y., ed., 
Handbook of Rural Social Resources, 
$i; Our Economic Life in the Light 
of Christian Ideals, prepared by a spe- 
cial committee for the Department of 
Research and Education of Federal 
Council of Churches, Association Press, 
cloth, $1.50, paper, $.90; Landis, B. 
Y., Guide to Literature of Rural Life, 
$.10. 

FEDERATED COUNCIL ON ART EDUCA- 
TION, Rhode Island School of De- 
sign, Providence, R. L, Royal B. 
Farnum, Mr. 

Membership: Composed of representa- 
tives of Eastern Arts Association, West- 
ern Arts Association, American Federa- 
tion of Arts, American Institute of 
Architects, College Art Association, Pa- 
cific Art Association, and Association of 
Art Museums. 

Program: Serves as clearing house of 
information in field of art education; 
interested in forwarding all phases of 
art education, including education of 
adults, particularly through art museums. 
Publications: Whitford, W. G., Report 
of the Committee on Terminology, 
$.50; Clark, A. B., Report of the Com- 



mittee on Art in the Colleges and 
Universities, $.25. 

FOLK DANCE SOCIETY, see American 
Folk Dance Society. 

FOREIGN LANGUAGE INFORMATION 
SERVICE, 222 Fourth Ave., New 
York, N. Y., Read Lewis, Mr. 

Program: Brings foreign born in touch 
with schools and other educational op- 
portunities and provides foreign lan- 
guage press with series of educational 
articles in seventeen languages, dealing 
with American history and government, 
art and literature, economic and scien- 
tific problems, health and hygiene, etc.; 
maintains contacts with many societies 
established by foreign born and assists 
them in planning educational programs 
and in working with American educa- 
tional institutions; through Folk Festival 
Council promotes courses in folk arts 
and participation in wide range of folk 
activities; interprets foreign-born popu- 
lation through releases to English lan- 
guage press, by radio talks, speeches, etc. 
Publications: Interpreter Releases, $10 
yr.; Handbook for Immigrants to the 
United States, $.60 ; How to Become a 
Citizen of the United States, single 
copy, $.25. List of publications on re- 
quest. 

FOREIGN POLICY ASSOCIATION, 18 East 
4 ist St., New York, N. Y., Esther 
G. Ogden, sec. 

Membership: 10,500 
Program' Carries on research and edu- 
cational activities to aid in the under- 
standing and constructive development 
of American foreign policy; functions 
through discussion meetings, publica- 
tions, weekly radio broadcasts, institutes, 
and study groups; branches in nineteen 
cities; bureau in Washington, D. C. 
provides close contact with government 
agencies, supplies material to the r$- 



326 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



search staff, and serves as medium 
through which findings of research staff 
are made available to government offi- 
cials and others. 

Publications: Foreign Policy Bulletin, 
weekly, $i per yr., Foreign Policy Re- 
ports, published fortnightly, $.25 each; 
pamphlet series, $.15 each. List of pub- 
lications on request. 

GENERAL FEDERATION OF WOMEN'S 
CLUBS, 1734 N St., N.W., Wash- 
ington, D. C., Mrs. Edwin James 
Jones, chm. com. on ad. educ., 1215 
Seventh Ave., Worthmgton, Minn. 

Membership. 3,000,000 
Program- Cooperates with existing agen- 
cies such as libraries, parent-teacher 
organizations, Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., 
opportunity schools, etc.; promotes civic 
education among members; recommends 
that members organize local adult edu- 
cation councils, form groups to listen 
to educational radio broadcasts, and 
otherwise promote local adult educa- 
tion activities; division of fine arts of- 
fers illustrated lecture service for small 
fee; music division furthers program of 
music in home and community through 
practical suggestions to local clubs; lit- 
erature division stresses acquisition of 
home library. 

Publications. List of publications on 
adult education recommended by Fed- 
eration sent on request. 

GOVERNMENTAL RESEARCH ASSOCIA- 
TION, 850 East 58th St., Chicago, 111., 
Robert M. Paige, sec. 

Membership: 125 persons professionally 
engaged in governmental research. 
Program- Serves as clearing house for 
governmental research problems and as 
repository and reference point for rec- 
ords of personnel, accomplishments, and 
activities of members; members are the 
directors and staff of independently 
financed citizen agencies usually de- 



scribed as "bureaus of governmental re- 
search," which investigate municipal, 
county, and state governments and re- 
port findings to community as a whole, 
Publications The Search for Facts in 
Government, single copies free. 

GRANGE OF THE PATRONS OF HUS- 
BANDRY, see National Grange of the 
Patrons of Husbandry. 

INSTITUTE OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCA- 
TION, 2 West 45th St., New York, 
N. Y., Stephen Duggan, dur. 

Program. Brings number of distin- 
guished foreign scholars to this country 
every year and circuits them at nominal 
fee to colleges, universities, civic and 
adult education organizations. 
Publications: List of publications on re- 
quest. 

INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS, 
AMERICAN COUNCIL, 129 East 52nd 
St., New York, N Y., Bruno Lasker, 
dir. 

Membership: 300 

Program-: Cooperates with national and 
local adult educational organizations 
and institutions such as the Y.M.C.A., 
Y.W.C.A., women's clubs, etc., in order 
to extend their interests in economic, 
political, and social interdependence 
with Far East 5 assists educational agen- 
cies with preparation of specific pro- 
grams and study outlines; issues fort- 
nightly memoranda giving background 
information on current news from Pa- 
cific area; endeavors to improve schol- 
arly resources about countries and people 
of Pacific area and to improve methods 
of education in interdependence of this 
country with other countries of Pacific 
through stimulation of research and dis- 
semination of literature, and through 
the press; adult study groups connected 
with two regional committees in San 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



327 



Francisco and Chicago, and with the 
headquarters office. 

Publications: Pacific Affairs, bi-monthly, 
$2 per yr.; Lasker, Bruno, ed., Prob- 
lems of the Pacific, 1931, Univ. of 
Chicago Press, $4.; Barnes, Joseph, Con- 
flict in the Far East, 1932, $.25 (pam- 
phlet) ; The Conflict Around Manchuria 
and America's Part in it: A Study Course 
in Six Parts for American Women 
(mimeographed), $.50, Educational 
Program of the American Council, In- 
stitute of Pacific Relations. List of pub- 
lications on request. 

INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, 
302 East 35th St., New York, N. Y., 
Luther Gulick, Mr. 

Membership: 14 trustees 
Program: Gives professional training for 
postgraduate students, fitting them for 
work in government research and public 
administration; assists in collection of 
material bearing upon civic and govern- 
mental problems and in dissemination 
of such material through interested citi- 
zen groups and press; prepares and pub- 
lishes studies dealing with problems of 
public administration. 
Publications: Buck, A. E,, Administra- 
tive Consolidation in State Governments, 
$.35; Greer, S. O., Bibliography of 
Public Administration, $2; Gulick, L. 
H., Evolution of the Budget in Massa- 
chusetts, $2.50; McCombs, Carl E. : 
City Health Administration, $5.50. 
List of publications on request. 

INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS 
RESEARCH, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, 
New York, N. Y,, Galen M. Fisher, 
ex. sec. 

Program: Applies scientific method to 
the study of socio-religious phenomena, 
chiefly in field of organized religion; 
publishes results of studies, but leaves 
application of findings to other bodies. 
Publications: Douglas, H. Paul, The 



Church in the Changing City, $2.50; 
Brunner, E. deS., Rural Social Trends, 
McGraw-Hill, $4; and other publica- 
tions. 

INSTITUTE OF WOMEN'S PROFESSIONAL 
RELATIONS, University of North 
Carolina, Greensboro, N. C., Chase 
G. Woodhouse, dtr. 

Program: Through compilation and 
original research collects and dissemi- 
nates information about women's educa- 
tion and work in modern world j an- 
swers specific inquiries from women's 
clubs, professional organizations, college 
teachers, etc., staff members give talks 
before colleges, schools, parent-teacher 
organizations, civic clubs. 
Publications: Women's Work and Edu- 
cation, issued four times a year, $1.50; 
annual bibliography of books and maga- 
zine articles dealing with women's work 
and educational issues; monographs on 
women's occupations. 

THE INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF RE- 
LIGIOUS EDUCATION, 203 North Wa- 
bash Ave., Chicago, 111., Harry C. 
Munro, dir^ 'field admin, and adult 
work. 

Program* Functions as agency through 
which Protestant denominations share in 
developing their own educational pro- 
grams and cooperates in administering 
certain phases of these programs; super- 
vises training of leaders in adult re- 
ligious education; denominational pro- 
grams of adult education reflect work of 
Council and are based upon it. 
Publications: The International Cur- 
riculum Guide, Book Four, in prepara- 
tion. Other publications, issued through 
denominational channels, include: Par- 
ents as Teachers of Christian Living, 
Westminster Press, $.15; How May 
Our Church Become a School in Chris- 
tian Living? Westminster Press, $.15. 
List of publications on request. 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



JEWISH WELFARE BOARD, 71 West 
47th St., New York, N. Y., Harry 
L. Glucksman, ex. dir. 

Membership: National organization for 
266 Y.M.H.A.'s, Y.W.H.A.'s, Jewish 
Community Centers, Educational Alli- 
ances, and kindred organizations, with 
total membership of 325,000 of whom 
approximately 100,000 are adults. 
Program: Promotes following activities 
among constituent societies: open fo- 
rums, concert lyceums, unit courses of 
cultural interest, classes in academic, 
vocational and commercial subjects, 
classes in citizenship and English for 
foreigners, mass civic holiday celebra- 
tions, dramatics through folk theater, 
music appreciation through glee clubs, 
orchestras, choral societies and formal 
instruction in vocal and instrumental 
music, art exhibits, applied and fine arts, 
crafts, and other creative activities, 
mothers' clubs, "father and son" and 
"mother and daughter" gatherings, per- 
sonality courses for women, parental 
education and child study clubs, read- 
ing rooms and libraries; conducts lec- 
ture-concert tours and trips to places of 
historic interest. 

State and regional federations of 
Y.M.H.A.'s and Jewish Community 
Centers promote oratorical, essay, music, 
dramatic, and debating tournaments j 
large number of local organizations 
sponsor series of lectures and discussions 
on related themes of current interest. 
List of publications on request. 

KIWANIS INTERNATIONAL, 520 North 
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111 , Fred C. 
W. Parker, sec. 

Membership: 1,900 clubs 
Program. Educational program carried 
on by local clubs with assistance from 
international headquarters on program 
planning; local clubs encourage presen- 
tation of talks and discussion on timely 



subjects at regular meetings, give sup- 
port to local libraries, sponsor art ex- 
hibitions and assist in building and re- 
building museums, campaign for better 
moving pictures, assist in promoting 
recreation programs for communities. 
Pubhcations: The Kiwanis Magazine; 
Outline of United States Citizenship. 

KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS, 4.5 Wall St., 
New Haven, Conn., Mark J. Sweany, 
e. Mr. 

Prog am Has operated correspondence 
school since 1923, enrollment limited 
to members of organization and their 
families; about 3,000 students enrolled 
annually, 100 courses of study offered 
in business, civil service, mathematics, 
English, foreign languages, drafting, 
blue print reading, engineering, radio, 
traffic management, and other miscel- 
laneous subjects, mostly of vocational 
nature, Boy Life Bureau conducts sum- 
mer classes in training of boy scout 
executives for volunteer workers for 
boys' clubs; also sponsors ten-day pro- 
grams in evening courses for same pur- 
pose. 

LEAGUE FOR INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY, 
112 East 1 9th St., New York, N. Y.; 
20 West Jackson Blvd , Chicago, 111., 
Harry W. Laidler, ex. for. 

Membership. 7,000 

Program: Works for "new social order 
based on production for use and not for 
profit", organizes lecture series on bank- 
ing, land, education, race and inter- 
national relations, etc. in cities of East, 
South, and Middle West sponsored by 
local members of League and given by 
League lecturers; lectures supplemented 
by discussion groups; radio broadcasts; 
summer conferences; research and pub- 
lication, local chapters in colleges and 
various cities conduct public lectures 
and discussion groups for unemployed 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



329 



and others on economics, labor problems, 

etc. 

Publications: List of publications on re- 

quest. 

LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS, see Na- 
tional League of Women Voters 

LIONS INTERNATIONAL, 332 South 
Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111., Melvin 
Jones, sec. 



: 75,955 

Program- Carries on program chiefly 
through local clubs with suggestions on 
program planning from headquarters of- 
fices j programs of local clubs provide 
for talks and discussions of current 
events, international affairs, and other 
educational topics; local clubs promote 
program work for blind, conduct citi- 
zenship classes, and cooperate with libra- 
ries and other educational institutions 
in the community. 
Publications: The Lion, monthly. 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH, 
General Board of Christian Educa- 
tion, 8 10 Broadway, Nashville, Tenn., 
M. Leo Rippy, far., Mv. adult work. 

Program: In 1932, credit certificates 
issued to 559i8 adults enrolled in 
Standard Training Schools for comple- 
tion of courses in social, industrial, and 
recreational problems and methods, etc.; 
work included reading of text book, 
writing of certain number of papers, 
and attendance at twelve class sessions 
taught by instructors approved by Board; 
under Division of Adult Work group 
meetings of adults for discussion on 
economic, social and religious problems 
promoted throughout nineteen states in 
which Church is working; Editorial De- 
partment develops special courses for 
adults on World Peace, Race Relations, 
Industry, Parent Education, etc. 
Publications: Mumpower, D. L., pam- 
phlets on Leadership Training and 



Study in the Adult Division; Rippy, M. 
L., pamphlets on Recreation in the 
Adult Division; Schisler, J. Q., pam- 
phlets on Parent Education. 

METHODIST PROTESTANT CHURCH, 

Seminary Bldg., Westminster, Md., 
F. L. Gibbs, sec. 

Program: Department of Religious 
Education, functioning under Board of 
Christian Education, offers leadership 
training courses in adult department ad- 
ministration, adult materials and meth- 
ods, etc.; maintains circulating library 
of books and pamphlets of assistance in 
adult teaching, for use of local churches 
and study groups. 

Music SUPERVISORS NATIONAL CON- 
FERENCE, 64 East Jackson Blvd., 
Chicago, 111., A. D. Zanzig, chmn. 
com. on School Music in Community 
Ltf ff > 3*5 Fourth Ave., New York, 
N. Y. 

Membership' 8,000 

Program. Members promote interrela- 
tion of musical interests and activities 
of school and community; encourage 
home-circle singing and playing; at- 
tempting to improve choir and congre- 
gational singing in churches; promot- 
ing idea of playing and singing as 
recreational and leisure-time activity; 
fostering active interest in the music of 
the amateur on the part of professional 
musicians, composers, artists, conductors, 
and teachers. 

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF VISUAL IN- 
STRUCTION, see National Education 
Association. 

NATIONAL ADVISORY COUNCIL ON RADIO 
IN EDUCATION, 60 East 42nd St., 
New York, N, Y., Levering Tyson, 
Mr. 

Membership- 65 active; 1 ,000 associate, 
Program: Serves as clearing house of in- 



330 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



formation in field of radio in education 5 
studies possibilities of educational broad- 
casting and broadcasting techniques and 
issues bulletins of findings; working 
through committees, organizes series of 
educational radio broadcasts on govern- 
ment, labor, law, and other subjects of 
general public interest, issues printed 
lectures, reading guides, and listener's 
notebooks to encourage further study 
of subjects broadcast, expects to or- 
ganize local groups in communities 
throughout the U. S. (groups already 
established in Chicago, Denver, and 
Buffalo, under auspices of local adult 
education councils). 

Publications. Radio in Education, 1931, 
1932, University of Chicago Press, $3 
each; Educational Broadcasting. A Bib- 
liography, University of Chicago Press, 
$1.50; Information Series, free, com- 
plete list on request; radio lectures, 
each $.10, reading guides, $.10; list- 
eners' notebooks, $ 25. List of publica- 
tions on request. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE, 
69 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y., 
Walter White, ex. sec. 

Program' Champions full civil, legal, 
and political rights for the Negro; main- 
tains speakers' bureau; holds annual 
meeting. For further information see 
Organizations in the Field of Public 
Administration, referred to in note pre- 
facing this section. 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF COLLEGE 
WOMEN, 2028 McCulloh St., Balti- 
more, Md., Vivian J. Cook, fres. 

Membership: 500 

Program: Adult education program in 
formative stage, through seventeen 
branches is spreading idea of adult edu- 
cation by means of lectures to study 
groups, parent groups, and others. 



Publications The Journal of the Na- 
tional Association of College Women, 
issued annually, $2. 

NATIONAL BUREAU FOR THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF Music, 45 West 45th St., 
New York, N. Y., C. M. Tremaine, 
dir. 

Progtam Promotes study of music by 
publishing study courses, leaflets, pam- 
phlets, etc., sponsors Music Memory 
Contests, Music Week and other na- 
tional movements. 

Publications* Clark, Kenneth S., Mu- 
nicipal Aid to Music in America, $2; 
by same author, Music in Industry, 
$2. List of publications on request. 

NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RE- 
SEARCH, INC., 51 Madison Ave., 
New York, N. Y., Charles A. Bliss, 
ex. sec. 

Membership 22 directors; large num- 
ber contributing subscribers. 
Program Non-profit, impartial research 
in economic, social and industrial 
science; adult education program con- 
sists of making reports available to 
public. 

Publications: Twenty-two volumes to 
date, $5 each, including Mitchell, Wes- 
ley C., Business Cycles: The Problem 
and its Setting; King, Willford I., 
The National Income and its Purchasing 
Power (out of print) ; Recent Economic 
Changes, 2 vol. $7.50, Mills, Frederick 
C., Economic Tendencies in the United 
States, $5. 

NATIONAL CATHOLIC WELFARE CON- 
FERENCE, 1312 Massachusetts Ave., 
N.W., Washington, D. C., John J. 
Burke, gen. sec. 

Membership: All Catholic Bishops of 
the United States and United States de- 
pendencies. 
Program: Under ecclesiastical super- 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



331 



vision gives to church and country serv- 
ice in matters that affect church and 
laity; National Council of Catholic 
Men and National Council of Catholic 
Women, both consisting of hundreds of 
affiliated groups, chief medium for gen- 
eral adult education; Councils make ef- 
fective through meetings, radio broad- 
casts, news releases, reports, etc , work 
of six departments of Conference (edu- 
cation, social action, press, legal, lay 
organizations, executive) , Council's ac- 
tivities include* classes for foreigners in 
Americanization and naturalization un- 
der auspices of National Committee on 
Immigration; organization of parent- 
teacher groups, in connection with paro- 
chial schools, by committee on Catholic 
parent-teacher associations, joint com- 
mittee on peace prepares outline studies 
on international peace problems; Latin 
American bureau disseminates informa- 
tion and maintains study service, makes 
available boys' welfare programs and 
prepares and furnishes outlines, bibliog- 
raphies, and other aids for study clubs; 
bureau on family life conducts studies 
on the home. 

Publications: Catholic Action, monthly, 
$2. List of publications on request, 

NATIONAL COMMISSION ON THE ENRICH- 
MENT OF ADULT LIFE OF THE NA- 
TIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, see 
National Education Association. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR MENTAL 
HYGIENE, INC., 450 Seventh Ave., 
New York, N. Y., C. M. Hincks, 
gen. dir. 

Program: Works directly and through 
its affiiliated state societies and local 
committees for conservation of mental 
health, for reduction and prevention of 
mental and nervous disorders, and for 
the improved care and treatment of 
those suffering from mental diseases. 
For further information see Social 



Work Year Book, referred to in note 
prefacing this article. 

NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 
BY RADIO, 1 20 1 Sixteenth St., N.W., 
Washington, D. C., Tracy F. Tyler, 
sec. 

Membership. 9 

Program. Works with educational broad- 
casting stations; gathers from educa- 
tional groups talks on adult education 
and makes them available to educational 
broadcasting stations to be used in their 
programs; collects information relative 
to use by educational groups and organ- 
izations of radio facilities; furnishes 
speakers for educational meetings to dis- 
cuss problems, value, and uses of radio 
for educational purposes; sends repre- 
sentative to all international radio con- 
ventions to keep in touch with interna- 
tional problems, has made both state 
and national surveys in field of radio 
education; distributes publications of 
various organizations helpful to those 
engaged in radio education. 
Publications: An Appraisal of Radio 
Broadcasting m the Land-Grant Col- 
leges and State Universities; Education 
by Radio, sent free on request. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF JEWS AND 
CHRISTIANS, 289 Fourth Ave., New 
York, N. Y., Everett R. Clinchy, 
dir. 

Membership: 1,500 

Program: Aims to advance "justice, 
amity and understanding between Catho- 
lics, Jews, and Protestants in America"; 
conducts seminars in larger cities at 
which members of these three religious 
groups meet at round tables to discuss 
problems in mutual relationships and 
areas of common interests and ideals; 
educates to allay prejudices based on 
culture group antipathies, and to nur- 
ture American principles of religious 
liberty and cooperation; promotes for- 



33* 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



mation of civic, community, and college 
study groups toward development of 
catholicity of acquaintance and affec- 
tions; arranges exchange lectureships 
between Jewish and Christian schools; 
Oakland, Berkeley, Seattle, Denver, 
St. Louis, Kansas City, Mo , Cleveland, 
Syracuse, New York, Providence, Bos- 
ton, Baltimore, Memphis, and smaller 
cities have permanent inter-group coun- 
cils whose programs include speakers' 
service, local parleys of Catholics, Jews, 
and Protestants who discuss conflicts and 
areas of cooperation and stand ready to 
take appropriate action in emergency 
social situations. 

Publications: Monthly information 
folder; Bulletin to Members, $2 and 
up; Seminar Reports, $.50, Barnes, 
Harry Elmer and others, The Causes 
and Cure of Prejudice, free for post- 
age; Shuster, George M., Why Be Tol- 
erant? free for postage. List of publi- 
cations on request. 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF SOCIAL 
WORK, 82 North High St., Colum- 
bus, Ohio, Howard R. Knight, gen. 
sec. 

Program: Members representing family 
case work, mental hygiene, and social 
problems in various industrial and eco- 
nomic fields meet yearly to discuss prob- 
lems and methods of practical human 
improvement. For further information 
see Social Work Year Book, referred to 
in note prefacing this article. 

NATIONAL CONGRESS OF COLORED PAR- 
ENTS AND TEACHERS, 20 Boulevard, 
N.E., Atlanta, Ga., Mrs. H. R. 
Butler. 

Membership 16,000 parents and teach- 
ers of colored children in states main- 
taining separate schools for Negroes. 
Program- Promotes child welfare and 
parent education through home, school, 
church, and community. 



Publications- Distributes free, publica- 
tions of National Congress of Parents 
and Teachers; Our National Family, 
free. 

NATIONAL CONGRESS OF PARENTS AND 
TEACHERS, 1201 Sixteenth St., N.W., 
Washington, D. C., W. Elwood 
Baker, gen. sec. 

Membership: 1,393,4-54 
Ptogram- Promotes education of adults 
in all fields pertaining to education and 
welfare of children; works directly 
through parent-teacher associations, study 
groups, conferences, resident and corre- 
spondence courses, classes and publica- 
tions; indirectly through preparation 
of programs for various meetings, co- 
operative relationships with educational 
institutions, school staff and officials, 
public officials and leaders in fields of 
education and social welfare; 

Twenty-two thousand local groups 
carry on parent education through local 
and state-wide conferences, institutes, 
classes, and study groups; promote 
teaching of parent education in colleges 
and universities, in classroom, and 
through university extension courses. 
Publications Parent Education Year- 
books, I, II, III, $i each; A New Force 
in Education, $i; Education for Home 
and Family, $2; Homemaking, $i; 
Child Welfare Magazine, I o issues, $ I ; 
Annual Proceedings of National Con- 
gress of Parents and Teachers, $3. List 
of publications on request. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CATHOLIC MEN, 
see National Catholic Welfare Con- 
ference. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CATHOLIC 
WOMEN, 1312 Massachusetts Ave., 
N.W., Washington, D. C., Agnes G. 
Regan, ex. sec. 

Program: Carries on extensive educa- 
tional program through 2,000 affiliated 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



333 



organizations which base their programs 
on detailed monthly study outlines de- 
vised by local committees or Study Club 
Committee at Headquarters; clubs are 
directly affiliated with Headquarters 
through diocesan chairmen who keep in 
touch with Consultant and National 
Chairman of Study Clubs at Headquar- 
ters, club study programs include con- 
sideration of community, county, state, 
national, international, social, political, 
educational, and religious problems. 
Publications N.C.C.W. Monthly Mes- 
sage, mimeographed, free to all affili- 
ated organizations. List of educational 
material, books and pamphlets on re- 
quest. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN, 
625 Madison Ave , New York, N. Y., 
Mary G. Schonberg, ex. sec. 

Membership: 40,000 
Program: Headquarters officers advise 
and guide local sections in selection of 
material for study courses; also advise 
local sections in organization of Eng- 
lish and citizenship classes for adult 
foreign-born women, providing suitable 
textbook material for this work, two 
hundred local sections conducting adult 
education programs in international re- 
lations, Jewish history, civics, social leg- 
islation, child study and parent educa- 
tion, the drama, music, etc. 
Publications: News Letter for members. 
List of educational material, books and 
pamphlets on request. 

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF PARENT EDU- 
CATION, 60 East 42nd St., New York, 
N. Y., Ralph P. Bridgman, Mr, 

Membership: 70 educational, mental 
hygiene, and welfare organizations, the 
programs of which include family or 
parent education activities; individual 
professionals also may affiliate with 
Council. 



Program: Serves as consultant counselor 
,to administrators, local committees of 
laymen, and composite community 
groups, upon the development, adminis- 
tration, and coordination of family and 
parent education activities, serves as 
clearing house of information about 
methods and materials for family and 
parent education; provides for parent 
education workers, through local insti- 
tutes and conferences, periodical publi- 
cations, and biennial national confer- 
ences; forums for the discussion of 
professional problems; provides super- 
vision and guidance, upon request, for 
experiments with methods or materials, 
for programs of leadership training, and 
for programs of research in family rela- 
tionships and parent education. 
Publications: For professional workers 
in parent education, and for teachers of 
family and parent education material in 
secondary schools and colleges, such 
titles as Thurston, Flora M., and E. C. 
Lindeman, Problems for Parent Educa- 
tors, Volume I, $.50; Volume II, $.50; 
Thurston, Flora M., Bibliography on 
Family Relationships, $2. List of publi- 
cations on request. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 4 Park Ave., New 
York, N. Y., Lena Madesin Phillips, 



Membership: 32 national women's or- 
ganizations. 

Program: Serves as clearing house for 
member organizations; works through 
committees on child welfare, art, music, 
letters, education, economics, prison re- 
form, permanent peace, international 
relations, etc. 

Publications: History of the Achieve- 
ments of Organized Womanhood, 
$2.50; The Councillor, monthly, free 
to members. 



334 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



NATIONAL COUNCIL ON NATURALIZA- 
TION AND CITIZENSHIP, 4 West 93rd 
St., New York, N. Y., Ruth Z. Bern- 
stein, sec. 

Membership: 200 

Program: Gathers information on edu- 
cational requirements for naturalization 
and on the facilities for providing such 
education developed by various commu- 
nities; nation-wide study of educational 
requirements for naturalization nearly 
ready for publication. 
Publications: Educational Requirements 
for Citizenship, in preparation. 

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, De- 
partment of Adult Education, 1201 
Sixteenth St., N.W., Washington, 
D. C., Mary L. Guyton, fres. 9 Dept. 
of Adult Education, 217 State House, 
Boston, Mass. 

Program' Studies progress of adult edu- 
cation, keeps members of N.E A. in- 
formed of new trends j meets for dis- 
cussion at annual meeting of N.E. A. 
and at meeting of Department of Sup- 
erintendence; members of executive 
committee cooperate closely with the 
National Commission on the Enrich- 
ment of Adult Life of the N.E.A. 
(q.v.). 

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, Na- 
tional Commission on the Enrich- 
ment of Adult Life, 1201 Sixteenth 
St., N.W., Washington, D. C., James 
A. Moyer, pres. State House, Boston, 
Mass.; James E. Rogers, sec. National 
Recreation Association, 315 Fourth 
Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Membership: 50 

Program: Concerned with avocational 
education, the interests, hobbies and 
pursuits of people in off-day and off- 
work time; works through teaching pro- 
fession in advancing plans for wiser 
use of leisure, including programs of 
art, music, nature study, handicraft, 



etc., cooperates with American Library 
Association, National Congress of Par- 
ents and Teachers, and other national 
agencies operating in field for enrich- 
ment of adult life; twenty-nine state 
commissions (see p. 50 for complete 
list) affiliated with state departments of 
education and state teachers' associations 
promote programs in respective states. 
Publications: Proceedings of Annual 
Meetings (published in Interstate Bul- 
letin Adult Education) ; Program 
Suggestions for the Enrichment of 
Adult Life, $.10; Stearns, William F., 
Adult Education in Massachusetts (in 
cooperation with the American Associa- 
tion for Adult Education) $,10; Clark, 
E. Everett, Adult Avocational and Edu- 
cational Advisory Services, $.10. 

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIATION, De- 
partment of Visual Instruction, 1812 
Illinois St., Lawrence, Kan., Ells- 
worth C Dent, sec., Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, University Extension Di- 
vision, University of Kansas, Law- 
rence, Kan. 

Program* Serves as clearing house of 
information for organizations and indi- 
viduals interested in improvement of 
instruction through use of visual and 
other sensory aids to instruction; pro- 
motes research in materials and methods 
of visual instruction. 
Publications* The Educational Screen 
and Visual Instruction News, $2; The 
Annual Visual Instruction Directory^ 
$1.50; special reports and bulletins, 

THE NATIONAL EXCHANGE CLUB, 
Huron Bldg., Toledo, Ohio, Herold 
M. Harter, sec. 

Membership: 40,000 
Program: Fosters exchange of ideas 
among business and professional men in 
service to community, state, and nafion; 
carries on program chiefly through com- 
munity and state clubs, directed by na- 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



335 



tional headquarters; local clubs hold 
weekly meetings featuring speakers on 
current events, science, world affairs, 
commerce and industry, etc.j sponsors 
National Community Week, to en- 
courage citizens to improve physical ap- 
pearance of city, to study history, gov- 
ernment, and public institutions of city 
and to promote child welfare, pro- 
motes program of citizenship training 
through publications, and cooperation 
with other local and national organiza- 
tions. 

Publications- The Exchangite, $2 per 
member per year. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF BUSINESS 
AND PROFESSIONAL WOMEN'S CLUBS, 
INC,, 1819 Broadway, New York, 
N, Y., Emily R. Kneubuhl, ex. sec. 



50,000 members in 1,300 
clubs. 

Program- Under leadership of national, 
state, and local committee chairmen, 
working through headquarters staff, car- 
ries on program of activities in field of 
education, public relations, international 
relations, and health; has concentrated 
on leadership in economic thinking; 
sponsors discussion groups on economics, 
forums, and study courses in local clubs; 
maintains cooperation with local agen- 
cies, such as schools, libraries, and civic 
groups. 

Publications- Independent Woman, 
monthly, $1*50. 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF JEWISH 
MEN'S CLUBS, 531 West i23rd St., 
New York, N. Y., Joseph Miller, 
educational committee* 



Program: Carries on extensive program 
of adult education through local clubs 
whose educational activities range from 
formal study groups to writing and act- 
ing of dramatic productions; parent 
education stressed; program suggestions 
issued by headquarters office for use of 
local clubs, 



NATIONAL FEDERATION OF Music 
CLUBS, Music Clubs Magazine Office, 
Music Department, Cornell Univer- 
sity, Ithaca, N. Y., Mrs. John Alex- 
ander Jardine, fr es ty 1 1 1 2 South 
Third Ave Fargo, N. D. 

Membership: 5,000 musical organiza- 
tions. 

Program- Advances musical education 
through club programs, study, and con- 
certs of high standard; sponsors radio 
broadcasts featuring American composers 
and using American artists j promotes 
nation-wide movement for formation of 
small amateur ensemble groups to revive 
home music; attempting to "carry over" 
music in schools to community by en- 
couraging graduates to form orchestras, 
choruses, etc.; sequential program out- 
lines for music clubs on request. 
Publications: National Course of Study. 
Information on request. Music Clubs 
Magazine, monthly, $i per yr, 

NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLE- 
MENTS, Christodora House, 147 Ave- 
nue B, New York, N. Y., Lillie M. 
Peck, asst. sec. 

Membership: 154 individuals and or- 
ganizations. 

Program: Gathers information on sig- 
nificant experiments in educational and 
recreational work for adults carried on 
in settlements and makes information 
available to members; conferences and 
discussion groups of leaders on projects 
for adults conducted and reports of con- 
ferences circulated. 

Publications* Neighborhood, a settle- 
ment quarterly, $2; Simkhovitch, Mary 
K., The Settlement Primer, $.75. List 
of publications on request. 

NATIONAL GRANGE OF THE PATRONS OF 
HUSBANDRY, 970 College Ave., Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, Louis J. Taber, mas- 
ter. 

Membership: 800,000 

Program: Assists state and local granges 



336 



HANDBOOK OF ADULT EDUCATION 



located in 33 states in formulating pro- 
grams; maintains information and serv- 
ice departments for members; weekly 
meetings of local granges provide for 
educational lecture hour including dis- 
cussion on current topics, book reviews, 
music, debates, etc., in charge of the 
"lecturer"; economic questions dealing 
with production, marketing, transporta- 
tion, taxation, etc., emphasized; some 
local granges have reading and study 
clubs, regional conferences and national 
and state handbooks assist lecturers in 
planning programs. 

Publications Monthly Clip Sheet, free 
for postage; The National Grange 
Monthly, $.50 per yr. 

NATIONAL HEALTH COUNCIL, INC., 450 

Seventh Ave., New York, N. Y., 
Thomas C. Edwards, bus. mgr. 

Membership: 20 organizations and in- 
dividuals interested in study of health. 
Program: Advances health throughout 
the nation by assisting various members 
of the Council in their respective health 
promotion activities; maintains refer- 
ence and lending library. For further 
information see Social Work Year Book, 
referred to in note prefacing this article. 

NATIONAL HOME STUDY COUNCIL, 839 

Seventeenth St., N.W., Washington, 
D. C, J. S. Noffsinger, dir. 



37 institution members 
Program: Inspects and approves courses 
of instruction offered by private corre- 
spondence schools; maintains a cross 
reference index of all correspondence 
courses available within the United 
States, including those offered by col- 
leges, universities, theological semina- 
ries, private and normal schools; 
maintains service department to advise 
organizations or individuals where ap- 
proved correspondence courses in any 
given subject may be secured; acts as 



clearing house of information for cor- 
respondence schools for purpose of cre- 
ating sound educational standards and 
ethical business practices within the cor- 
respondence school field. 
Publications- The Home Study Blue 
Book, free. 

THE NATIONAL INTERDENOMINATIONAL 
MINISTERIAL ALLIANCE OF AMERICA, 
INC , Washington, D C , C. L. Rus- 
sell, fres., 1924 Sixth St., N.W., 
Washington, D. C. 

Membershi-p: 1,500 

Program Organized to bring together 
colored ministers of all denominations 
in America for purpose of encouraging 
interracial good will, of raising educa- 
tional and moral standards of the peo- 
ple; endeavors to aid colored people in 
their social, economic and civil aspira- 
tions. 



NATIONAL KINDERGARTEN ASSOCIATION, 
8 West 40th St , New York, N. Y., 
Bessie Locke, ex. sec. 

Program Stimulates interest in parent 
education; promotes the extension of 
kindergarten education; prepares arti- 
cles on behavior problems for nation- 
wide release in newspapers and other 
publications free of charge. 
Publications- Series of articles on home 
education, free. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE FOR AMERICAN 
CITIZENSHIP, 405 Lexington Ave., 
New York, N. Y., Harold Fields, dir. 

Membership: 600 

Program: Maintains nine local branches 
in Greater New York and almost three 
hundred associated branches throughout 
the country through which personal 
instruction is given, where necessary, to 
applicants for citizenship in the fields 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 



337 



of government, civics, history, and Eng- 
lish 5 speakers sent to various organiza- 
tions of native-born and foreign-born 
groups to interest them in Americaniza- 
tion programs for the foreign-born and 
also in problem of Americanization 
itself. 

Publications. Questions and Answers of 
Interest to Aliens Preparing for Natu- 
ralization, $.10. 

NATIONAL LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS, 
532 Seventeenth St., N.W., Wash- 
ington, D. C., Beatrice H. Marsh, ex. 
sec. 

Program- Bases program on need of 
women as citizens for accurate and un- 
biased information on the problems of 
government; believes continuing politi- 
cal education necessary to success of 
democratic form of government; under 
four main headings Efficiency in Gov- 
ernment, Legal Status of Women, Pub- 
lic Welfare in Government, and Inter- 
national Cooperation to Prevent War 
subjects relating to nominations and 
elections, structure and functions of 
government, public finance, child wel- 
fare, school administration and finance, 
government as it affects living costs, 
women in industry, social hygiene, laws 
affecting women in the exercise of pub- 
lic and private rights, international co- 
operation to prevent war are selected in 
convention for study and support; study 
methods used by local groups include 
study groups and round tables, voters' 
schools, institutes of government and 
politics, public meetings, observations 
through fact-finding groups who visit 
local legislative bodies and public in- 
stitutions, and conferences with public 
officials on community undertakings. 
Publications: Approximately 175 publi- 
cations covering program range; yearly 
subscription covering all new publica- 
tions, $3. List of publications on re- 
quest, 



NATIONAL MUNICIPAL LEAGU